LARVAL ECOLOGY - MAKING THE CONNECTION WITH RECRUITMENT

 

contributed by James Eckman, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (and some others by Jeff Levinton)

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES

 

Crisp, D.J., 1976. Settlement responses in marine organisms. In, Adaptation to Environment: Essayy on the Physiology of Marine Animals, edited by R.C. Newell, Butterworths, London, pp. 83-123.

 

Denny, M.W. & M.F. Shibata, 1989. Consequences of surf-zone turbulence for settlement and external fertilization. Amer. Natur., Vol. 134, pp. 859-889.

 

Eckman, J.E. 1996. Closing the larval loop: linking larval ecology to the population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. Vol. 200, pp. 207-237.

 

Gaines, S.D., & M.D. Bertness. 1992. Dispersal of juveniles and variable recruitment in sessile marine species. Nature, Vol. 360, pp. 579-580.

 

Morgan, S.G., 1995. Life and death in the plankton: Larval mortality and adaptation. In, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by L. McEdward, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 279-322.

 

Okubo, A., 1994. The role of diffusion and related physical processes in dispersal and recruitment of marine populations. In, The Bio-Physics of Marine Larval Dispersal, edited by P.W. Sammarco & M.L. Heron, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 5-34.

 

Roughgarden, J., S. Gaines & H. Possingham, 1988. Recruitment dynamics in complex life cycles. Science, Vol. 241, pp. 1460-1466.

 

Shanks, A.L., 1995. Mechanisms of cross-shelf dispersal of larval invertebrates and fish. In, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by L. McEdward, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 323-368.

 

 

OTHER IMPORTANT REFERENCES

 

Ames, W.F., 1977. Numerical methods for partial differential equations. Academic Press, New York, 2nd edition, 365 pp.

 

Andrews, J.C., S.L. Gay & P.W. Sammarco, 1988. Influence of circulation pattern on self-seeding at Helix Reef - Great Barrier Reef. In, Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, pp. 469-474.

 

Babcock, R.C., C.N. Mundy, J. Keesing & J. Oliver, 1992. Predictable and unpredictable spawning events: in situ behavioural data from free-spawning coral reef invertebrates. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, Vol. 22, pp. 213-228.

 

Bayne, B.L., 1976. Aspects of reproduction in marine molluscs. In, Estuarine Processes, edited by M.L. Wiley, Academic Press, New York, pp. 432-448.

 

Bayne, B.L. & R.C. Newell, 1983. Physiological energetics of marine molluscs. In, The Mollusca, edited by A.S.M. Saleuddin & K.M. Wilbur, Academic Press, New York, pp. 407-515.

 

Bertness, M.D., S.D. Gaines, E.G. Stephens & P.O. Yund, 1992. Components of recruitment in populations of the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 156, pp. 199-215.

 

Bertness, M.D., S.D. Gaines, R. A.Wahle. 1996. Wind-driven settlement patterns in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., Vol. 137, pp. 103-110.

 

Boidron-MÈtarion, I.F., 1995. Larval nutrition. In, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by L. McEdward, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 223-248.

 

Businger, J.A. & S.P.S. Arya, 1974. Height of the mixed layer in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. Adv. Geophys., Vol. 18, pp. 73-92.

 

Butman, C.A., 1986. Larval settlement of soft-sediment invertebrates: Some predictions based on an analysis of near-bottom velocity profiles. In, Marine Interfaces Ecohydrodynamics, edited by J.C.J. Nihoul, Elsevier, New York, pp. 487-513.

 

Butman, C.A., 1987. Larval settlement of soft-sediment invertebrates: the spatial scales of pattern explained by active habitat selection and the emerging role of hydrodynamical processes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., Vol. 25, pp. 113-165.

 

Carnahan, B., H.A. Luther & J.O. Wilkes, 1969. Applied numerical methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York, edition, 604 pp.

 

Caswell, H., 1989. Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis, and Interpretation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusettes, edition, 328 pp.

