Contributed by Robert Richmond, University of Guam

Atkinson, S. and M.J. Atkinson 1992. Detection of estradiol-17 during a mass
coral spawn. Coral Reefs 11:33-35.

Babcock, R.C. 1988a. Fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns incoral
settlement. Proc. 6th Internat. Coral Reef Symp.,
Townsville 2: 635-639

Babcock, R.C. 1988b. Age-structure, survivorship, and
fecundity in populations of massive corals. Proc. 6th Internat.
Coral Reef Symp., Townsville 2: 625-633

Birkeland, C. 1977. The importance of rate of biomass
accumulation in early successional stages of benthic communities
to the survival of coral recruits. Proc. Third Internat. Coral Reef
Symp., Miami 1. Biology:15-21

Cairns, Jr., J., K.L. Dickson and A.W. Maki. 1978. Estimating
the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life. ASTM,

Chapman, G.A. 1995. Sea urchin sperm cell test. Chap. 6, pp.
189-205 In G.M. Rand (ed.), Fundamentals of Aquatic
Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment,
(second edition). Taylor and Francis, Publishers, Washington

Chornesky, E.A. and E.C. Peters. 1987. Sexual reproduction
and colony growth in the scleractinian coral Porites astreoides.
Biol. Bull. 172:161-177.

Coll, J.C., B.F. Bowden, P.M. Alino, A. Heaton, G.M. Konig,
R. De Nys, and R. Willis. 1989. Chemically mediated
interactions between marine organisms. Chemica Scripta 29:383-388.

Coll, J.C., B.F. Bowden, and M.N. Clayton. 1990. Chemistry
and coral reproduction. Chemistry in Britain, August 1990:761-763.

Coll, J.C., B.F. Bowden, G.V. Meehan, G.M. Konig, A.R.
Carroll, D.M. Tapiolas, P.M. Alino, A. Heaton, R. De Nys,
P.A. Leone, M. Maida, T.L. Aceret, R.H. Willis, R.C.
Babcock, B.L. Willis, Z. Florian, M.N. Clayton, R.L. Miller.

1994. Chemical aspects of mass spawning in corals. I. Sperm-attractant
molecules in the eggs of the scleractinian coral
Montipora digitata. Mar. Biol. 118:177-182.

Connell, D.W., and G.J. Miller. 1984. Chemistry and
Ecotoxicology of Pollution. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
444 pp.

Fadlallah, Y. 1983. Sexual reproduction, development and
larval biology in scleractinian corals. A Review. Coral Reefs

Glynn, P.W., N.J. Gassman, C.M. Eakin, J. Cortes, D.B.
Smith, and H. Guzman. 1991. Reef coral reproduction in the
eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, Panama, and Galapagos Islands
(Ecuador) I. Pocilloporidae. Mar. Biol. 109:355-368

Guzman, H.M., and I. Holst. 1993. Effects of chronic oil-sediment pollution
on the reproduction of the Caribbean coral
Siderastrea siderea. Mar. Poll. Bull. 26:276-282

Hadfield, M.G., and J.T. Pennington. 1990. Nature of the
metamorphic signal and its internal transduction in larvae of the
nudibranch Phestilla sibogae. Bull. Mar. Sci.46:455-465.

Harriot, V.J. 1983. Reproductive ecology of four scleractinian species
at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs

Harrison, P.L., R.C. Babcock, G.D. Bull, J.K. Oliver,
C.C.Wallace, and B.L. Willis. 1984. Mass spawning in
tropical reef corals. Science 223:1186-1189

Harrison, P.L., and C.C. Wallace. 1990. Coral reproduction.
In Z. Dubinsky (ed.), Ecosystems of the World: Coral Reefs, pp. 133-208.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.,Amsterdam.


Harrison, R.G. 1990. Hybrid zones: windows on evolutionary
process, pp. 69-118 In D. Futuyma and J. Antonovics (eds.),
Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 7. Oxford
University Press, N.Y.

Hayashibara, T., K. Shimoike, T. Kimura, S. Hosaka, A.
Heyward, P. Harrison, K. Kudo, and M. Omori. 1993.
Patterns of coral spawning at Akajima Island, Okinawa, Japan.
Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 101:253-262

Heyward, A.J., and R. Babcock. 1986. Self- and cross
fertilization in scleractinian corals. Mar. Biol. 90:191-195

Highsmith, R.C. 1982. Reproduction by fragmentation in
corals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 7:207-226.

