Kelp Forests


General and Important References


Dayton, D.K. 1985. The ecology of kelp communities. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 215-245.


Duggins, D.O. 1980. Kelp beds and sea otters: an experimental approach. Ecology 61: 447-453.


Duggins, D.O., C. A. Simenstad, J.A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245: 170-173.


Elner, R.W., R.L. Vadas. 1990. Inference in ecology: the sea urchin phenomenon in the northwestern Atlantic. Am. Nat. 136: 108-125.


Estes, J.A., J.F. Palmisano. 1974. Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities. Science 185: 1058-1060.


Mann, K.H., P.A. Breen. 1972. The relation between lobster abundance, sea urchins, and kelp beds. J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada 29: 603-605. [please be sure to read later literature]


Miller, R.J. 1985. Seaweeds, sea urchins, and lobsters: a reappraisal. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:2061-2072.


Vadas, R.L. and R.S. Steneck. 1995. Overfishing and inferences in kelp--sea urchin interactions. In H.R. Skjoldal, C. Hopkins, K.E. Eridstad, H.P. Leinaasa, eds., Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters, Elsevier Science, pp. 509-524


Witman, J.D. 1988. Stability of Atlantic kelp forests. 3: 285-286.


Other Important References



Cowen, R.K., C.R. Aggegian, M.S. Foster. 1982. The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forest. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 64: 189-201.


Dayton, P.K., V. Currie, T. Gerrodette, B. Keller, R. Rosenthal, D. Ven Tresca. 1994. Patch dynamics and stability of some souther California kelp communities. Ecol. Monogr. 54: 253-259.


Dayton, P.K., M. Tegner. 1984. Catastrophic storms, El Nino, and patch stability in a souther California kelp community. Science 24: 283-285.


Ebeling, A.W., D.R. Laur, R.J. Rowley. 1985. Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. Mar. Biol. 84: 287-294.


Foster, M.S., D.R. Schiel. 1988. Kelp communities and sea otters: keystone species or just another brick in the wall? In G. R. VanBlaricom, J.A. Estes, eds., The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. New York, Springer-Verlag, pp. 92-115


Harrold, C., D.C. Reed. 1985. Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66: 1160-1169.


Kennelly, S.J., A.J. Underwood. 1993. Geographic consistencies of effects of experimental physical disturbance on understory species in sublittoral kelp forests in central New South Wales. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 168: 35-58.


Miller, R.J. A.G. Colodey. 1983. Widespread mass mortalities of the green sea urchin in Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar. Biol. 73: 263-267.


Miller, R.J. 1985. Succession in sea urchin and seaweed abundance in Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar. Biol. 84: 275-286.


Schroeter, S.D., J.D. Dixon, J. Kastendick, R.O. Smith. 1993. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: a case study of kelp invertebrates. Ecol. Appl. 3: 331-350.


Stephenson, R.L., F.C. Tan, K.H. Mann. 1986. Use of stable isotope ratios to compare plant meterial and potential consumers in a seagrass bed and a kelp bed in Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 30: 1-7.


Tegner, M.J. and P.K. Dayton. 1981. Population structure, recruitment and mortality of two sea urchins (Strongylocentrous franciscanus and S. purpuratus in a kelp forest. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5: 255-268.


Tegner, M.J. and P.K. Dayton. 1987. El Nino effects on southern California kelp forest communities. Adv. Ecol. Res. 17:243-279.


VanBlaricom, G.R., and J.A. Estes. 1988. The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. New York: Springer-Verlag.