 

Caswell, H. & S. Brault, 1992. Life cycles and population dynamics. Oceanus, Vol. 35, pp. 86-93.

 

Chia, F.-S., J. Buckland-Nicks & C.M. Young, 1984. Locomotion of marine invertebrate larvae: a review. Can. J. Zool., Vol. 62, pp. 1205-1222.

 

Connell, J.H., 1985. The consequences of variation in initial settlement vs. post-settlement mortality in rocky intertidal communities. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 93, pp. 11-45.

 

Crisp, D.J., 1984. Overview of research on marine invertebrate larvae, 1940-1980. In, Marine Biodeterioration: An Interdisciplinary Study, edited by J.D. Costlow & R.C. Tipper, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, pp. 103-127.

 

Crouse, D.T., L.B. Crowder & H. Caswell, 1987. A stage-based population model for Loggerhead sea turtles and implications for conservation. Ecology, Vol. 68, pp. 1412-1423.

 

Davies, A.G., R.L. Sousby & H.L. King, 1988. A numerical model of the combined wave and current bottom boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 93, pp. 491-508.

 

Davies, A.M., 1991. On the accuracy of finite difference and modal methods for comuting tidal and wind wave current profiles. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 12, pp. 101-124.

 

Davies, A.M. & J.E. Jones, 1990. Application of a three-dimensional turbulence energy model to the determination of tidal currents on the northwest european shelf. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 95, No. C10, pp. 18,143-18,162.

 

Davis, A.R. & A.J. Butler, 1989. Direct observations of larval dispersal in the colonial ascidian Podoclavella moluccensis Sluiter: Evidence for closed populations. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 127, pp. 189-203.

 

Davis, C.S., 1984. Interaction of a copepod population with the mean circulation on Georges Bank. J. Mar. Res., Vol. 42, pp. 573-590.

 

Day, R. & L. McEdward, 1984. Aspects of the physiology and ecology of pelagic larvae of marine benthic invertebrates. In, Marine Plankton Life Cycle Strategies, edited by K.A. Steidinger & L.M. Walker, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 93-120.

 

Denny, M.W., 1985. Wave forces on intertidal organisms: A case study. Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 30, pp. 1171-1187.

 

Denny, M.W., 1988. Biology and the mechanics of the wave-swept environment. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1st edition, 329 pp.

 

Eckman, J.E., 1990. A model of passive settlement by planktonic larvae onto bottoms of differing roughness. Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 35, pp. 887-901.

 

Eckman, J.E., W.B. Savidge & T.F. Gross, 1990. Relationship between duration of cyprid attachment and drag forces associated with detachment of Balanus amphitrite cyprids. Mar. Biol., Vol. 107, pp. 111-118.

 

Eckman, J.E., F.E. Werner & T.F. Gross, 1994. Modelling some effects of behavior on larval settlement in a turbulent boundary layer. Deep Sea Res. II, Vol. 41, pp. 185-208.

 

Forward, R.B., Jr., 1988. Diel vertical migration: Zooplankton photobiology and behavior. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., Vol. 26, pp. 361-393.

 

Gaines, S.D., & M. Bertness. 1993. The dynamics of juvenile dispersal: why field ecologists must integrate. Ecology, Vol. 74, pp. 7430-7435.

 

Gaines, S.D. & J. Roughgarden, 1987. Fish in offshore kelp forests affect recruitment to intertidal barnacle populations. Science, Vol. 235, pp. 479-481.

 

Gross, T.F., F.E. Werner & J.E. Eckman, 1992. Numerical modelling of larval settlement in turbulent bottom boundary layers. J. Mar. Res., Vol. 50, pp. 611-642.

 

Hart, M.W. & R.R. Strathmann, 1995. Mechanisms and rates of suspension feeding. In, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by L. McEdward, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 193-222.

 

Jackson, J.B.C., 1983. Biological determinants of present and past sessile animal distributions. In, Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities, edited by M.J.S. Tevesz & P.L. McCall, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, pp. 39-120.

 

Lefkovitch, L.P., 1965. The study of population growth in organisms grouped by stages. Biometrics, Vol. 21, pp. 1-18.