Hughes, T.P. and J.B.C. Jackson. 1980. Do corals lie about
their age? Some demographic consequences of partial mortality,
fission and fusion. Science 209:713-715

Ingersoll, C.G. 1995. Sediment tests. Chap. 8, pp. 231-255 In
G.M. Rand (ed.), Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects,
Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, (second edition).
Taylor and Francis, Publishers, Washington D.C.

Johannes, R.E. 1975. Pollution and degradation of coral reef
communities. In E.J. Ferguson Wood and R.E. Johannes (eds.),
Tropical Marine Pollution, pp. 13-50. Elsevier Scientific
Publishing, Amsterdam.

Johnson, D. 1988. Development of Mytilus edulis embryos: a
bioassay for polluted waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 46: 135-138.

Jokiel, P.L. 1985. Lunar periodicity of planula release in the reef
coral Pocillopora damicornis in relation to various
environmental factors. Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef
Congr.,Tahiti 4: 307-312

Jokiel, P.L., R.Y. Ito, and P.M. Liu. 1985. Night irradiance
and synchronization of lunar release of planula larvae in the reef
coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar. Biol. 88:167-174

Kaneshiro, K.Y. 1987. The dynamics of sexual selection and its
pleiotropic effects. Behav.
Genet. 17:559-569

Kinzie, R.A. 1993. Spawning in the reef corals Pocillopora
verrucosa and P. eydouxi at Sesoko Island, Okinawa. Galaxea

Knowlton, N., J.C. Lang, M.C. Rooney and P. Clifford. 1981.
Evidence for delayed mortality in hurricane-damaged Jamaican
staghorn corals. Nature 294:251-252.

Kojis, B.L., and N.J. Quinn. 1981. Aspects of sexual
reproduction and larval development in the shallow water
hermatypic coral Goniastrea australensis. Bull. Mar. Sci.

Kojis, B.L., and N.J. Quinn. 1984. Seasonal and depth variation
in fecundity of Acropora palifera at two reefs in Papua New Guinea. Coral Reefs 3:

Kojis, B.L., and N.J. Quinn. 1985. Puberty in Goniastrea
favulus. Age or size limited?
Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 4:289-293

Krupp, D.A., P.L. Jokiel and T.S. Chartrand. 1993. Asexual
reproduction by the solitary scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria on
dead parent coralla in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands.
Proc. 7th Intl. Coral Reef Symp. Guam. vol. 1:527-534.

Levitan, D.R., M.A. Sewell, and F. Chia. 1992. How
distribution and abundance influence fertilization success in the
sea urchin Stongylocentrotus franciscanus. Ecol. 73:248-254.

Loya, Y., and B. Rinkevich. 1979. Abortion effect in corals
induced by oil pollution. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 1: 77-80

Morse, D.E. and A.N.C. Morse. 1991. Enzymatic
characterization of the morphogen recognized by Agaricia
humilis larvae. Biol. Bull. 181:104-122.

Morse, D.E., and A.N.C. Morse. 1993. Sulfated
polysaccharide induces settlement and metamorphosis of
Agaricia humilis larvae on specific crustose algae. Proc. 7th
Internat. Coral Reef Symp. Guam

Morse, D.E., A.N.C. Morse, P.T. Raimondi, and N. Hooker.
1994. Morphogen-based chemical flypaper for Agaricia humilis
coral larvae. Biol. Bull. 186: 172-181.

Oliver, J.K. and B.L. Willis. 1987. Coral-spawn slicks in the
Great Barrier Reef: Preliminary observations. Mar. Biol.

Oliver, J.K., R.C. Babcock, P.L. Harrison, and B.L. Willis.
1988. Geographical extent of mass coral spawning: clues to
ultimate causal factors. Proc. 6th Intl. Coral Reef Symp.
Townsville, 2: 803-810.

Richmond, R. H. 1985. Reversible metamorphosis in coral
planula larvae. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 22:181-185

Richmond, R.H. 1987. Energetics, competency, and
long-distance dispersal of planula larvae of the coral Pocillopora
damicornis. Mar. Biol. 93:527-533


Richmond, R.H. 1988. Competency and dispersal potential of
planula larvae of a spawning versus a brooding coral. Proc. 6th
Intl. Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, Australia. 2:827- 831.

