compiled by Jeffrey Levinton, last revised 11/28.98



Branch, M., and G. Branch, 1981, The Living Shores of South Africa: Capetown, C. Struik.

Carefoot, T., 1977, Pacific Seashores: Seattle, University of Washington.

Gosling, E., 1992, The Mussel Mytilus: Ecology, physiology, genetics, andculture: NewYork, Elsevier, 589 p.

Lewis, J. R., 1964, The Ecology of Rocky Shores: London, English University Press.

Little, C. and J.A. Kitching. 1996. The Biology of Rocky Shores. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Moore, P. G., and R. Seed, 1985, The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: London, Hodder and Stoughton Press.

Stephenson, T. A., and A. Stephenson, 1972, Life Between Tidemards on Rocky Shores: San Francisco, W.H. Freeman.

Wertheim, A., 1984, The Intertidal Wilderness: San Francisco, Sierra Club.


Classic Papers

Connell, J. H., 1961a, Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides: Ecol. Monogr., v. 31, p. 61-104.

Connell, J. H., 1961b, The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus: Ecology, v. 42, p. 710-23.

Dayton, P. K., 1971, Competition, disturbance and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community: Ecol. Monogr., v. 41, p. 351-389.

Paine, R. T., 1966, Food web complexity and species diversity: Am. Nat., v. 100, p. 65-75.

Paine, R. T., 1974, Intertidal community structure. Experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator: Oecologia, v. 15, p. 93-120.


Other Useful Papers

Alexander, S. E., and J. Roughgarden, 1996, Larval transport and population dynamics of intertidal barnacles: A coupled benthic/oceanic model.: Ecol. Monogr., v. 66, p. 259-275.

Barkai, A., and C. McQuaid, 1988, Predator-prey role reversal in a marine benthic ecosystem: Science, v. 242, p. 62-64.

Barry, J. P., C. H. Baxter, R. D. Sagarin, and S. E. Gilman, 1995, Climate-related, long-term faunal changes in a California rocky intertidal community.: Science, v. 267, p. 672-675.

Bertness, M. D., 1989, Intraspecific competition and facilitation in a northern acorn barnacle population: Ecology, v. 70, p. 257-268.

Carroll, M. L., and R. C. Highsmith, 1996, Role of catastrophic disturbance in mediating Nucella-Mytilus interactions in the Alaskan rocky intertidal.: Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., v. 138, p. 125-133.

Carter, A. R., and R. J. Anderson, 1991, Biological and physical factors controlling the spatial distribution of the intertidal alga Gelidium pristoides in the eastern Cape, South Africa: Journal of the MarineBiological Association of the United Kingdom, v. 71, p. 555-568.

Day, R. W., A. Barkai, and P. A. Wickens, 1991, Trapping of three drilling whelks by two species of mussel: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 149, p. 109-122.

Dayton, P. K., 1975, Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community: Ecological Monographs, v. 45, p. 137-159.

Denny, M., 1995, Predicting physical disturbance: Mechanistic approaches to the study of survivorship on wave-swept shores.: Ecol. Monogr., v. 65, p. 371-418.

Hughes, R. N., and C. L. Griffiths, 1988, Self-thinning in barnacles and mussels: the geometry of packing: American Naturalist, v. 132, p. 484-491.

Levinton, J. S., and T. H. Suchanek, 1978, Geographic variation, niche breadth, and genetic differentiation at different geographic scales in the mussels Mytilus edulis and Mytilus californianus: Mar. Biol., v. 49, p. 363-375.

Lively, C. M., P. T. Raimondi, and L. F. Delph, 1993, Intertidal community structure: space-time interactions in the northern Gulf of California: Ecology, v. 74, p. 162-173.

Lubchenko, J., and B. A. Menge, 1978, Community development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone: Ecol. Monogr., v. 59, p. 67-94.

Marquet, P. A., S. A. Navarrete, and J. C. Castilla, 1990, Scaling populationdensity to body size in rocky intertidalcommunities: Science, v. 250, p. 1125-1127.

McGrorty, S., R. T. Clarke, C. J. Reading, and J. D. Goss-Custard, 1990, Population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus edulis: density changes and regulation of the population in the Exe estuary, Devon: Marine Ecology - Progress Series, v. 67, p. 157-169.

McGrorty, S., and J. D. Goss-Custard, 1991, Population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus edulis: spatial variation in age-class densities of an intertidal estuarine population along environmental gradients: Marine Ecology - Progress Series, v. 73, p. 191-202.

Menge, B. A., 1976, Organization of the New England rocky intertidal community: Role of predation, competition, and environmental heterogeneity: Ecol. Monogr., v. 46, p. 355-393.

Menge, B. A., 1978a, Predation intensity in a rocky intertidal community. Effect of an algal canopy, wave action, and desiccation on predator feeding rates: Oecologia, v. 34, p. 17-35.

Menge, B. A., 1978b, Predation intensity in a rocky intertidal community. Relation between predator foraging activity and environmental harshness.: Oecologia, v. 34, p. 1-16.

Menge, B. A., 1983, Components of predation intensity in the low zone of the New England rocky intertidal community: Oecologia, v. 58, p. 141-155.

Menge, B. A., 1991a, Generalizing from experiments: is predation strong or weak in the New England rocky intertidal?: Oecologia, v. 88, p. 1-8.

Menge, B. A., 1991b, Relative importance of recruitment and other causes ofvariation in rocky intertidal community structure: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 146, p. 69-100.

Menge, B. A., 1992, Community regulation: Under what conditions are bottom-upfactors important on rocky shores?: Ecology, v. 73, p. 755-765.

Menge, B. A., 1995, Indirect effects in marine rocky intertidal interactive webs: Patterns and importance: Ecol. Monogr., v. 65, p. 21-74.

