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REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

110  25   166 167   N Obii            G Betw. Brigetio (Szoeny, H; fig 1    A
                                        p.59) & Arrabona in Pannonia RP.
                                                                                From (Lower) Elbe R. R. Much says they are
                                                                                possibly related to Ubii who had moved to
                                                                                the Rhine R area.

900 681   500 #     A Obodrites       S W Mecklenburg Region, DDR. (For     Q
                                        more precise outline see ref 302,
                                        yellow area labeled Obodriti.)
                                                                                Date is compromise between this reference
                                                                                and frontpaper of ref 14. Not known from
                                                                                where they came, but these are Obodrites
                                                                                in the Alfoeld (map 302). Into the area
                                                                                vacated by Germanic tribes. This is an
                                                                                aggregation of tribes incl. Obodriti
                                                                                (sensu stricto), Vagrove, Varnove, Linane,
                                                                                Brezane, Dosane, Drevane, Polabane, whose
                                                                                separate locations can be found on map
                                                                                302. Although Polabane is given as a
                                                                                subgroup above, Polabians are given as a
                                                                                major group consisting of Obodrites
                                                                                (sensu lato) & Lutici (Wilcy) in E. Vana:
                                                                                The World of Ancient Slavs says that while
                                                                                Germanics left earlier, land was
                                                                                unihabited for some time. He places
                                                                                arrival of Slavs in 7th C. (Syn.
                                                                                Abodrites).

900 682   500 1200  A Obodrites       S {W Mecklenburg Region, DDR. (For    L
                                        more precise outline see ref 302,
                                        yellow area labeled Obodriti.) }
                                        *{900-681}*
                                                                                Acc/to many refs, e.g. (14-24), and its
                                                                                chronology. Start date for consistency
                                                                                with (900-681), end date last mentioned
                                                                                dates in ref 14 chronology. This is an
                                                                                aggregation of tribes incl. Obodriti
                                                                                (sensu stricto), Vagrove, Varnove, Linane,
                                                                                Brezane, Dosane, Drevane, Polabane, whose
                                                                                separate locations can be found on map 302.

900 684   800 1150  N Obodrites       S Betw Tisza and Danube RR            L
                                                                                (Syn. Abodrites, Bodrici). This record is
                                                                                a composite of (51-110), (51-38), and (302-
                                                                                51). This may be population left behind
                                                                                when rest of Obodrites moved N to nr Elbe
                                                                                R & Baltic. Connected to Belobrodska
                                                                                culture acc/to (51-110). *Location
                                                                                acc/to (302-51).*

 48   2 -2100 #     A Ochre Grave     U W & N coasts of Black Sea, also     M
                                        Caucasus.
                                                                                From N of the Black Sea & wooded steppes.
                                                                                This is a culture, but ref is quite
                                                                                explicit that ochre-grave folk moved.

901 120 -2100 -1800 A Ochre Grave     U {W & N coasts of Black Sea, also    L
                                        Caucasus} *{48-2}*
                                                                                Culture. For consistency with (48-2). End
                                                                                date suggested by ref.

 39  40  -500 -480  A Odrysae         P NW of Edirne (Adrianople), TR       L

 39  43  -480 -460  A Odrysae         P From rt bk Athrys R & SE of rt bk   C
                                        Athrys R. (Modern Jantra) to Chora
                                        R (of the Odessites). *(These are
                                        the union of {39-41}* * and {39-
                                        42}.)*
                                                                                From NW of Edirne (Adrianople), TR. *{39-
                                                                                40}*

900 282  -480 -342  A Odrysae         P {NW of Edirne (Adrianople), TR} +   L
                                        {From rt bk Athrys R (modern
                                        Jantra) to Chora R (of the
                                        Odessites). (ref 40, fig 4)} + {SE
                                        of rt bk Athrys R (modern Jantra)
                                        to Chora R (of the Odessites).
                                        (ref 40, fig 4)} *{39-40} + {39-
                                        41} + {39-42}*
                                                                                Subjugated by the Macedonians. *When
                                                                                plotting this location, consider also
                                                                                record* *(40-48) which may be more
                                                                                complete.*

 30   3   400 550   A Oestgoetar      G Oestergoetland, S                   L

 31   4   463 #     N Oguri           T Black Sea environs                  M
                                                                                From the East.

 31   8   463 600   A Oguri           T {Black Sea environs} *{31-4}*       I
                                                                                By Huns to form mixed people sometimes
                                                                                called Huns, sometimes Bulgars. (We shall
                                                                                call them Bulgars.)

  7  20   598 #     N Oguri           T Pannonia                            Q
                                                                                From Black Sea environs. *{31-4}* 10K of
                                                                                these joined the Avars to escape Turcic
                                                                                tribes in C Asia.

389  10  -150 200   N Oksywia         U E half of area betw Vistula and     L
                                        Oder RR, PL, see map 20a (12);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture name is "Oksywsk" on original map.
                                                                                May be the culture of the Venedi, but not
                                                                                clear that they are Slavic. End date
                                                                                acc/to (13-13). Acc/to (13-13), part of
                                                                                Brandgrubengraeberkultur.

305   1 -1700 -1400 A Old Bronze Age  U Betw Rhine, Sava, Duna (Danube)     L
                                        and Odra (Oder) RR, D, DDR, A, CS,
                                        PL, H, YU.
                                                                                Culture.

388   1  -700 -600  N Old Iron Age    U Ireland, see map 18a (1);           L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

388   2  -700 -600  N Old Iron Age    U GB, see map 18a (2);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Local groups which developed from Bronze
                                                                                Age ones. Culture.

 11  40   500 600   A Old Turks       T E of Volga R                        L

385  10 -1400 -1300 N OlderBronzeAge  U N D, NL, see map 15a (8);           L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Gens includes "Ilmenau-Lueneburg"
                                                                                and "older Soegel" groups. Full name:
                                                                                Older Bronze Age.

383   7 -1800 -1700 N Older Monteoru  U Moldavia, E R, see map 13a (6);     L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Continued as Monteoru (48-6).

 31   5   463 #     N Onoguri         T N of Caucasus Mts                   M
                                                                                From the East. (Location specified in this
                                                                                record comes from (3-2)).

900 375   463 650   A Onoguri         T N of Caucasus Mts                   L
                                                                                Subjugated by Avars. Freed themselves
                                                                                again ca. 625 (acc/to (3-2)).

 26  19  -900 -800  A Onotri          I S I, Map page 359                   L
                                                                                End date is conservative guess.

900 722   700 1000  A Opolini         S Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa      L
                                        Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around
                                        Opole (Oppeln) PL.
                                                                                Start date acc/to (370-1), end date acc/to
                                                                                (371-2). Will become part of Poles. (Syn.
                                                                                Opolane).

 27 137  -400 -300  A Ordovici        K Britanny                            L
                                                                                Dates approximate and to conform to (27-
                                                                                143).

 27 143  -300 -240  A Ordovici        K Wales & Cheshire                    M
                                                                                From Brittany *{27-137}*

900 950  -300 450   A Ordovici        K {Cheshire} *{27-143}*               L
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (27-143).
                                                                                End date: conservative guess before
                                                                                amalgamation and Romanization. See also
                                                                                map 26 in Geipel: the Europeans. Ref. 27
                                                                                has them in Wales as late as 449 AD.

230  17  -800 50    A Oretani         U Upper Andalusia (Sierra Morena)     L
                                                                                End date acc/to (231-17). These are
                                                                                Iberians.

320  14  -550 -450  A Osci            U Area S of Ofanto R, S I             L
                                                                                Presumably Italic speakers (Osco-Umbrian
                                                                                speakers).

 27  33  -400 -375  A Osi             K NE of Danube knee, incl. adjoining  M
                                        areas of Slovakia
                                                                                From Austria. Changed designation of
                                                                                location to conform to (27-106) and (19-
                                                                                17).

