References Provided by Mark Hay, Institute of Marine Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Thanks also to Brian Penney)

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Avila, C. 1995. Natural products of opisthobranch molluscs: A biological review. Oceanogr and Mar Biol Ann Rev 33: 487-559.

Hay, M.E. 1996. Marine chemical ecology: What is known and what is next?
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (in press).

Hay, M.E. 1996. Marine chemical ecology: What is known and what is next?
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (in press).

Hay, M. E. and W. Fenical, 1996. Chemical ecology and marine biodiversity:
insights and products from the sea. Oceanography 9: 10-20. .

Hay, M. E. and P. D. Steinberg, 1992. The chemical ecology of
plant-herbivore interactions in marine versus terrestrial communities. In,
Herbivores: their interaction with secondary metabolites, evolutionary and
ecological processes, edited by J.A. Rosenthal and M.R. Berenbaum,
Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 371-413.

Hay, M. E. 1992, Seaweed chemical defenses: their role in the evolution
of feeding specialization and in mediating complex interactions. In,
Ecological roles for marine secondary metabolites; explorations in chemical
ecology series, edited by V. J. Paul, Comstock Publishing Associates,
Ithaca, pp. 93-118.

Hay, M. E. and W. Fenical, 1988. Marine plant-herbivore interactions: the
ecology of chemical defense. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., Vol. 19, pp. 111-145.

McClintock, J. B, 1994. An overview of the chemical ecology of Antarctic
marine invertebrates, the Ireland lecture 1993. The University of Alabama
at Birmingham, 24 pp.

McClintock, J.B. and B.J. Baker. 1997. A review of the chemical ecology ofAntarctic marine invertebrates. Amer. Zool. 37(4): 329-342.

Paul, V. J., 1992. Ecological roles of marine natural products.
Comstock, Ithaca, NY 245 pp.

Pawlik, J. R., 1992. Chemical ecology of the settlement of benthic marine
invertebrates. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., Vol. 30, pp. 273-335.

Pawlik, J. R., 1993. Marine invertebrate chemical defenses. Chem. Rev.,
Vol. 93, pp. 1911-1922.

Steinberg, P. D., 1992. Geographical variation in the interaction between
marine herbivores and brown algal secondary metabolites. In, Ecological
Roles for Marine Secondary Metabolites, edited by V. J. Paul, Comstock
Publishing Associates, Ithaca, pp. 51-92.


Boettcher, A. A. and N. M. Targett, 1993. Role of polyphenolic molecular
size in reduction of assimilation efficiency in Xiphister mucosus. Ecology,
Vol. 74, pp. 891-903.

Bolser, R. C. and M. E. Hay (in press) Are tropical plants better defended?
Palatability and defenses of temperate versus tropical seaweeds. Ecology.

Cronin, G. and M.E. Hay. 1996. Effects of light and nutrient availability
on the growth, secondary chemistry, and resistance to herbivory of two
brown seaweeds. Oikos (in press)

Cronin, G. and M.E. Hay. 1996. Susceptibility to herbivores depends on
recent history of both the plant and animal. Ecology 77: 1531-1543.

Cronin, G. and M.E. Hay. 1996. Within-plant variation in seaweed
palatability and chemical defenses: Optimal defense theory versus the
growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. Oecologia 105:361-368.

Cronin, G. and M. E. Hay, (in press) Amphipod grazing and induction of
seaweed chemical defenses. Ecology.

Duffy, J. E. and M. E. Hay, 1994. Herbivore resistance to seaweed
chemical defense: the roles of mobility and predation risk. Ecology 75:

Estes, J. A. and P. D. Steinberg, 1988. Predation, herbivory, and kelp
evolution. Paleobiology, Vol. 14, pp. 19-36.

Fenical, W., 1993. Chemical studies of marine bacteria: developing a new
resource. Chem. Rev., Vol. 93, pp. 1673-1683.

Gil-Turnes, M. S., M. E. Hay and W. Fenical, 1989. Symbiotic marine
bacteria chemically defend crustacean embryos from a pathogenic fungus.
Science, Vol. 246, pp. 116-118.

Hay, M. E., 1991b. Marine-terrestrial contrasts in the ecology of plant
chemical defenses against herbivores. TREE, Vol. 6, pp. 362-365.

Hay, M. E., J. E. Duffy, C. A. Pfister and W. Fenical, 1987. Chemical
defenses against different marine herbivores: are amphipods insect
equivalents? Ecology, Vol. 68, pp. 1567-1580.

Hay, M. E., V. J. Paul, S. M. Lewis, K. Gustafson, J. Tucker and R. N.
Trindell, 1988. Can tropical seaweeds reduce herbivory by growing at
night? diel patterns of growth, nitrogen content, herbivory, and chemical
versus morphological defenses. Oecologia, Vol. 75, pp. 233-245.

Hay, M. E., J. E. Duffy and W. Fenical, 1990. Host-plant specialization
decreases predation on a marine amphipod: an herbivore in plant's clothing.
Ecology, Vol. 71, pp. 733-743.