Menge, B. A., E. L. Berlow, C. A. Blanchette, S. A. Navarette, and S. B. Yamada, 1994, The keystone species concept: Variation in interaction strength in a rocky intertidal habitat: Ecol. Monogr., v. 64, p. 249-286.

Menge, B. A., and T. M. Farrell, 1989, Community structure and interaction webs inshallow marine hard-bottom communities: tests of an environmental stress model: Advances in Ecological Research, v. 19, p. 189-262.

Menge, B. A., J. Lubchenco, S. D. Gaines, and L. R. Ashkenas, 1986, A test of the Menge-Sutherland model of community organization in a tropical rocky intertidalfood web: Oecologia, v. 71, p. 75-89.

Nicotri, M. E., 1977, Grazing effects of four marine intertidal herbivores on the microflora: Ecology, v. 58, p. 1020-1032.

Okamura, B., 1986, Group living an dthe effects of spatial position in aggregations of Mytilus edulis: Oecologia, v. 69, p. 341-347.

Paine, R. T., 1977, Controlled manipulations in the marine intertidal zone, and their contributions to ecological theory., The Changing Scenes in the Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences, p. 245-270.

Paine, R. T., 1988, Habitat suitability and local population persistence of thesea palm Postelsia palmaeformis: Ecology, v. 69, p. 1787-1794.

Paine, R. T., 1990, Benthic macroalgal competition: complications and consequences: Journal of Phycology, v. 26, p. 12-17.

Paine, R. T., and S. A. Levin, 1981, Intertidal landscapes: distribution and dynamics of pattern: Ecol. Monogr., v. 51, p. 145-178.

Paine, R. T., and T. H. Suchanek, 1983, Convergence of ecological processes between independently evolved competitive dominants: a tunicate-mussel comparison: Evolution, v. 37, p. 821-831.

Palmer, A. R., 1984, Prey selection by thaidid gastropods: some observationaland experimental field tests of foragingmodels: Oecologia, v. 62, p. 162-172.

Petraitis, P. S., 1987, Immobilization of the predatory gastropod, Nucella lapillus by its prey: Biol. Bull., v. 172, p. 307-314.

Petraitis, P. S., 1990, Direct and indirect effects of predation, herbivory and surface rugosity on mussel recruitment: Oecologia, v. 83, p. 405-413.

Pineda, J., 1994, Spatial and temporal patterns in barnacle settlement rate along a southern California rocky shore.: Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., v. 107, p. 125-138.

Robles, C., R.Sherwood-Stephens, and M. Alvarado, 1995, Responses of a key intertidal predator to varying recruitment of its prey: Ecology, v. 76, p. 565-579.

Robles, C., and J. Robb, 1993, Varied carnivore effects and the prevalence of intertidal algal turfs: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 166, p. 65-91.

Robles, C., D. Sweetnam, and J. Eminike, 1990, Lobster predation on mussels: Shore-level differences in prey vulnerability and predator preference: Ecology, v. 71, p. 1564-1577.

Seed, R., 1969, The ecology of Mytilus edulis L. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores. II. Growth and mortality.: Oecologia, v. 3, p. 317-350.

Sousa, W. P., 1979a, Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder fields: The non-equilibrium maintenance of species diversity: Ecology, v. 60, p. 1225-1239.

Sousa, W. P., 1979b, Experimental investigations of disturbance and ecological succession in a rocky intertidal algal community: Ecol. Monogr., v. 49, p. 227-254.

Southward, A. J., 1964, The relationship between temperature and rhythmic cirral activity in some Cirripedia considered in connection with their geographical distribution: Helgolander wiss. Mereesunters., v. 10, p. 391-403.

Stephens, E. G., and M. D. Bertness, 1991, Mussel facilitation of barnacle survival in a sheltered bay habitat: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology andEcology, v. 145, p. 33-48.

Suchanek, T. H., 1978, The ecology of Mytilus edulis L. in exposed rocky intertidal communities.: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 31, p. 105-120.

Suchanek, T. H., 1981, The role of disturbance in the evolution of life history strategies in the intertidal mussels Mytilus edulis and Mytilus californianus: Oecologia, v. 50, p. 143-152.

Suchanek, T. H., 1986, Mussels and their role in structuring rocky shore communities, in P. G. Moore, and R. Seed, eds., The Ecology of Rocky Coasts, New York, Columbia University Press, p. 70-96.

Svane, I., and M. Ompi, 1993, Patch dynamics in beds of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L.: effects of site, patch size, and position within a patch: Ophelia, v. 37, p. 187-202.

Tissot, B. N., 1988, Morphological variation along intertidal gradients in apopulation of black abalone {iHaliotis cracherodii} Leach: Journal ofExperimental Marine Biology and Ecology, v. 117, p. 71-90.

Underwood, A. J., and E. J. Denley, 1984, Paradigms, explanations, and generalizations in models for the structure of intertidal communities on rocky shores, in D. Simberloff, D. R. Strong, L. Abele, and A. R. Thistle, eds., Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence, Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press.

Underwood, A. J., and P. G. Fairweather, 1989, Supply side ecology and benthicmarine assemblages: Trends in Ecology and Evolution, v. 4, p. 16-20.

Underwood, A. J., and G. A. Skilleter, 1996, Effects of patch-size on the structure of assemblages in rock pools.: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 197, p. 63-90.

Vadas, R. L., W. A. Wright, and S. L. Miller, 1990, Recruitment of Ascophyllum nodosum: Wave action as a source of mortality: Marine Ecology -Progress Series, v. 61, p. 263-272.

Yamada, S. B., and R. A. Mansour, 1987, Growth inhibition of native Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) by introduced L. littorea (L.).: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 105, p. 187-196.