900 985  -400 50    A Osi             K {NE of Danube knee, incl.           L
                                        adjoining areas of Slovakia} *{27-
                                        33}*
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (27-33).
                                                                                End date acc/to (19-17). Ref 19 calls them
                                                                                Pannonians, but refs 27 and 132 refer to
                                                                                the Osi as Celts.

 11  27   375 1970  N Ossetes         R N slopes of Caucasus                L
                                                                                Descendants of the Alans.

  1  24   240 362   N Ostrogoths      G {NW of Black Sea State between      L
                                        Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea
                                        of Azov, centered on lower Dnepr
                                        R.} *{900-489}* See reference 1
                                        for exact border between
                                        Terwingians (W. Goths) and
                                        Greuthungi (E. Goths).
                                                                                For consistency with (900-489) & (234-5).
                                                                                Fought with Alans. The differentiation of
                                                                                Goths in W & E branches occurred about 240
                                                                                AD. The W branch was first called
                                                                                Terwingians, later Visigoths. The E branch
                                                                                first Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths.
                                                                                We call them by their later names as of
                                                                                240 AD.

234  54   362 #     N Ostrogoths      G Kingdom of the Bosporus (Cherson,   C
                                        Panticapaeum). This is not the
                                        Bosporus at Constantinople but
                                        that closing off Sea of Azov.
                                                                                From NW of Black Sea State between
                                                                                Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea of
                                                                                Azov, centered on lower Dnepr R. See
                                                                                reference 1 for exact border between
                                                                                Terwingians (W. Goths) and Greuthungi (E.
                                                                                Goths). *{1-24}*

900 492   362 376   N Ostrogoths      G {Kingdom of the Bosporus (Cherson,  L
                                        Panticapaeum). This is not the
                                        Bosporus at Constantinople but
                                        that closing off Sea of Azov.} +
                                        {NW of Black Sea State between
                                        Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea
                                        of Azov, centered on lower Dnepr
                                        R. See
                                        reference 1 for exact border            For consistency with (1-24) & (8-4).
                                        between Terwingians (W. Goths) and
                                        Greuthungi (E. Goths).} *{234-54}
                                        + {1-24}*

  8   4   376 378   N Ostrogoths      G Region around and N of Durostorum   Q
                                        (Silistra, BG), N bank of lower
                                        Danube R.
                                                                                From the Kingdom of the Bosporus (Cherson,
                                                                                Panticapaeum). This is not the Bosporus at
                                                                                Constantinople but that closing off Sea of
                                                                                Azov. + NW of Black Sea State between
                                                                                Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea of
                                                                                Azov, centered on lower Dnepr
                                                                                R. See reference 1 for exact border
                                                                                between Terwingians (W. Goths) and
                                                                                Greuthungi (E. Goths). *{900-492}*

234  79   376 600   A Ostrogoths      G Malorosa on Taman peninsula         L
                                                                                Start date necessary to connect with (900-
                                                                                492).

900 496   376 1700  N Ostrogoths      G Crimea                              L
                                                                                Acc/to Much: Deutsche Stammeskunde.
                                                                                Remnants of Goths, Crimean Goths.

901 203   376 378   N Ostrogoths      G {Region around and N of Durostorum  L
                                        (Silistra, BG), N bank of lower
                                        Danube R.} *{8-4}*

900 494   378 #     N Ostrogoths      G Balkans                             M
                                                                                From region around and N of Durostorum
                                                                                (Silistra, BG), N bank of lower Danube R.
                                                                                *{8-4}* For consistency with (11-79).

900 493   378 #     N Ostrogoths      G Pannonia I RP                       Q
                                                                                From region around and N of Durostorum
                                                                                (Silistra, BG), N bank of lower Danube R.
                                                                                *{8-4}* For consistency with (110-67).

110  67   378 470   A Ostrogoths      G Pannonia Prima RP                   L
                                                                                End date, see (11-81).

900 495   378 455   N Ostrogoths      G {Balkans} *{900-494}*               L
                                                                                Acc/to (11-79). End date questionable.
                                                                                Probably assimilated.

  1  34   451 #     N Ostrogoths      G Gaul                                A
                                                                                From Pannonia. Attacked with Huns.

 40 110   457 474   N Ostrogoths      G Thracia & Moesia inf RP The newly   A
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.
                                                                                From Pannonia Prima RP. *(110-67)*

 11  81   470 488   N Ostrogoths      G East Roman Empire advancing along   W
                                        the Moldava-Vardar corridor,
                                        threatening Salonica & Adrianople.
                                        Crossed RP Moesia, Macedonia,
                                        Epirus & Dacia ripensis.
                                                                                From Pannonia Prima RP. *{110-67}* End
                                                                                date acc/to (1-42).

  1  44   489 493   N Ostrogoths      G I (Modern Lombardy, Venetia,        M
                                        Tuscany, the so-called Marks,
                                        especially the fortress of Osimo S
                                        of Ancona, Dalmatia. Not in Alps
                                        or Lower Italy.)
                                                                                From Balkans. End date: death of Odoaker.
                                                                                20K warriors = 100K people.

 11  82   489 552   N Ostrogoths      G {I (Modern Lombardy, Venetia,       L
                                        Tuscany, the so-called Marks,
                                        especially the fortress of Osimo S
                                        of Ancona, Dalmatia. Not in Alps
                                        or Lower Italy.)} *{1-44}*
                                                                                At end date they were conquered and many
                                                                                deported by E. Romans (Byzantines).

900 506   500 #     A Ostrogoths      G {Swiss part of Raetia (RP)} *{178-  Q
                                        11}*
                                                                                For consistency with (178-11). From I.
                                                                                (Modern Lombardy, Venetia, Tuscany, the so-
                                                                                called Marks, especially the fortress of
                                                                                Osimo S of Ancona, Dalmatia. Not in Alps
                                                                                or Lower Italy.) *{1-44}* Ref calls them
                                                                                Goths, but (11-82) implies they
                                                                                were Ostrogoths.

178  11   500 530   A Ostrogoths      G Swiss part of Raetia (RP)           L

124   7   504 #     N Ostrogoths      G Pannonia II RP later Sirmia &       C
                                        Slavonia. Betw. Danube, Drave &
                                        Save RR.
                                                                                From I (Modern Lombardy, Venetia, Tuscany,
                                                                                the so-called Marks, especially the
                                                                                fortress of Osimo S of Ancona, Dalmatia.
                                                                                Not in Alps or Lower Italy.) *{11-82}*
                                                                                Note: This is Pannonia II, even though
                                                                                ref. calls this their ancient homeland.
                                                                                Our earlier sources (110-67) placed them
                                                                                in Pannonia I.

900 497   504 552   N Ostrogoths      G {Pannonia II RP later Sirmia &      L
                                        Slavonia. Betw. Danube, Drave &
                                        Save RR.} *{124-7}*
                                                                                For consistency with (124-7). End date
                                                                                problematical. Ref 1 says that Gepids
                                                                                reconquered area in 536, but some Goths
                                                                                must have stayed & become assimilated.

173  17 -1800 -1200 A Otomani         U NW ROM & adjacent areas of H        L
                                                                                Culture.

382  19 -2200 -1900 N Ozieri          U Sardinia, Corsica, see map 12a      L
                                        (16); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Intermingled with Bell Beakers
                                                                                (see (382-25)).

352   7   -60 100   A Paemani         G E Ardennes area, SE B               L
                                                                                End date acc/to (353-8). An 'unmixed'
                                                                                German tribe, according to map legend.

165  59  -300 -100  A Paeneste        Y Betw Kicevo & Gostivar (Macedonia,  L
                                        YU). (See map 1, ref 165.)
                                                                                Conservative bracketing dates.

