Counter Gradient Selection and Latitudinal Aspects of Physiological Variation
Some Useful References
Berven, K. A., and D. E. Gill. 1983. Interpreting geographic variation in life-history traits. Amer. Zool., 23.
Berven, K. A., D. E. Gill, and S. J. Smith-Gill. 1979. Countergradient selection inthe Green Frog, Rana clamitans. Evolution, 33:609-623.
Boehlert, G. W., and R. F. Kappenman. 1980. Variation of growth with latitude in two species of rockfish (Sebastes pinniger and S. diploproa) from the northeast Pacific Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 3:1-10.
Brown, J. J., A. Ehtisham, and D. O. Conover. 1998. Variation in larval growth rate among striped bass stocks from different latitudes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 127:598-610.
Conover, D. O. 1992. Seasonality and the scheduling of life history at different latitudes. J. Fish Biol., 41B:161-178.
Conover, D. O., and T. M. C. Present. 1990. Countergradient variation in growth rate: compensation for length of the growing season among Atlantic silversides from different latitudes. Oecologia, 83:316-324.
Conover, D. O., and E. T. Schultz. 1995. Phenotypic similarity and the evolutionary significance of countergradient selection. TREE, 10:248-252.
Dehnel, P. A. 1955. Rates of growth of gastropods as a function of latitude. Physiol. Zool., 28:115-144.
Garland, T., and S. C. Adolph. 1991. Physiological differentiation of vertebrate populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 22:193-228.
Glebe, B. D., and W. C. Leggett. 1981. Latitudinal differences in energy allocation and use during the freshwater migrations of American Shad (Alosa sapidissima)and their life history consequences. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 38:806-820.
Lankford, T.E., Jr., Billerbeck, J.M., Conover, D.O. 2001. Evolution of intrinsic growth and energy acquisition rates.II. Trade-offs with vulnerability to predation in Menida menida. Evolution 55: 1873-1881.
Levinton, J. S. 1983. The latitudinal compensation hypothesis: growth data and a model of latitudinal growth differentiation based upon energy budgets. I.Interspecific comparison of Ophryotrocha (Polychaeta:Dorvilleidae). Biol. Bull., 165:686-698.
Levinton, J. S., and R. K. Monahan. 1983. The latitudinal compensation hypothesis:growth data and a model of latitudinal growth differentiation based upon energybudgets. II. Intraspecific comparisons between subspecies of Ophryotrocha puerilis (Polychaeta: Dorvilleidae). Biol. Bull., 165:699-707.
Lonsdale, D. J., and J. S. Levinton. 1985a. Latitudinal differentiation in copepod growth: an adaptation to temperature. Ecology, 66:1397-1407.
Lonsdale, D. J., and J. S. Levinton. 1985b. Latitudinal differentiation in embryonic duration, egg size, and newborn survival in a harpacticoid copepod. Biol. Bull., 168:419-431.
Lonsdale, D. J., and J. S. Levinton. 1989. Energy budget differentiation among latitudinally separated Scottolana canadensis (Copepoda:Harpacticoida). Limnol. Oceanogr., ;:324-331.
Lonsdale, D. J., J. S. Levinton, and S. Rosen. 1988. Reproductive compatibility among latitudinally separated Coullana canadensis (Willey) (Copepoda:Harpacticoida) and the role of body size. Hydrobiologia, 167/168:469-476.
Present, T. M. C., and D. O. Conover. 1992. Physiological basis of latitudinal growth differences in Menidia menidia: variation in consumption efficiency. Funct. Ecol., 6:23-31.
Ryan, F. J. 1941. Temperature change and the subsequent rate of development. J. Exp. Zool., 88:25-54.
Schultz, E. T., and D. O. Conover. 1997. Latitudinal differences in somatic energy storage: Adaptive responses to seasonality in an estuarine fish (Atherinidae: Menidia menidia). Oecologia, 109:516-529.
Schultz, E. T., K. E. Reynolds, and D. O. Conover. 1996. Countergradient variation in growth among newly hatched Fundulus heteroclitus: Geographic differences revealed by common-environment experiments. Funct. Ecol., 10:366-374.
Stauber, L. A. 1950. The problem of physiological species with special reference to oysters. Ecology, 31:109-118.
Thompson, J. D. 1991. Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change. Trends Ecol. Evol., 6:246-249.
Thompson, R. J., and R. I. E. Newell. 1984. Physiological responses to
temperature in two latitudinally separated populations of the mussel, Mytilus
edulis. In P. E. Gibbs (ed.), Proceedings of the Nineteenth European
Marine Biology Symposium, pp. 481-495. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.