Fish Farming in Marine Environment and its Impacts

 

Compiled by Jeffrey Levinton, SUNY at Stony Brook

 

General References

 

Beveridge, MCM. Cage aquaculture. Fishing News Books, Blackwell, Oxford.

 

Gowen, R.J. and Bradbury NB, 1987. The ecological impact of salmonid farming in coastal waters: A review. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 25:563-575.

 

Holmer, M. 1991. Impacts of aquaculture on surrounding sediments: generation of organic-rich sediments. In: De Pauw, N, Joyce, J (eds). Aquaculture and the environment. Eur. Aquacult. Soc. Spec. Publ. 16: 155-175.

 

Wu, RSS, 1995. The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future. Mar. Poll. Bull. 31: 159-166

 

Other References of Interest

 

Bouza C. Sanchez L. Martinez P. 1997. Gene diversity analysis in natural populations and cultured stocks of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Animal Genetics 28: 28-36.

 

Carss D N.1994. Killing of piscivorous birds at Scottish Fin fish farms, 1984-87. Biological Conservation 68: 181-188.

 

Douglas J D M. 1995. Salmon farming: Occupational health in a new rural industry. Occupational Medicine-Oxford 45: 89-92.

 

Folke C. Kautsky N. Troell M1994. The costs of eutrophication from salmon farming: Implications for policy. Journal of Environmental Management 40: 173-182.

 

Gilbert, F. Souchy, P., Bianchi, M., Bonin, P. 1997. Influence of shellfish farming activitie on nutrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium and denitrification at the water-sediment interface of the Thau Lagoon, France. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 151: 143-153.

 

Gillibrand P A. Turrell W R. Moore D C. Adams R D. 1996. Bottom water stagnation and oxygen depletion in a Scottish sea loch. Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science 43: 217-235.

 

Hall, POJ, Holby, O, Kollberg S., Samuelsson, M-O. 1992. Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. I. Carbon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 89:81-91.

 

Hansen L P. Reddin D G. Lund R A.1997. The incidence of reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of fish farm origin at West Greenland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54: 152-155.

 

Hargrave, BT, Duplisea, DE, Pdeiffer, E, Wildish, 1993.Seasonal changes in benthic fluxes of dissolved oxygen and ammonium associated with marine cultured Atlantic salmon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 96:249-257.

 

Heggberget T G. Okland F. Ugedal O.1996. Prespawning migratory behaviour of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in a north Norwegian river. Aquaculture Research 27: 313-322.

 

Hevia M. Rosenthal H. Gowen R J1996. Modelling benthic deposition under fish cages. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 12: 71-74.

 

Holby, O, Hal POJ 1991. Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. II. Phosphorus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 70: 263-272.

 

Holmer, M., Kristensen, E. 1992. Impact of fish cage farming on metabolism and sulfate reduction of underlying sediments. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 80: 191-201.

 

Holmer M. Kristensen E.1994. Coexistence of sulfate reduction and methane production in an organic-rich sediment. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 107: 177-184.

 

Holmer M. Kristensen E.1996. Seasonality of sulfate reduction and pore water solutes in a marine fish farm sediment: The importance of temperature and sedimentary organic matter. Biogeochemistry (Dordrecht) 32: 15-39.

 

Johnsen R I. Grahl-Nielsen O. Lunestad B T.1993. Environmental distribution of organic waste from a marine fish farm. Aquaculture 118: 229-244.

 

Kerry J. Hiney M. Coyne R. Cabazon D. Nicgabhainn S. Smith P.1994. Frequency and distribution of resistance to oxytetracycline in micro-organisms isolated from marine fish farm sediments following therapeutic use of oxytetracycline. Aquaculture 123 (1-2): 43-54.

 

Nehr O. Blancheton J P. Alliot E. 1996. Development of an intensive culture system for sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae in sea enclosures. Aquaculture 142: 43-58.

 

Smith P. Hiney M P. Samuelsen O B. 1994. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents used in fish farming: A critical evaluation of method and meaning. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 4: 273-313.

 

Weston, DP 1990. Quantitative examination of macrobenthic community changes along an organic enrichment gradient. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 61: 233-244.

 

Withler R E. Beacham T D. Watkins R F. Stevens T A1994. Identification of farm-reared and native chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using the nuclear DNA probe B2-2. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 51(SUPPL. 1): 267-276.