 47  23 -2000 -1700 A Paeones         U EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain)   L
                                                                                End date to conform to (47-24).

 47  24 -1700 -1500 A Paeones         U Beyond Vardar R thru plain to       E
                                        Ludias R, then into Eordaea,
                                        Lyncus & finally Pelagonia. Up
                                        Vardar R to Stobi.
                                                                                Dates are guesses to place this action
                                                                                with limits given by (47-23) and (901-97).

901  98 -1700 -1400 A Paeones         U {EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R         L
                                        plain)} + {Beyond Vardar R thru
                                        plain to Ludias R, then into
                                        Eordaea, Lyncus & finally
                                        Pelagonia. Up Vardar R to
                                        Stobi.} *{47-23} + {47-24}*             Start date for consistency with (47-24).
                                                                                End date for consistency with (901-97).

901  97 -1400 -1300 A Paeones         U {EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain)  T
                                        + Beyond Vardar R thru plain to
                                        Ludias R, then into Eordaea,
                                        Lyncus & finally Pelagonia. Up
                                        Vardar R to Stobi} -
                                        {EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R             To EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain).
                                        plain)} *{901-98} - {47-23]*            *{901-99}* Acc/to ref 47, same paragraph
                                                                                as (47-24).

901  99 -1400 -1150 A Paeones         U {EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R         L
                                        plain)} *{47-23}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-97). End
                                                                                date to conform to (901-100). This record
                                                                                inserted to assure continuance of the
                                                                                Paeones. See (47-56).

901 100 -1150 #     A Paeones         U {Betw Strymon & Axius RR} + {EC     E
                                        Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain)}
                                        *{47-56} + {901-99}*
                                                                                From EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain).
                                                                                *{901-99}* Necessary to locate them up to
                                                                                the Strymon R. Date acc/to (47-56).

 47  56 -1150 -1080 A Paeones         U Betw Strymon & Axius RR (= (901-    L
                                        99) + (901-100))

901 101 -1080 #     A Paeones         U {Betw Strymon & Axius RR} - {EC     T
                                        Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain)}
                                        *{47-56} - {901-99}*
                                                                                To EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain). *{47-
                                                                                32}* Implied because (47-56) has an end
                                                                                date.

 47  32 -1080 -700  A Paeones         U Mid Vardar R plain (E C Macedonia)  L
                                                                                End date to conform to (901-102).

901 102  -700 -600  A Paeones         U E side Upper & Mid Vardar & some    E
                                        land below Demir Kapu gorge on
                                        both sides of R + M Strymon,
                                        Nestos RVV
                                                                                From Mid Vardar R plain (E C Macedonia).
                                                                                *{47-32}* Acc/to (47-86), (119-12).

901 103  -700 -356  A Paeones         U {Mid Vardar R plain (E C            L
                                        Macedonia)} + {E side Upper & Mid
                                        Vardar & some land below Demir
                                        Kapu gorge on both sides of R + M
                                        Strymon, Nestos RVV} *{47-32} +
                                        {901-102}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-102); end
                                                                                date to conform to (46-18).

 46  18  -356 -100  A Paeones         U Paeonia (See foldout map) (= (901-  I
                                        103))
                                                                                By (Greek-speaking) Macedonians. End date
                                                                                guess.

139   6 -2300 -1900 A Palaeans        A W Anatolia                          M
                                                                                From the Balkans.

900 210 -1900 -1700 A Palaeans        A {Pala region of AM (classical       M
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).}
                                        *{219-6}*
                                                                                Needed to get them from Pala distr. in
                                                                                Khatti (139-3) to (219-6).

219   6 -1900 -1500 A Palaeans        A Pala region of AM (classical        L
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).

900 211 -1500 -1400 A Palaeans        A {Pala region of AM (classical       I
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).}
                                        *{219-6}*
                                                                                Acc/ to (139-3). By Hittites.

179  28  1650 1700  A Palatines       G Lower Rhine, Brandenburg            Q
                                        Pommerania.
                                                                                From the Palatinate (Pfalz).

168  17  -800 -500  A Paleoveneti     U Ateste nr Colli Euganei, I          L
                                                                                This is the Ateste culture.

302  53   800 900   A Pannonian Slavs S Around L Balaton, H                 L

900 305 -1500 50    A Pannonians      Y S of Drava to Sava R & Danube       L
                                                                                Acc/to (123-11), (158-7), (132-1) [listed
                                                                                as W H, but mapped as described under
                                                                                location], (109-1), (110-1). Pannonian
                                                                                tribes are Andizitei, Ditiones, Pirustae,
                                                                                Maezaei, & Daesitiates acc/to Strabo.

165  96   -16 #     N Pannonians      Y N I                                 A
                                                                                From S of Drava to Sava R & Danube. *{900-
                                                                                305}*

386  17 -1200 -700  N Pantalica       U Sicily, see map 16a (16);           L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This is a "group" rather than a culture.
                                                                                End date acc/to (387-17).

 27 152  -250 #     A Parisi          K E Yorkshire (acc/to (143-54))       M
                                        Firth of Forth
                                                                                From Seine R mouth.

 44  17  -250 50    A Parisi          K E Yorkshire                         L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-152). End
                                                                                date conservative guess before
                                                                                Romaniazation and amalgamation. See also
                                                                                map 26 in Geipel: The Europeans.

900 322 -1050 -1000 A Parthini        Y Shkumbi (= Shkumbin = Shkumbini)    M
                                        RV (C Albania). + In hinterland of
                                        Durres (Albania) & in the
                                        direction of L Shkodres.
                                                                                From the North. Acc/to (47-40), and Durres
                                                                                location attributed to (165-62).

900 323 -1050 -100  A Parthini        Y {Shkumbi (= Shkumbin = Shkumbini)   L
                                        RV (C Albania). + In hinterland of
                                        Durres (Albania) & in the
                                        direction of L Shkodres.} *{900-
                                        322}*
                                                                                Acc/to (165-62), they were grecized to a
                                                                                great degree.

203   4 -2200 -1800 A Passage Graves  U Skane, Halland, Vaestergoetland,    L
                                        Bohuslaen, Oeland (S)
                                                                                Culture. Reference suggests migration from
                                                                                unspecified location.

900 386   850 #     A Pechenegi       T Area between Ural & Volga RR        M
                                                                                Acc/to (129-46). From Sea of Aral.

900 387   850 889   A Pechenegi       T {Area between Ural & Volga RR}      L
                                        *{900-386}*
                                                                                Acc/to (129-46) & (211-10).

900 392   889 895   A Pechenegi       T Betw Don & lower Danube RR          M
                                                                                Acc/to (49-1), (211-11), (49-2). From area
                                                                                between Ural & Volga RR. *{900-387}* This
                                                                                is into the land of Etelkoez, from which
                                                                                they displaced the Magyars.

900 393   889 1122  A Pechenegi       T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR} *{900- L
                                        392}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-392). Destroyed
                                                                                and dispersed by Kipchaks in 1091 acc/to
                                                                                (211-13). But rests subdued by Byzantines
                                                                                in 1122 acc/to ref 129, p.370.

 36   6   896 907   N Pechenegi       T H                                   S
                                                                                A few participate in the landtaking of the
                                                                                Magyars. From area betw Don & lower Danube
                                                                                RR. *{900-392}* End date from Ploetz.

900 394   896 1200  A Pechenegi       T H                                   L
                                                                                For consistency with (36-6) and (31-41).