Richmond, R.H. 1990. Relationships among reproductive
mode, biogeographic distribution patterns and evolution in
scleractinian corals. Advances in Invertebrate Reproduction, 5.
Elsevier Biomedical Press. pp 237-243.

Richmond, R.H. 1993a. Fertilization in corals:Puzzles and
In R.H. Richmond (ed.), Proceedings 7th International Coral
Reef Symposium. Guam.

Richmond, R.H. 1993b. Coral reefs: Present problems and
future concerns resulting from anthropogenic disturbance. Amer.
Zool. 33:524-536.

Richmond, R.H. 1994. Effects of coastal runoff on coral
reproduction. pp. 360-364 In
Proc. Colloq. On Global Aspects of Coral Reefs, R.N. Ginsburg
(ed.) University of Miami.

Richmond, R.H. 1995. Hybridization as an evolutionary force
in mass-spawning scleractinian corals. J. of Cellular Biochem.

Richmond, R.H. and C.L. Hunter 1990. Reproduction and
Recruitment of Corals: Comparisons Among the Caribbean, the
Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

Richmond, R.H. and P.L. Jokiel. 1984. Lunar periodicity in
larva release in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis at Enewetak
and Hawaii. Bull. Mar. Sci. 34, 280-287.

Rinkevich, B. 1989. The contribution of photosynthetic
products to coral reproduction. Mar. Biol. 101:259-263.

Rinkevich, B. and Y. Loya 1979a. The reproduction of the Red
Sea coral Stylophora pistillata. I. Gonads and planulae. Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1:133-144.

Rinkevich, B. And Y. Loya 1979b. The reproduction of the Red
Sea coral Stylophora pistillata. II. Synchronization in breeding
and seasonality of planula shedding. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

Rosen, B.R. and J.D. Taylor. 1969. Reef coral from Aldabra: a
new mode of reproduction. Science 166:119-121.

Sammarco, P.W. 1982. Polyp bail-out: an escape response to
environmental stress and a new means of reproduction in corals. Mar.
Ecol. Progr. Ser. 10: 57-65

Shlesinger, Y., and Y. Loya. 1985. Coral community
reproductive patterns: Red Sea versus the Great Barrier Reef.
Science 228:1333-1335.

Stimson, J.S. 1978. Mode and timing of reproduction in some
common hermatypic corals of Hawaii and Enewetak. Mar. Biol.

Stoddart, J.A. 1983. Asexual production of planulae in the
coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar. Biol. 76:279-284.

Szmant-Froelich, A.M. 1985. The effect of colony size on the reproductive
ability of the Caribbean coral Montastrea
annularis (Ellis and Solander). Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef
Congr., Tahiti 4: 295-300

Szmant, A.M. 1986. Reproductive ecology of Caribbean reef
corals. Coral Reefs 5: 43-54

Tomascik, T. 1991. Settlement patterns of Caribbean
scleractinian corals on artificial substrata along a eutrophication
gradient, Barbados, West Indies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77:261-269.

Tomascik, T., and F. Sander. 1987. Effects of eutrophication
on reef-building corals III. Reproduction of the reef-building
coral Porites porites. Mar. Biol. 94:77-94


Uehara, T., H. Hidenori, and Y. Arakaki. 1990. Fertilization blockage and
hybridization among species of sea urchins,
pp. 305-310. In M. Hoshi and O. Yamashita (eds.), Advances in
Invertebrate Reproduction 5. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.

Wallace, C.C. 1985. Seasonal peaks and annual fluctuation in
recruitment of juvenile scleractinian corals. Mar. Ecol. Progr.
Ser. 21: 289-298

Ward, S. 1992. Evidence for broadcast spawning as well as
brooding in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar.
Biol. 112, 641-646.

Williams, D. McB., E. Wolanski, and J.C. Andrews. 1984.
Transport mechanisms and the potential movement of
planktonic larvae in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef.
Coral Reefs 3:229-236

Willis, B.L., R.C. Babcock, P.L. Harrison, and C.C. Wallace.
1993. Experimental evidence of hybridization in reef
corals involved in mass spawning events. In R.H. Richmond
(ed.), Proceedings 7th International Coral Reef Symposium.