Analysis of outlines

These programs perform various analyses to compare the shapes of outlines. See also the comprehensive programs.


This site provides software for standard and extended eigenshape analyses as well software for obtaining linear measurements from landmarks, relative warps and Procrustes PCA. They use Mathematica but the cite provides an online interface that does not require the user to own a copy of Mathematica. The site and software are developed by Jonathan Krieger


A computer program that analyzes the contours of Ostracods. Uses the "Linhart algorithm" based on B-splines. Developed by J. Linhart , W. Braun and W. Neubauer (Salzburg University). The web site is in German but the user manual is in English.


Geometric Morphometrics Tools Package. WINDOWS. Program for data conversion, size calculation, shape drawing and image cropping for outline data. By Siavash Taravati and Dr. Jamshid Darvish Ver. 2.1.


FOG Elliptic Fourier Analysis, and related analyses, readme, from JP. Dujardin,


3D Elliptic Fourier. WINDOWS. This is a simple program (an update to the old EFA3 program) to compute 3D elliptic Fourier coefficients for a 3D contour described by a stream of 3D coordinates. The program can also compute estimated coordinates of points from a set of Fourier coefficients. By F. James Rohlf. Ver. 1.0. There is no help file yet - just a readme.txt file and example data.


Elliptic Fourier. This DOS/windows program is designed to describe shape, described by a closed outline, in terms of elliptical Fourier coefficients. The outline can have any degree of complexity so long as the line does not cross itself. The method does not depend on landmarks and the results are independent of the object's orientation. By John Endler. Details and comparisons with other methods in McLellan, T., and J. A. Endler (1998) The relative success of some methods for measuring and describing the shape of complex objects. Systematic Biology 47:264-281.


Elliptic Fourier. WINDOWS. Extracts the contour shape from a full color bitmap image, delineates the contour shape with the elliptic Fourier descriptors, and performs a principal component analysis for summarizing the shape information. By Hiroyoshi Iwata. For more information see: Shape home page, tutorial, or manual. Ver. 1.3.


Elliptic Fourier. DOS, WINDOWS. Elliptic Fourier analysis. Programs for both 2 and 3-dimensional contours are included (but see EFA3D above). Readme file. By F. J. Rohlf.

EFAV Windows shell for EFA. WINDOWS. Windows program that runs Rohlf and Ferson's 2D elliptic Fourier analysis program (EFA, see above). A file, [source], containing the source code libraries is also available. Readme file. By Mike Isaev. 1/24/95
eshape Eigenshape analysis. MAC & Windows. A series of programs designed to perform an eigenshape analysis on x,y and x,y,z coordinate data from object outlines. There are standard and extended versions both both the Macintosh and Wintel platforms. Completely worked example analyses and a user's guide are also provided. Contact Norm MacLeod directly if you would like copies of the old FORTAN code. 1/30/00
HarFA Harmonic and fractal analysis. Windows. HarFA is software that was compiled to perform harmonic and/or fractal analysis of digitised images. Harmonic analysis does 1D or 2D Fourier transform of image information. Fractal analysis determines the fractal dimension and fractal measure of fractal structure which image contains. Several filtration algorithms are included (sharpening, smoothing, median and Kuwahara filtering, different kinds of derivative filters). There are tools for suppression of thermal noise of CCD cam and for elimination non-uniformity of illumination of image sample (e.g. samples prepared by using optical microscope and CCD). Image information can be handled in four colour spaces - intensity (shades of gray), HSB/HSV (hue, saturation, brightness/value), HLS (hue, lightness, saturation) and RGB (red, green and blue channel). Download from HarFA website. By Oldrich Zmeskal, Martin Nezadal, and Miroslav Buchnicek 11/29/00
FD3 Fractal dimension estimation. DOS. The algorithm used in this program was inspired by the paper entitled "A Fast Algorithm To Determine Fractal Dimensions By Box Counting", which was written by Liebovitch and Toth, and which appeared in the journal "Physics Letters A", volume 141, pp 386-390, (1989). Readme file. By John Sarraille ( and Peter DiFalco. 10/10/95
FracLac FracLac calculates an unadjusted fractal dimension, an average fractal dimension over multiple scans, a slope-corrected dimension, and a most efficient covering dimension. Link gives information about fractals, user instructions and examples. By Audrey Karperien. Version 1.2. 2003
MorphUt Utility program for closed shape morphometry. Computes boundaries of a closed shape, shape centroids, chain codes, several types of Fourier analyses, and fractal dimension. Described by Perugini (2002) in Computers & Geosciences 28:73-79. Version 1.0. 2002
  Spanky's fractal database. Programs and images of fractals.  
  Fractal analysis of the trabecular bone. Fractals are unusual geometric structures that can be used to analyze many biologic structures not amenable to conventional analysis. The purpose of this exhibit is to teach some of the fundamentals of fractal analysis, and to show how they can be applied to analysis of trabecular bone.  

Last modified on August 19, 2015 by F. James Rohlf ( ).
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