129  49   934 1091  N Pechenegi       T Byzantine Balkans (modern BG & GR.  A
                                        See p.44 Putzger et al., Atlas.)
                                                                                Repeated attacks from area betw Don &
                                                                                lower Danube RR. *{900-393}*

 49   5  1027 1059  A Pechenegi       T Nr Silistra (Dristra) in the        S
                                        Paristrion (Dobrugea).
                                                                                20K settled. From area betw Don & lower
                                                                                Danube RR. *{900-393}*

900 396  1027 1122  A Pechenegi       T {Nr Silistra (Dristra) in the       L
                                        Paristrion (Dobrugea).} *{49-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (49-5) and (49-13).
                                                                                Destroyed and dispersed by Kipchaks in
                                                                                1091 acc/to (211-13). But rests subdued by
                                                                                Byzantines in 1122 acc/to ref 129, p.370.

 31  41  1050 1100  A Pechenegi       T H                                   Q
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR.
                                                                                *{900-392}* Parts of invaders resettled in
                                                                                eastern H, assimilated by Magyars.

900 395  1200 #     A Pechenegi       T {H} *{900-394}*                     I
                                                                                By Magyars acc/to (31-41).

173  23 -1700 -1100 A Pecica          U SW Transylvania (Temisoara area),   L
                                        ROM
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to Fig. 51 in ref
                                                                                48. Latest Pecica considered Early
                                                                                Hallstatt in ref 48, Fig. 51.

169  25  1100 1600  A Pecora          O Pecora R, N SU                      L
                                                                                Paleoasiatic (=Paleosiberian) group
                                                                                (probably).

165  64 -1000 -300  A Pelagones       U Pelagonia(Prilepec in Macedonia)    L
                                                                                Start date: guess (ref says very old
                                                                                tribe). End date: to conform to (165-65).

165  65  -300 -100  A Pelagones       U {Pelagonia(Prilepec in Macedonia)}  I
                                        *{165-64}*
                                                                                By Macedonians. End date: guess.

 27  35  -900 -800  A Pelendoni       K N B, along B-NL border              L
                                                                                Dates for consistency with (27-36).

 27  36  -800 -750  A Pelendoni       K Gironde, Landes, F, & SE Pyrenees,  M
                                        Soria (Spain)
                                                                                From N B, along B-NL border *{27-35}*

900 979  -800 -700  A Pelendoni       K Gironde, Landes, F                  L
                                                                                For consistency with (27-36) and (27-45).

900 980  -800 -600  A Pelendoni       K SE Pyrenees, Soria (E)              L
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (27-36).
                                                                                End date acc/to (53-16). Presumably
                                                                                assimilated after this date.

 27  45  -700 -650  A Pelendoni       K Nr Madrid                           M
                                                                                From Gironde, Landes, F *{900-979}* Pushed
                                                                                out by Cempsi. Presumably assimilated in
                                                                                Spain.

 27  97  -244 #     N Pergamon        H High plains of Phrygia, AM          C
                                                                                Galatian area. From Pergamon, AM.

383  10 -1800 -1675 N Periam          U E YU & W R, see map 13a (8);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Possible synonyms include:
                                                                                Pejamos, Pecica (although ref (48-18)
                                                                                shows Pecica to follow Periam in SW
                                                                                Transylvania).

384   6 -1675 -1550 N Periam          U Area around Muras R junction into   L
                                        Tisza R, NE YU, E H, & W ROM, see
                                        map 14a (4); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture synonym given by author: Periamos.
                                                                                Shift in location over (383-10).

900 275  -547 #     N Persians        R AM                                  C
                                                                                Acc/to many sources, e.g. (161-3), (224-
                                                                                30). From Persia.

224  40  -547 -334  N Persians        R {AM} *{900-275}*                    L

900 252  -513 #     N Persians        R Thrace, Macedonia, Dobrugea,        
                                        Bessarabia.
                                                                                Acc/to (39-36), (113-7), (122-18), (234-
                                                                                18). Attempting to subdue Scythians. From
                                                                                AM.

 39  37  -510 -506  N Persians        R Lemnos & Imbros Is                  N
                                                                                From AM.

317   1  -492 #     A Persians        R Aegean coast GR into SW BG & SE     A
                                        YU. (Coastal Thrace and Macedonia)
                                                                                Darius' campaign, led by Mardonius. From
                                                                                Sardis, N to Abydus AM.

 22  34  -490 #     N Persians        R Athens                              A
                                                                                From AM.

317   4  -490 #     A Persians        R Marathon, GR                        N
                                                                                From AM.

317   7  -480 #     A Persians        R Along Aegean coast GR, & into E GR. A
                                                                                Route of Xerxes' army. From Sardis, N to
                                                                                Abydus AM.

317  11  -480 #     A Persians        R Salamis, E GR                       N
                                                                                From AM.

317   8  -479 #     A Persians        R Plataea, due W of Thebes, E         A
                                        Peloponnese, GR.
                                                                                From AM.

 40 104   284 305   N Persians        R Thracia RP                          R
                                                                                Prisoners from Emperor Diocletian's
                                                                                Persian campaign.

 40 108   337 #     N Persians        R Thracia & Moesia inf RP The newly   R
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.
                                                                                Prisoners from Adiabene (NW Persia).

173  12 -2700 -1800 A Petresti        U C Transilvania (ROM)                L
                                                                                Culture.

143  11  -750 -50   A Petrucori       K Perigord (Historic region of F,     L
                                        around Perigueux.)

900 317  -500 -400  A Peucetii        Y Area labeled with their name in SE  L
                                        I; ref 164, map 3.
                                                                                Subgroup of Iapygi (see ref 900-316).

 40   1 -1300 -1250 A Philistines     O Balkans (See ref, Fig 12 for        L
                                        location)
                                                                                Start date: conservative estimate. End
                                                                                date to conform to (40-2). Indo-European
                                                                                people.

 40   2 -1250 -1150 A Philistines     O Crete, Aegaean Is., N. Syria        M
                                        Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, AM
                                                                                From Balkans (See ref, Fig 12 for
                                                                                location). *{40-1}* Cyprus & Crete added
                                                                                to record based on (21-9); AM added to
                                                                                record based on (21-8).

 25   8 -3000 -573  A Phoenicians     E S Lebanon (area around Sidon and    L
                                        Tyre)
                                                                                Start date is rough date given by
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica. Possible origin
                                                                                from Persian Gulf. Sidon fell to Assyrians
                                                                                sometime between -677 and -668. End date
                                                                                conquest of Tyre by Babylonians. People
                                                                                presumably remained since Encyclopedia
                                                                                Brittanica says that Phoenician was spoken
                                                                                until replaced by Aramaic in 1st c BC.

 25   1 -1100 #     A Phoenicians     E Gades (Cadiz) also Utica (now in    S
                                        Tunisia), Lixus (Larache in
                                        Spanish Morocco).
                                                                                From Phoenicia (around Tyre, Lebanon). Ref
                                                                                (232-4) believes it unlikely that Gadir
                                                                                was founded much before Utica. This is
                                                                                contrary to widely quoted date of -1100
                                                                                for founding of Gadir.

900 935 -1100 -1000 N Phoenicians     E Utica (now in Tunisia)              L
                                                                                For consistency with (25-1) and (25-3).

900 938 -1100 -573  A Phoenicians     E Lixus (Larache in Spanish Morocco)  L
                                        (see p. 22 in Putzger)
                                                                                For consistency with (25-1). End date is
                                                                                arbitrary name change to Carthaginians.

 25   3 -1000 -900  A Phoenicians     E Melita (Malta) also other cities    S
                                        in N. Africa: Hippo Diarrhytos
                                        (Bizerte), Hippo Regius (nr Annaba
                                        or Bone, Algeria), Hadrumetum
                                        (Susa, Sousse).
                                                                                From Phoenicia. Encyclopedia Brittanica
                                                                                mentions them only between 8th and 6th c
                                                                                BC.

228   2 -1000 #     A Phoenicians     E S & E Iberia, Ancient Tartessus     S
                                        (area of Lower Guadalquivir R).
                                                                                From Phoenicia.