Hay, M. E., Q. E. Kappel and W. Fenical, 1994. Synergisms in plant defenses
against herbivores: interactions of chemistry, calcification, and plant
quality. Ecology, Vol. 75, pp. 1714-1726.

Kvitek, R. G., A. R. DeGange and M. K. Beitler, 1991. Paralytic shellfish
poisoning toxins mediate feeding behavior of sea otters. Limnol.
Oceanogr., Vol. 36, pp. 393-404.

Lindquist, N. and M. E. Hay, 1995. Can small rare prey be chemically
defended? the case for marine larvae. Ecology, Vol. 76, pp. 1347-1358.

Lindquist, N. and M. E. Hay, (in press) Palatability and chemical defense
of marine invertebrate larvae. Ecological Monographs

Lindquist, N. L., M.E. Hay and W. Fenical, 1992. Chemical defense of
ascidians and their conspicuous larvae. Ecol. Monogr., Vol. 62, pp.

McClintock, J. B. and J. Janssen, 1990. Pteropod abduction as a chemical
defense in a pelagic antarctic amphipod. Nature, Vol. 346, pp. 462-464.

Meyer, K. D. and V. J. Paul, 1995. Variation in secondary metabolite and
aragonite concentrations in the tropical green seaweed Neomeris annulata:
effects on herbivory by fishes. Mar. Biol., Vol. 122, pp. 537-545.

Paul, V. J. and W. Fenical, 1986. Chemical defense in tropical green
algae, order Caulerpales. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., Vol. 34, pp. 255-264.

Paul, V. J. and K. L. Van Alstyne, 1988. Chemical defense and chemical
variation in some tropical Pacific species of Halimeda (Halimedaceae;
Chlorophyta). Coral Reefs, Vol. 6, pp. 263-270.

Paul, V. J. and K. L. Van Alstyne, 1992. Activation of chemical defenses in
the tropical green algae Halimeda spp. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 160,
pp. 191-203.

Pawlik, J. R., M.T. Burch and W. Fenical, 1987. Patterns of chemical
defenses among Caribbean gorgonian corals: a preliminary survey. J. Exp.
Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 108, pp. 55-66.

Pawlik, J. R., B. Chanas, R.J. Toonen and W. Fenical, 1995. Defenses of
Caribbean sponges against predatory reef fish. I. chemical deterrency. Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser., Vol. 127, pp. 183-194.

Pennings, S. C. and V. J. Paul, 1992. Effect of plant toughness,
calcification, and chemistry on herbivory by Dolabella auricularia.
Ecology, Vol. 3, pp. 1606-1619.

Schmitt, T. M., M. E. Hay and N. Lindquist, 1995. Constraints on
chemically mediated coevolution: multiple functions of seaweed secondary
metabolites. Ecology, Vol. 6, pp. 107-123.

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 1996. Facultative mutualism between an
herbivorous crab and its coralline algal host: advantages of eating noxious
seaweeds. Oecologia 105:377-387.

Steinberg, P.D., J.A. Estes and F.C. Winter, 1995. Evolutionary
consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities. Proc. Nat.
Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 92, pp. 8145-8148.

Steinberg, P. D. and I.A. Van Altena, 1992. Tolerance of marine
invertebrate herbivores to brown algal phlorotannins in temperate
Australasia. Ecol. Monogr., Vol. 62, pp. 189-222.

Schupp, P. J. and V. J. Paul, 1994. Calcification and secondary
metabolites in tropical seaweeds: variable effects on herbivorous fishes.
Ecology, Vol. 75, pp. 1172-1185.

Targett, N. M., L. D. Coen, A. A. Boettcher and C. E. Tanner, 1992.
Biogeographic comparisons of marine algal polyphenolics: evidence against a
latitudinal trend. Oecologia, Vol. 89, pp. 464-470.

Van Alstyne, K. L., 1988. Herbivore grazing increases polyphenolic
defenses in the intertidal brown alga Fucus distichus. Ecology, Vol. 69,
pp. 655-663.

Van Alstyne, K. L. and V. J. Paul, 1990. The biogeography of polyphenolic
compounds in marine macroalgae: temperate brown algal defenses deter
feeding by tropical herbivorous fishes. Oecologia, Vol. 84, pp. 158-163.

Zimmer-Faust, R. K., C.M. Finelli, N.D. Pentcheff and D.S. Wethey, 1995.
Odor plumes and animal navigation in turbulent water flow: a field study.
Biol. Bull., Vol. 188, pp. 111-116.

Zimmer-Faust, R. K., P.B. O'Neill and D.W. Schar, 1996a. The relationship
between predator activity state and sensitivity to prey odors. Biol.
Bull., Vol. 190: in press.

Zimmer-Faust, R. K., M.P. de Souza and D.C. Yock, 1996b. Bacterial
chemotaxis and its potential role in marine dimethylsulfide production and
biogeochemical sulphur cycling. Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 41, (in press).

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