Contributed by Ron Etter, University of Massachusetts at Boston


Summary Papers

Huston, M. A. 1985. Patterns of species diversity on coral reefs.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16:149-177.

Petraitis, P. S., R. E. Latham, and R. A. Niesenbaum. 1989. The
maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. The Quarterly
Review of Biology 64:393-418.

Rex, M. A. 1981. Community structure in the deep-sea benthos.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12:331.

Snelgrove, P. V. R. and C. A. Butman. 1994. Animal sediment
relationships revisited: cause versus effect, pp. 111-177. In A. D.
Ansell, R. N. Gibson and M. Barnes (eds.), Oceanography and
Marine Biology, Vol 32. U C L Press Ltd, Univ Coll London,
Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

Sousa, W. P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural
communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:353-

Wilson, W. H. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-
sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics 21:221-241.

Wootton, J. T. 1994. The nature and consequences of indirect
effects in ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics 25:443-466.

Classic Research Papers

Connell, J. H. 1961. Effects of competition predation by Thais
lapillus and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle
Balanus balanoides. Ecological Monographs 31:61-104.

Dayton, P. K. 1971. Competition disturbance and community
organization the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a
rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs 41:351-389.

Dayton, P. K. and M. J. Tegner. 1984. Catastrophic storms, El
Nino, and patch stability in a Southern California kelp community.
Science 324:283-285.

Dayton, P. K. and R. R. Hessler. 1972. Role of biological
disturbance in maintaining diversity in the deep sea. Deep Sea Res.


Fager, E.W. 1972. Diversity: a sampling study. Am. Nat.

Fischer, A. G. 1960. Latitudinal variations in organic diversity.
Evolution 14:64-81.

Gray, J. S. 1974. Animal-sediment relationships. Oceanography
Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 12:223-261.

Huston, M. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity.
Am. Nat. 113:81-101.

Johnson, R.G. 1970. Variations in diversity within benthic marine
communities. Am. Nat. 104:285-300.

Jumars, P. A. 1976. Deep-sea species diversity. Does it have a

characteristic scale? J. Mar. Res. 34:217-246.

Lubchenco, J. L. 1978. Plant species diversity in a marine
intertidal community: importance of herbivore food preference and
algal competitive abilities. American Naturalist 112:23-39.

Lubchenco, J. L. and B. A. Menge. 1978. Community
development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone.
Ecological Monographs 59:67-94.

Menge, B. A. 1976. Organization of the New England rocky
intertidal community role of predation competition and
environmental heterogeneity. Ecological Monographs 46:355-

Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity.
American Naturalist 100:65-75.

Paine, R. T. and S. A. Levin. 1981. Intertidal landscapes,
disturbance, and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological Monographs

Sanders, H. and R. Hessler. 1969. Ecology of the deep-sea
benthos. Science 163:1419-1423.

Sanders, H. L. 1968. Marine benthic diversity: a comparative
study. Am. Nat. 102:243-282.

Sousa, W. P. 1979. Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder
fields: the nonequilibrium maintenance of species diversity.
Ecology 60:1225-1239.

Sutherland, J. 1974. Multiple stable points in natural
communities. Am. Nat. 108:859-873.

Witman, J. 1985. Refuges, biological disturbance, and rocky
subtidal community structure in New England. Ecological
Monographs 55:421-445.

Recent Contributions

Bertness, M. D. and S. D. Hacker. 1994. Physical stress and
positive associations among marsh plants. Amer Naturalist

Buzas, M.A. and Culver. 1994 Species pool and dynamics of
marine paleocommunities. Science 264:1439-1441

Cornell, H. V. and R. H. Karlson. 1996. Species richness of
reef-building corals determined by local and regional processes.
Journal of Animal Ecology 65:233-241.

Dayton, P. K. 1989. Interdecadal variation in an antarctic sponge
and its predators from oceanographic climate shifts. Science

Etter, R. J. and J. F. Grassle. 1992. Patterns of species diversity
in the deep sea as a function of sediment particle size diversity.
Nature 360:576-578.

Fraser, R.H. and D.J. Currie. 1996. The species-energy
hypothesis in a system where historical factors are thought to
prevail: coral reefs. Am. Nat. 148: 138-159.

Gaines, S. D. and J. Roughgarden. 1987. Fish in offshore kelp
forests recruitment to intertidal barnacle populations. Science

Gee, J. M. and R. M. Warwick. 1996. A study of global
biodiversity patterns in the marine motile fauna of hard substrata.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United
Kingdom 76:177-184.

Hacker, S.D. and S.D. Gaines. 1997. Community species diversity:
revealing the hidden consequences of positive interactions.

Jackson, J. B. C. 1992. Pleistocene perspectives on coral reef
community structure. Am Zool 32:719-731.

Jackson, J. B. C., P. Jung, A. G. Coates and L. S. Collins.
1993. Diversity and extinction of tropical american mollusks and
emergence of the isthmus of Panama. Science 260:1624-1626.

Kennett, J. P. and L. D. Stott. 1991. Abrupt Deep-Sea Warming,

Palaeoceanographic Changes and Benthic Extinctions at the End of
the Palaeocene. Nature 353:225-229.

Kukert, H and C.R. Smith. 1992. Disturbance, colonization and
succession in a deep-sea sediment community: artificial-mound
experiments. Deep-Sea Research 39: 1349-1371.

Lively, C. M., P. T. Raimondi and L. F. Delph. 1993. Intertidal
community structure - space time interactions in the northern gulf
of California. Ecology 74:162-173.

Menge, B. A. 1992. Community Regulation - Under What
Conditions Are Bottom-Up Factors Important on Rocky Shores.
Ecology 73:755-765.

Menge, B. A. and A. M. Olson. 1990. Role of scale and
environmental factors in regulation of community structure.
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 5:52-57.

Rex, M. A., C. T. Stuart, R. R. Hessler, J. A. Allen, H. L.
Sanders and G. D. F. Wilson. 1993. Global-Scale latitudinal
patterns of species diversity in the Deep-Sea benthos. Nature

Wootton, J. T. 1993. Indirect effects and habitat use in an
intertidal community - interaction chains and interaction
modifications. Am. Nat.141:71-89.

Important Controversy:

How many species exist in the marine environment?

Brey, T., M. Klages, C. Dahm, M. Gorny, J. Gutt, S. Hain, M.
Stiller, W. E. Arntz, J. W. Wagele and A. Zimmermann. 1994.
Antarctic benthic diversity. Nature 368:297.

Grassle, J. F. and N. J. Maciolek. 1992. Deep-sea species
richness: regional and local diversity estimate from quantitative
bottom samples. American Naturalist 139:313-341.

May, R. M. 1992. Biodiversity - Bottoms Up for the Oceans.
Nature 357:278-279.

May, R. M. 1992. How many species inhabit the earth. Sci Am

Poore, G.C.B. and G.D.F. Wilson. 1993. Marine species
richness. Nature 361:597-599.

Rex, M. A., C. T. Stuart, R. R. Hessler, J. A. Allen, H. L.
Sanders and G. D. F. Wilson. 1993. Global-Scale latitudinal
patterns of species diversity in the Deep-Sea benthos. Nature