900 933 -1000 -600  A Phoenicians     E {S & E Iberia, Ancient Tartessus    L
                                        (area of Lower Guadalquivir R).}
                                        *{228-2}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (228-2). End
                                                                                date: Carthaginian immigration (53-2).
                                                                                Population called Carthaginian hereafter.

900 936 -1000 -814  A Phoenicians     E Utica, also other cities in N.      L
                                        Africa: Hippo Diarrhytos
                                        (Bizerte), Hippo Regius (nr Annaba
                                        or Bone, Algeria), Hadrumetum
                                        (Susa, Sousse).
                                                                                For consistency with (25-3) and (25-2).
                                                                                These Phoenicians become Carthaginians
                                                                                hereafter.

 25   2  -814 #     N Phoenicians     E Carthage                            S
                                                                                From Phoenicia. Encyclopedia Brittanica
                                                                                states that the 814 date is mythological.
                                                                                Nothing prior to last quarter of 8th c BC
                                                                                discovered archaeologically.

225   5  -800 -750  A Phoenicians     E Sardinia: Sulcis, Caralis Nora,     S
                                        Tharros.
                                                                                From Phoenicia (implied, not stated).

900 942  -800 -573  N Phoenicians     E {Sardinia: Sulcis, Caralis Nora,    L
                                        Tharros.} *{225-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (225-5). End date is
                                                                                arbitrary name change to Carthaginians.

 25   5  -734 -700  A Phoenicians     E NW Sicily e.g. Motye (Motya, San    S
                                        Pantaleo), Soloeis (Solunto),
                                        Panormos (Palermo).
                                                                                From Phoenicia (implied, not stated).

900 940  -734 -573  N Phoenicians     E {NW Sicily e.g. Motye (Motya, San   L
                                        Pantaleo), Soloeis (Solunto),
                                        Panormos (Palermo).} *{25-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (25-5). End date is
                                                                                arbitrary name change to Carthaginians.

167   7  -654 #     N Phoenicians     E Ibiza (Ebysos)                      S
                                                                                From Phoenicia (implied, not stated). But
                                                                                did not settle on Mallorca where there
                                                                                were fierce natives (25-7).

900 255 -1500 -1080 A Phrygians       P Macedonia, Thrace                   L
                                                                                Acc/to (119-4) and (159-3).

 47  47 -1190 -1150 A Phrygians       P C Albania, Epirus, W coastal plain  E
                                        of Macedonia.
                                                                                From Pelagonia (part of Macedonia).

 47  28 -1160 -1130 A Phrygians       P Troad (area around Troy)            S
                                                                                From Balkans.

900 256 -1100 -800  A Phrygians       P AM from ancient Keramon Agora, S    Q
                                        to ancient Sagalassus, betw modern
                                        Eskisehir & Afyon Karahisar, E nr
                                        ancient Gordion and modern Ankara,
                                        Bogazkoey, Pazarli, Alisar, Alaca,
                                        Kueltepe.
                                                                                Acc/to (23-4), (39-5), (119-5), etc. From
                                                                                Macedonia, Thrace + Macedonia, Thrace -
                                                                                Macedonia, Thrace E of Vardar R but not
                                                                                Propontic Thrace (E Thrace nr Hellespont),
                                                                                Sea of Marmara (both coasts). *{901-153}*

900 258 -1100 -681  A Phrygians       P {AM from ancient Keramon Agora, S   L
                                        to ancient Sagalassus, betw modern
                                        Eskisehir & Afyon Karahisar, E nr
                                        ancient Gordion and modern Ankara,
                                        Bogazkoey, Pazarli, Alisar, Alaca,
                                        Kueltepe} *{900-256}*
                                                                                Acc/to (221-3), (221-4). Termination
                                                                                acc/to (40-31), but note that (139-9) has
                                                                                Phrygian spoken in C AM until 500 AD.
                                                                                Start date acc/to (900-256).

 47  49 -1080 #     A Phrygians       P Macedonia, Thrace E of Vardar R     T
                                        but not Propontic Thrace (E Thrace
                                        nr Hellespont), Sea of Marmara
                                        (both coasts).
                                                                                To Macedonia, Thrace - Macedonia, Thrace E
                                                                                of Vardar R but not Propontic Thrace (E
                                                                                Thrace nr Hellespont), Sea of Marmara
                                                                                (both coasts). *{901-153}*

901 153 -1080 -600  A Phrygians       P {Macedonia, Thrace} - {Macedonia,   L
                                        Thrace E of Vardar R but not
                                        Propontic Thrace (E Thrace nr
                                        Hellespont), Sea of Marmara (both
                                        coasts).}  *{900-255} - {47-49}*
                                                                                Acc/to (47-49), (159-3), and (39-27).

900 259  -800 -600  A Phrygians       P Propontic Thrace (E Thrace nr       L
                                        Hellespont), Sea of Marmara (both
                                        coasts).
                                                                                Acc/to (39-27).

 26  18 -1000 -500  A Picentes        U EC I (E of Tiber R & N of Perugia   L
                                        acc/to (320-6)), map p. 359
                                                                                Syn. Picenians. End date acc/to (320-6). A
                                                                                local group dating from Iron Age, acc/to
                                                                                (320-6). Probably pre-IE.

 44  20     1 843   N Picts           U Scotland                            L
                                                                                Start date: conservative guess. End date:
                                                                                surrender to Scoti, to conform to (11-
                                                                                156). Source states that first historical
                                                                                mention of Picts was in 297 AD.

 27 179   300 400   A Picts           U Ulster (N Ireland)                  Q
                                                                                From Scotland. *{44-20}*

 11 156   843 1150  N Picts           U Scotland                            I
                                                                                By Scoti.

385  14 -1400 -1100 N Pilin           U Border region betw Slovakia & H     L
                                        betw Danube knee & Tisza R, see
                                        map 15a (12); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (386-7).

165  66  -200 50    A Pirustae        Y Mirdita prov. (N Alb) (See          L
                                        Jugoslawien Road Map, Freytag &
                                        Berudt.)

131   2 -2500 -2000 A Pit Graves      U E Carpathians, Tisza R area         L
                                                                                Culture. From S Russian steppes. Pastoral
                                                                                tribes.

203   5 -2000 -1800 A Pitted Ware     U S coast of S (see Fig. 18 in ref)   L
                                                                                Culture. Ref states that they immigrated
                                                                                from the East.

389  24  -150 100   N Pjanobor        U Kama R area W of Ural Mtns, see     L
                                        map 20a (24); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (390-1).

900 339  -800 -650  A Plereji         Y Peljesac peninsula up to Bay of     L
                                        Kotor, YU.
                                                                                Time acc/to (47-59) for Enchelees,
                                                                                mentioned together with Plereji.

389  26  -150 -50   N Poienesti-Luka  U Area betw Carpathian Mtns &         L
                                        Juzinyi Bug RR, E R & SW SU, see
                                        map 20a (27); "Archeologicky
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full gens name: "Poienesti-Lukasevka"
                                                                                (culture).

383  33 -1800 -1675 N Polada          U N I, SE F, see map 13a (29);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date interpolated betw this record and
                                                                                (384-49). This culture also referred to as
                                                                                "Terramare."

384  49 -1675 -1475 N Polada          U N I, see map 14a (41);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated between (383-33)
                                                                                and this record. End date between this
                                                                                record and (385-39). Culture synonym:
                                                                                "Terramare" acc/to authors. Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (383-33).

385  39 -1475 -1300 N Polada          U N I, S coast of F, see map 15a      L
                                        (34); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated between (384-49)
                                                                                and this record. Apparent expansion over
                                                                                (384-49). Culture synonym: "Terramare"
                                                                                acc/to authors.