 

Levin, L.A., 1986. Effects of enrichment on reproduction in the opportunistic polychaete Streblospio benedicti (Webster): A mesocosm study. Biol. Bull., Vol. 171, pp. 143-160.

 

Levin, L.A., 1990. A review of methods for labeling and tracking marine invertebrate larvae. Ophelia, Vol. 32, pp. 115-144.

 

Levin, L.A. & E.L. Creed, 1986. Effect of temperature and food availability on reproductive responses of Streblospio benedicti (Polychaeta: Spionidae) with planktotrophic or lecithotrophic development. Mar. Biol., Vol. 92, pp. 103-113.

 

Levin, L.A., H. Caswell, K.D. DePatra & E.L. Creed, 1987. Demographic consequences of larval development mode: Planktotrophy vs. lecithotrophy in Streblospio benedicti. Ecology, Vol. 68(6), pp. 1877-1886.

 

Levin, L.A., D. Huggett, P. Myers, T. Bridges & J. Weaver, 1993. Rare-earth tagging methods for the study of larval dispersal by marine invertebrates. Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 38, pp. 346-360.

 

Levitan, D.R., 1991. Influence of body size and population density on fertilization success and reproductive output in a free-spawning invertebrate. Biol. Bull., Vol. 181, pp. 261-268.

 

Levitan, D.R., 1995. The ecology of fertilization in free-spawning invertebrates. In, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by L. McEdward, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 123-156.

 

Long, C.E.,1981. A simple model for time-dependent, stably stratified turbulent boundary layers. University of Washington, Department of Oceanography, Special Report No. 95.

 

Lopez, G.R. & J.S. Levinton, 1987. Ecology of deposit-feeding animals in marine sediments. The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 62, pp. 235-260.

 

McConnaughey, R.A., D.A. Armstrong, B.M. Hickey & D.R. Gunderson, 1992. Juvenile Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) recruitment variability and oceanic transport during the pelagic larval phase. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., Vol. 49, pp. 2028-2044.

 

Middleton, G.V. & J.B. Southard, 1984. Mechanics of sediment transport. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2nd edition, 401 pp.

 

Mullineaux, L.S. & C.A. Butman, 1990. Recruitment of encrusting benthic invertebrates in boundary-layer flows: A deep-water experiment on Cross Seamount. Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 35, pp. 409-423.

 

Mullineaux, L.S. & C.A. Butman, 1991. Initial contact, exploration and attachment of barnacle cyprids settling in flow. Mar. Biol., Vol. 110, pp. 93-103.

 

Mullineaux, L.S. & E.D. Garland, 1993. Larval recruitment in response to manipulated field flows. Mar. Biol., Vol. 116, pp. 667-683.

 

Ohman, M.D., 1990. The demographic benefits of diel vertical migration by zooplankton. Ecol. Monogr., Vol. 60, pp. 257-281.

 

Olson, R.R., 1985. The consequences of short-distance larval dispersal in a sessile marine invertebrate. Ecology, Vol. 66, pp. 30-39.

 

Olson, R.R. & M.H. Olson, 1989. Food limitation of planktotrophic marine invertebrate larvae: Does it control recruitment success? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., Vol. 20, pp. 225-247.

 

Paine, R.T., 1980. Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. J. Anim. Ecol., Vol. 49, pp. 667-685.

 

Pascual, M. & H. Caswell, 1991. The dynamics of a size-classified benthic population with reproductive subsidy. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 39, pp. 129-147.

 

Pawlik, J.R., 1986. Chemical induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis in the reef-building tube worm Phragmatopoma californica (Sabellariidae: Polychaeta). Mar. Biol., Vol. 91, pp. 59-68.

 

Pawlik, J.R., 1992. Chemical ecology of the settlement of benthic marine invertebrates. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., Vol. 30, pp. 273-335.

 

Pawlik, J.R. & D.J. Faulkner, 1986. Specific free fatty acids induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of the reef-building tube worm Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 102, pp.

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