Population Genetics and Speciation in the Sea


Contributed by Ron Burton, Scripps Institution of Oceanography



Summary papers:


Avise, J. C. 1994. Molecular markers, natural history, and evolution.

Champion and Hall, New York. 511 pp.


Burton, R.S. 1983. Protein polymorphisms and genetic differentiation of

marine invertebrate populations. Mar. Biol. Letters 4:193-206.


Gooch JL 1975. Mechanisms of evolution and population genetics. In:

Kinne O (ed) Marine Ecology. Vol. II: Physiological mechanisms. Wiley,

London, pp 329-409


Hedgecock, D. 1986. Is gene flow from pelagic larval dispersal important

in the adaptation and evolution of marine invertebrates? Bull. Mar. Sci.



Knowlton, N. 1993. Sibling species in the sea. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 24:189-216.


Levinton, J. S. 1980. Genetic divergence in estuaries. In: Kennedy,

V.S. (ed.) Estuarine perspectives. Academic Press, New York. pp. 509-520.


Palumbi, S.R. 1994. Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, and

marine speciation. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 25:547-572


Palumbi, S.R. 1995. Using genetics as an indirect estimator of larval

dispersal. In: McEdward LR (ed), Ecology of marine invertebrate larvae. CRC

Press, Boca Raton, pp 369-387




Classic research:


Berger, E. 1973. Gene-enzyme variation in three sympatric species of

Littorina. Biol. Bull. 143: 83-90.


Burton, R. S. 1986. Evolutionary consequences of restricted gene flow

among natural populations of the copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Bull.

Mar. Sci. 39: 526-535.


Johnson, M.S. and R. Black 1982. Chaotic genetic patchiness in an

intertidal limpet, Siphonaria sp. Mar Biol 70: 157-164


Johnson, M.S. and R. Black 1984. Pattern beneath the chaos: the effect

of recruitment on genetic patchiness in an intertidal limpet. Evolution 38:



Koehn RK, Milkman R, Mitton JB 1976. Population genetics of marine

pelecypods. IV. Selection, migration and genetic differentiation in the

blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Evolution 30:2-32


Koehn, R. K., R. I. E. Newell and F. Immerman. 1980. Maintenance of an

aminopeptidase allele frequency cline by natural selection. Proc. Natl.

Acad. Sci. USA 77:5385-5389.


Levinton JS, Suchanek TH 1978. Geographic variation, niche breadth and

genetic differentiation at different geographic scales in the mussels

Mytilus californianus and M.edulis. Mar Biol 49: 363-375


Powers, D. A. and A. R. Place 1978. Biochemical genetics of Fundulus

heteroclitus. I. Temporal and spatial variation in gene frequencies of

Ldh-B, Mdh-A, Gpi-B and Pgm-A. Biochem. Genet. 16:593-607.


Scheltema, R.S. 1971. Larval dispersal as a means of genetic exchange

between geographically separated populations of shallow-water benthic

invertebrates. Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 140: 284-322


Waples, R.S. 1987. A multispecies approach to the analysis of gene flow

in marine shore fishes. Evolution 41: 385-400




Recent research:


Avise, J. C. 1992. Molecular population structure and the biogeographic

history of a regional fauna: a case history with lessons for conservation

biology. Oikos 63: 62-76.


Bernardi, G., P. Sordino, and D. A. Powers 1993. Concordant mitochondrial

and nuclear DNA phylogenies for populations of the teleost fish Fundulus

heteroclitus. PNAS 90:9271-9274.


Burton, R. S. and B.-N. Lee. 1994. Nuclear and mitochondrial gene

genealogies and allozyme polymorphism across a major phylogeographic break

in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA



Edmands, S., P. Moberg and R.S. Burton 1996. Allozyme and mitochondrial

DNA evidence of population subdivision in the purple sea urchin,

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Mar. Biol. 126:443-450


Hellberg ME 1994. Relationships between inferred levels of gene flow and

geographic distance in a philopatric coral, Balanophyllia elegans.

Evolution 48: 1829-1854


Hurst CD, Skibinski DOF 1995. Comparison of allozyme and mitochondrial

DNA spatial differentiation in the limpet Patella vulgata. Mar Biol



Johannesson K, Johannesson J, Lundgren U 1995. Strong natural selection

causes microscale allozyme variation in a marine snail. Proc natn Acad Sci

USA 92: 2602-2606


Karl, S. A. and J. C. Avise. 1992. Balancing selection at allozyme loci in

oysters: implications from nuclear RFLPs. Science 256:100-102.


Kordos, L. M. and R. S. Burton. 1993. Genetic differentiation of Texas

Gulf Coast populations of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Mar. Biol.



Lessios, H. A., J. R. Weinberg, and V. R. Starczak, 1994. Temporal

variation in populations of the marine isopod Exocirolana: how stable are

gene frequencies and morphology. Evolution, Vol. 48, pp. 549-563.


Lewis RI, Thorpe JP 1994. Temporal stability of gene frequencies within

genetically heterogeneous populations of the queen scallop Aequipectin

(Chlamys) opercularis. Mar Biol 121: 117-126


Knowlton N, Weigt LA, SolÛranzo LA, Mills DK, Bermingham E 1993.

Divergence in proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and reproductive compatibility

across the isthmus of Panama. Science 260: 1629-1632


Reeb CA, Avise JC 1990. A genetic discontinuity in a continuously

distributed species: mitochondrial DNA in the American oyster, Crassostrea

virginica. Genetics 124: 397-406


Watts, R.J., M.S. Johnson, and R. Black. 1990. Effects of recruitment on

genetic patchiness in the urchin Echinometra mathaei in Western Australia.

Mar. Biol. 105: 145-151.