900 718   400 1000  N Polane          S Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL.   L
                                                                                Start date from (301-17), end date
                                                                                plausible by (147-17), p.32. (See also
                                                                                (303-3) & (302-31)). Will become part of
                                                                                Poles. (Syn. Poljane)

900 723  1000 1945  A Poles           S {Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw),    L
                                        PL.} + {Middle Warta R around
                                        Poznan, PL.} +{Upper Oder R around
                                        Wroclaw, PL (see map ref 302).} +
                                        {Middle or upper Odra R around
                                        Glogow, PL.} + {W of Wisla R,
                                        around Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla
                                        and Notec
                                        RR).} + {Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw      Start date: Approximate date of start of
                                        Nysa Klodzka & Upper Warta RR           Polish people. Union of Polane, Vislane,
                                        around Opole (Oppeln) PL.} *{900-       Slenzane, Dadosane, Goplane, Opolini,
                                        717} + {900-718} + * *{900-720} +       Bobrane, Trebovane ((900-717), (900-718),
                                        {900-721} + * *{302-32} + {900-         (900-720), (900-721), (302-32), (900-722),
                                        722} *                                  (302-34), (371-4)). End date:
                                                                                Relocation of boundaries after WW II.

211  26  1018 #     N Poles           S Kiev                                A
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}*

211  27  1068 #     N Poles           S Kiev                                A
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}*

169  83  1263 1795  A Poles           S Byelorussia (excluding Smolensk     C
                                        area).
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Actually
                                                                                Lithuanian conquest but reference states
                                                                                that cities & nobility became Polonized.
                                                                                PL had a union with Lithuania in these
                                                                                years.
                                                                                Start date acc/to Ploetz p.480 (death of
                                                                                Mindanges). End date Muir's Historical
                                                                                Atlas, p.57. Polish occupation of
                                                                                Byelorussia.

169  75  1387 1667  A Poles           S Ukraine including Kiev, Czernigov.  C
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Start date acc/to
                                                                                Ploetz, p.584 when Poland united with
                                                                                Lithuania; end date acc/to Ploetz, p.687 &
                                                                                Muir's Historical Atlas, p.56. Ref
                                                                                says Ukrainian cities heavily Polonized.
                                                                                For other Ukrainian cities, see (900-724).

900 724  1387 1795  N Poles           S S Ukraine: Lvov, Zhitomir           C
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Start date to
                                                                                conform to (169-75), end date: partition
                                                                                of Poland, Muir's Historical Atlas p.68.
                                                                                Ref (169-75) states that cities were
                                                                                heavily Polonized. See also (211-35).

900 726  1404 1514  N Poles           S Smolensk area (cf. Muir's           C
                                        Historical Atlas, p. 56)
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Dates from
                                                                                Putzger, p. 67. During union of Lithuania
                                                                                & PL.

340  17  1410 #     N Poles           S Tannenberg, E Prussia               C
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Prussia then
                                                                                entered period of Decline, culminating
                                                                                under the peace of Torun in 1466, wherein
                                                                                Pomerelia & Danzig passed under Polish
                                                                                rule (see (900-725)).

900 729  1410 1970  N Poles           S {Tannenberg, E Prussia}*{340-17}*   L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (340-17). End date: some
                                                                                Poles stayed in E Prussia until modern
                                                                                time. After WWII heavily Polish.

169  73  1447 1672  N Poles           S Podolia (Middle course Juzny Bug    C
                                        R, see Times Atlas of World
                                        History, p.141).
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Start date found
                                                                                in Ploetz, p.582; end date in Ploetz,
                                                                                p.713. Lost it to Ottomans.

900 725  1466 #     N Poles           S Pomerelia (see ref 340),            C
                                        Danzig(Gdansk)
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Acc/to comment in
                                                                                (340-17).

900 730  1466 1970  N Poles           S {Pomerelia (see ref 340),           L
                                        Danzig(Gdansk)} *{900-725}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-725). End
                                                                                date: some Poles stayed in Pomerelia &
                                                                                Danzig until modern time. After WWII
                                                                                heavily Polish.

900 727  1618 1667  N Poles           S {Smolensk area (cf. Muir's          C
                                        Historical Atlas, p. 56)} *{900-
                                        726}*
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Dates from
                                                                                Putzger, p. 79.

344   6  1683 #     N Poles           S Vienna, A                           A
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Relief of Vienna
                                                                                from Turks. Swept down slopes of
                                                                                Wienerwald, A, on September 12, 1683,
                                                                                destroying Turkish position.

150   1  1860 1870  N Poles           S W D & E F                           Q
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Into mining
                                                                                areas. Dates refined from ref 179, p.89.

346  13  1918 1921  A Poles           S Minsk, Gomel, & nr Kiev, W SU.      A
                                                                                From PL. Attacked western boundary of area
                                                                                controlled by Bolsheviks.

150   5  1918 1921  N Poles           S W PL, using 1923-1939 boundaries    R
                                        (Putzger p. 106/7)
                                                                                900 K people from Byelorussia (100K from E
                                                                                PL *{347-12}*, and other former Russian
                                                                                and Austrian parts of PL (Galicia,
                                                                                Volhynia, Polesia)). Mostly an internal
                                                                                migration with respect to the 1923-1939
                                                                                boundaries.

347  51  1918 1919  N Poles           S PL, using 1923-39 boundaries        R
                                        (Putzger p. 106/7)
                                                                                From E D (using 1923-39 boundaries,
                                                                                Putzger p. 106/7) area nr Warthe R.

150   8  1945 1947  N Poles           S New W PL (former German area)       R
                                                                                3 M from other areas of PL that were
                                                                                Polish both before and after WWII (see
                                                                                also (348-21)).

348  20  1945 1950  N Poles           S PL (probably most into the former   R
                                        German provinces, now W PL)
                                                                                1.5 M people from former E PL now SU.

213  27  1945 1970  N Poles           S W Ukraine, Belorussia, Lithuania    L
                                        (probably portion that was Polish
                                        between the World Wars)
                                                                                1-5 M people. The population figures from
                                                                                this book (a generally more detailed
                                                                                reference than 212) have been updated from
                                                                                1970 census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica. These apparently
                                                                                are unassimilated Poles not affected
                                                                                by population transfers post WWII. Must
                                                                                modify earlier records to reflect this.

900 728  1945 1970  N Poles           S {Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw),    L
                                        PL + Middle Warta R around Poznan,
                                        PL + Upper Oder R around Wroclaw,
                                        PL (see map ref 302) + Middle or
                                        upper Odra R around Glogow, PL + W
                                        of Wisla R, around Inowroclaw, PL
                                        (betw Wisla and Notec RR) + Upper
                                        Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa Klodzka &      Start date to conform to (150-8). End
                                        Upper Warta RR around Opole             date: still there.
                                        (Oppeln) PL.} - (former E PL now
                                        SU) + {New W PL (former German
                                        area)} *{900-723} -(former E PL
                                        now SU)* * + {150-8} *

234 155   600 800   A Poljane         S Ingul R region (W of Dnepr R) &     L
                                        Dnepr mouth.

234 156   800 #     A Poljane         S Most of Kiev area (e.g. Kiev,       M
                                        Cernigov, Perejaslav).
                                                                                Author considers them subgroup of Antes.
                                                                                From Ingul R region (W of Dnepr R) & Dnepr
                                                                                mouth. *{234-155}* Ref (13-58) already
                                                                                places them nr Kiev and the Ros R (nr
                                                                                Cerkassy) at 600-800 AD. *Location
                                                                                information from (234-152).*

147   1   800 1300  A Poljane         S {Most of Kiev area (e.g. Kiev,      L
                                        Cernigov, Perejaslav).} *{234-156}*
                                                                                Records (147-1) to (147-12) are E. Slavs.
                                                                                Author considers them subgroup of Antes.
                                                                                *Location information from (234-152).*

383  37 -1800 -1700 N Poltava         U Volga R area, S of mouth of Samara  L
                                        R, see map 13a(33); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

388   7  -800 -600  N Pommerellic     U N PL, see map 18a (7);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (13-9). Syn:
                                                                                Pomeranian.

