Seagrass Reproductive Ecology

Contributed by Josef Ackerman, University of Northern British Columbia


Classic Books:

Arber, A. 1920. Water Plants, a Study of Aquatic Angiosperms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Reprinted 1972 by Verlag von J. Cramer, Lehre. 436 pp.

Den Hartog, C. 1970. The Seagrasses of the World. North Holland Publ., Amsterdam. 275 pp.

Sculthorpe, C.D. 1967 The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants Edward Arnold (London) 610 pp. (Reprint 1985 Koeltz Scientific Books D-6240 Konigstein/West Germany)

Tomlinson, P.B. 1982 Anatomy of the Monocotyledons VII Helobiae
(Alismatidae) Oxford U. Press N.Y. 559 pp

Classic Papers:

Bowman, H.H.M. 1922 The Distribution and pollination of certain sea-grassesMichigan Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Papers 2: 310 + IV Plates

Cook, C.D.K. 1982 Pollination mechanisms in the Hydrocharitaceae pp 1-15, in Studies on Aquatic Vascular Plants edited by J.J. Symoens, S.S. Hooper and P. Compere Royal Society of Belgium, Brussels

De Cock, A.W.A.M. 1980 Flowering, pollination and fruiting in Zostera marina L. Aquatic Botany 9: 201-220

Opurt, Philip A. And Linda J. Boral 1964 The flowers, fruits and seeds of Thalassia testudinum Koenig Bulletin of Marine Science 14: 296-302

Pettitt, John, Ducker, Sophie and Knox, Bruce 1981 Submarine pollination Scientific American 244: 134-143

Svedelius, N. 1904. On the life history of Enalus acoroides (A
contribution to the ecology of the hydrophilous plants). Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Peradeniya 2:267-297 + plates XXIV A and B. (Chap 3,6)

Recent Papers:

Ackerman, J.D. In Press. Submarine pollination in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina: Part I. The influence of floral morphology on fluid flow. American Journal of Botany.

Ackerman, J.D. In Press. Submarine pollination in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina: Part II. Pollen transport in flow fields and capture by stigmas. American Journal of Botany.

Ackerman, J.D. 1995. Convergence of filiform pollen morphologies in
seagrasses: Functional mechanisms. Evolutionary Ecology 9:139-153.

Ackerman, J.D. 1993. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquatic Botany 46:189-202.

Cox, P.A. 1988. Hydrophilous pollination. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst.19:261-280.

McConchie, C.A. and R.B. Knox. 1989. Pollination and reproductive biology of seagrasses. pp 74-111. In A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. McComb and S.A. Shepperd (eds). Biology of Seagrasses. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Orth, R.J., M. Luckenbach, and K.A. Moore. 1994. Seed dispersal in a
marine macrophyte: Implications for colonization and restoration. Ecology 75:1927-1939.

Pettitt, J.M. 1984. Aspects of flowering and pollination in marine angiosperms. Oceangr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22:315-342.

Ruckelshaus, M.H. 1995. Estimated of outcrossing rates and of inbreeding depression in a population of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina. Mar. Biol. 123: 583-593.

Verduin, J.J., D.I. WALKER, and J. KUO 1996. In situ submarine pollination in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica: Research notes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 133: 307-309.

Williams, S.L. 1995. Surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi) reproduction:
reproductive phenology, resource allocation, and male rarity. Ecology 76: 1953-1970.