 13  10  -600 -400  A Pommerellic     U Oder & Vistula RR & Volhynia, nr.   E
                                        Kiev. See Fig 4.
                                                                                From N PL, see map 18a (7); "Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska." *{388-7}*
                                                                                Culture. Syn. Pomeranian.

901 110  -600 -400  A Pommerellic     U {N PL, see map 18a (7);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."} +
                                        {Oder & Vistula RR & Volhynia,          For consistency with (13-10). Culture.
                                        near Kiev. See Fig 4.} *{388-7} +       Syn. Pomeranian.
                                        {13-10}*

 32  23   500 #     A Pomorane        S Betw Oder R & Vistula R along E     M
                                        sea coast. (See map 302 for S
                                        boundary. There are 2 types of
                                        stippling to represent them.)
                                                                                Date is compromise between this reference
                                                                                and frontpaper of ref 14. Not known from
                                                                                where they came, but ref 14 frontpaper
                                                                                shows them as coming from S. Into the area
                                                                                vacated by Germanic Germanic tribes. (Syn.
                                                                                Pomorzanie).

900 685   500 1100  A Pomorane        S {Betw Oder R & Vistula R along E    L
                                        sea coast. (See map 302 for S
                                        boundary. There are 2 types of
                                        stippling to represent them.)}
                                        *{32-23}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (32-23). End date
                                                                                is conservative. There was much German
                                                                                immigration in 12th C, but W & C Pomerania
                                                                                ruled by Poles until 17th C. E Pomerania
                                                                                conquered by Teutonic Knights in 1308-
                                                                                1454, reconquered by PL, then
                                                                                annexed by by Prussia in 1772. Modern
                                                                                Pomerania, W in DDR, C & E in PL (source
                                                                                from E).

234  39  -300 -110  A Pontus          H AM: S shore of Black Sea            L
                                                                                End date to conform to (234-40).
                                                                                Hellenistic kingdom. For map of area,
                                                                                Levi: Atlas of Greek World p.194.

234  40  -110 -106  N Pontus          H Kingdom of the Bosporus(Cherson,    C
                                        Panticapaeum). This is not the
                                        Bosporus at Constantinople but
                                        that closing off Sea of Azov.
                                                                                From AM: S shore of Black Sea. *{234-39}*

384  40 -1650 -1300 N Porista Ceramic U Estonia, N Latvia, see map 14a      L
                                        (33); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (385-22). Culture.

901  62   476 1970  N Portugese       I Portugal                            L
                                                                                Start date: end of Roman Empire; end date:
                                                                                still there. Population estimated in 1500
                                                                                AD to be 1M acc/to (53-97).

 53  57  1147 #     N Portuguese      I Santarem, Lisbon (P)                C
                                                                                From N of Douro R.

 53  60  1232 1236  N Portuguese      I Lower Guadiana R & Algarve Moura,   C
                                        Faro.
                                                                                From N of Tejo R.

385  13 -1400 -1300 N Potisi          U H & W R, E of Tisza R,see map 15a   L
                                        (11); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Reference is to groups in Potisi,
                                                                                Felsoeszoecs, Egyek.

384  34 -1650 -1250 N Pre-Kazan       U Near Kazan area, Volga R, see map   L
                                        14a (27); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-28).

386  37 -1250 -950  N Pre-Kazan       U Area around Kazan, Volga & Kama     L
                                        RR, SU, see map 16a (40);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

387  42  -950 -700  N Pre-Kazan       U Area around & W of Kama R, see map  L
                                        17a (40); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

 13   4 -1500 -1200 A Pre-Lausitz     U Area from slightly W of Oder R to   L
                                        Warta R (see Abb. 3)
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (305-3).

 13  36   300 500   A Presov Type     S Tisza R Area                        M
                                                                                From W Ukraine. Probably early Slavic
                                                                                Culture.

383  32 -1800 -1650 N Proto-Appenine  U I, see map 13a (28);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date to conform to (384-48).
                                                                                Continued as Appenine (384-48).

900  96 -2200 #     A Proto-Balts     B Shores of Baltic, Byelorussia       M
                                        greater Russia. Along Baltic up to
                                        SW SF. To middle & upper Dnepr,
                                        upper Volga, & Oka RR. + {C Russia
                                        (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26), CS
                                        Atlas).} *(38-1) + {172-37}*
                                                                                From Eurasian (Pontic) Steppes (lower
                                                                                Dnepr R Basin).

900  97 -2200 -1300 A Proto-Balts     B Shores of Baltic, Byelorussia       L
                                        greater Russia. Along Baltic up to
                                        SW SF. To middle & upper Dnepr,
                                        upper Volga, & Oka RR. See fig 10
                                        xerox in ref 38. - [ {C Russia
                                        (maps 12a(x) & & 14a(26), CS
                                        Atlas)} + {Along Belaja R as far
                                        as S Ural
                                        Mts.} + {E along Volga R & its
                                        tributaries, lower Oka, Sura,
                                        lower Vjatka, lower Kama RR.}]
                                        *(38-3) - [{172-37} + {38-10}* * +
                                        {38-9}] *

 38   2 -1900 -1700 A Proto-Balts     B N limit from Lithuania to upper     I
                                        Volga. Shores of Baltic,
                                        Byelorussia, greater Russia. Along
                                        Baltic up to SW SF. To middle &
                                        upper Dnepr, upper Volga & Oka RR.
                                                                                With established neolithic farmers or
                                                                                hunter-fishers -- funnel beaker culture,
                                                                                bell beaker culture, comb marked & pitted
                                                                                ware people amalgam.

 18   1   475 #     A Proto-Bulgars   T Carpathian basin                    A
                                                                                From S Russia and further east. (Acc/to to
                                                                                Ploetz p.372, these could have been
                                                                                Saraguri, Oguri, or Onoguri.) Proto-
                                                                                Bulgars must here refer to one of the
                                                                                groups that later merged to form the
                                                                                Bulgars.

  1  43   480 #     N Proto-Bulgars   T BG                                  A
                                                                                From S Russia (Pontic steppes nr coasts of
                                                                                Sea of Azov (or even the Kuban R) up to
                                                                                the Dnepr.) *{900-374}* Proto-Bulgars must
                                                                                here refer to one of the groups that later
                                                                                merged to form the Bulgars.

181   6  -400 -200  A Proto-Frisians  G N NL                                L

387  20  -800 -700  N Proto-Golasecca U NW I nr Milan, see map 17a (20);    L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

123   5 -1900 #     A Proto-Hellenes  H Epiros, W Thessaly & Pieria         L
                                                                                Probably syn. with Proto-Greeks.

900 341 -2000 -1200 A Proto-Illyrians Y Betw Epirus & Cetina R & defined    L
                                        inland by Neretva R & the mouth of
                                        its tributary, the Rama, & from
                                        the area by the watershed of the
                                        Neretva & Bosna RR. + From mouth
                                        of Cetina to mouth of Krka R, incl
                                        W & S Bosnia & Lika plain.
                                                                                Acc/to (112-1), (128-2), (158-1), (158-5).
                                                                                Locality definition acc/to (158-1), (158-
                                                                                5). This is the group ancestral to Istri,
                                                                                Dalmatians, Pannonians and other Illyrian
                                                                                language family tribes, whom we listed
                                                                                starting in 1200 BC.

139  15 -1800 -900  A Proto-Italics   I I                                   M
                                                                                From NE. These are represented later by
                                                                                Latin, Oscan, and Umbrian speaking groups.
                                                                                Start date acc/to beginning or Terramare
                                                                                culture in CSSR Atlas linked to (26-5).
                                                                                This ref starts them at 1500 BC.

 26  37  -750 #     A Proto-Latini    I Rome                                Q
                                                                                From Albanese Mts. Mixture of Latini &
                                                                                Sabini influences in early history of Rome.

127   5  -700 650   A Proto-Magyars   C Along Kama & Belaya RR modern area  L
                                        of Bashkiria.
                                                                                Bearers of Ananino culture. Descendants of
                                                                                the Finno-Ugrians. They probably included
                                                                                Ugric tribes other than Proto-Magyars (see
                                                                                172-38). End date inferred from other
                                                                                sources, mainly (234-120) and (172-40).

 47  13 -2800 -1900 A Proto-Myceneans H Porodin (Pelagonia)                 L
                                                                                This is the Porodin group. They acquired
                                                                                Greek from invading Greek speaking Kurgan
                                                                                people.

 41   8 -3000 #     A Proto-Samoyeds  O Taiga of W Siberia where S group    M
                                        of Vogul now live or even further
                                        S, but N of 57
                                                                                From W of Urals Mts around bend of Volga R
                                                                                along Kama & Vyathka RR (V'atka) and also
                                                                                somewhat further E. *{41-7}* Branch of
                                                                                Uralics.

901  80 -3000 250   A Proto-Samoyeds  O {Taiga of W Siberia where S group   L
                                        of Vogul now live or even further
                                        S, but N of 57} *{41-8}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (41-7); end date
                                                                                to conform to records for specific Samoyed
                                                                                tribes. They moved further E over the
                                                                                centuries, but this does not affect our
                                                                                European database. There must have been a
                                                                                change from Proto-Samoyeds to
                                                                                Samoyeds before these split up into N & S
                                                                                branches ca 250 AD, but we know nothing of
                                                                                this. Branch of Uralics.

900 253 -2000 -1200 A Proto-Thracians P E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly ROM  L
                                        and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-8).)
                                                                                Origins of Thracians ambiguous. Ref 128
                                                                                has them coming into Balkans from Hungary
                                                                                and E Galicia. Possible connection with
                                                                                Ochre Grave culture (ref 39). *Location
                                                                                information from (128-1).*

345  18  1814 #     N Prussians       G N F & B                             A
                                                                                From Prussia.

 38  17   200 #     A Prussians (Old) B Lower Vistula area                  M
                                                                                From Neman & Dvina RR area, Belorussia & S
                                                                                Lithuania, see map 21a (6); "Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska". + Latvia,
                                                                                Lithuania, see map 21a (9); "Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska". *{900-
                                                                                105}* Taken over from Goths.

900 108   200 1288  A Prussians (Old) B {Lower Vistula area} *{38-17}*      L
                                                                                Acc/to (38-17).

 38  25  1288 1650  A Prussians (Old) B E Prussia                           I
                                                                                By Germans (Knights of the Teutonic
                                                                                order). The western provinces were more
                                                                                rapidly Germanized than the peninsula of
                                                                                Samland, where the old population lived in
                                                                                compact groups. By the 17 C the last
                                                                                Prussian language (B) speakers disappeared.

 13  14  -100 450   A Przeworsk       U Oder & Vistula RR & Volhynia, nr.   L
                                        Kiev. See Fig 4, or better, p. 17
                                        in Vana: World of Ancient Slavs.
                                        (Also include E H, acc/to (13-35)
                                        and Vana map)
                                                                                Part of Brandgrubengraeberkultur. Assumed
                                                                                by some to have been early Slavs, but
                                                                                others believe there was a Germanic
                                                                                component.

900 736   500 600   A Psovane         S Betw Labe and Jizera RR due N of    M
                                        Prague, CS.
                                                                                From N in E PL (acc/to (19-22)). Implied
                                                                                since (19-22) talks about W. Slavs only.
                                                                                These are a Czech tribe. *Location acc/to
                                                                                (302-46).*

900 740   500 900   A Psovane         S {Betw Labe and Jizera RR due N of   L
                                        Prague, CS.} *{900-736}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-736). End
                                                                                date is arbitrary. No evidence for
                                                                                individual tribes after 900 AD. After that
                                                                                date we will group and call the Czech
                                                                                Slavs as Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks.
                                                                                Between 623-658 they were part of the
                                                                                Greater Moravian Empire.

389   9  -150 100   N Puchovsk        U NE CS, see map 20a (11);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (390-11).

 12 129   -60 -9    A Quadi           G Area of Fulda, Schwalm, Upper Lahn  L
                                        & Nidda RR, N up to Meissner Mt.
                                        Separated from Cherusci by the
                                        Meissner, Weserberge and the Harz
                                        (Mts). (All on map 12/13,
                                        Westermann's Atlas.)
                                                                                But Caesar calls them Suebi. Descended
                                                                                from part of Suebi (ref 12). End date to
                                                                                conform to (133-11).

133  11    -9 #     N Quadi           G Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia &    M
                                        SW Slovakia.
                                                                                From area of Fulda, Schwalm, Upper Lahn &
                                                                                Nidda RR, N up to Meissner Mt. Separated
                                                                                from Cherusci by the Meissner, Weserberge
                                                                                and the Harz (Mts). (All on map 12/13,
                                                                                Westermann's Atlas.) *{12-129}*

900 529    -9 89    A Quadi           G {Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia &   L
                                        SW Slovakia.} *{133-11}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (133-11). End
                                                                                date to conform to (12-146).

133  12    50 #     N Quadi           G L Neusiedl & Leitha Mts             R
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. *{900-529}* Portion of tribe
                                                                                because of internal troubles; by Romans.

 12 146    89 92    N Quadi           G Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron & Ipel  E
                                        RR) CSSR.
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. *{900-529}*

900 530    89 500   A Quadi           G {Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia &   L
                                        SW Slovakia.} + {Upper Gran &
                                        Eipel RR (Hron & Ipel RR) CSSR.}
                                        *{900-529} + {12-146}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (12-146). End
                                                                                date by inference acc/to (133-22).

 11  15   166 #     N Quadi           G RP Venetia                          A
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

 12 149   166 180   N Quadi           G RP Pannonia, Raetia, Noricum        A
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

133  17   282 #     N Quadi           G Pannonia RP                         A
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

110  61   356 #     N Quadi           G Pannonia RP & Upper Moesia RP       A
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

133  18   374 #     N Quadi           G S Pannonia RP                       A
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

133  21   407 #     N Quadi           G N Spain                             Q
                                                                                Part only. Joined Vandals to migrate to
                                                                                Iberia. Depredations in Gaul. From Lower A
                                                                                N of Danube, S Moravia & SW Slovakia. +
                                                                                Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron & Ipel RR)
                                                                                CSSR. *{900-530}*

133  22   410 #     A Quadi           G Transdanubia                        Q
                                                                                From Lower A N of Danube, S Moravia & SW
                                                                                Slovakia. + Upper Gran & Eipel RR (Hron &
                                                                                Ipel RR) CSSR. *{900-530}*

900 531   410 568   A Quadi           G {Transdanubia} *{133-22}*           L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (133-22). End date
                                                                                acc/to (133-23).

133  37   450 500   A Quadi           G Dalmatia                            A
                                                                                Called Suebi in ref. From Transdanubia.
                                                                                *{133-22}*

133  23   568 #     N Quadi           G {N I (E Venetia & Friaul (Friulia)  Q
                                        and the Venetian plain, occupying
                                        Milan with capital at Pavia)} *{10-
                                        5}*
                                                                                From Transdanubia. *{133-22}* Location
                                                                                detail acc/to (10-5). With Lombards.

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