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REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

384  57 -1650 -1500 N Early BronzeAge U CH, see map 14a (13);               L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Early Bronze Age.

222   3 -2300 -1850 A Early Cypriot   U Cyprus                              L
                                                                                Culture. Early Bronze. Possibly related to
                                                                                major Anatolian catastrophe at end of E B
                                                                                2.Perhaps Cyprus peopled by survivors from
                                                                                Anatolia. Stated (on p 31) that they
                                                                                appear to have mixed with and not to have
                                                                                destroyed the sparse Chalcolithic
                                                                                II population in Morphou Bay, their first
                                                                                landfall.

 48  25 -1200 -800  A Early Hallstatt U ROM                                 L
                                                                                Culture. Presumably not Celtic speakers.
                                                                                They include various groups of which we
                                                                                have Babadaz (386-13), Pecica (173-23), &
                                                                                Suciu de Sus (48-24), coded U by us, and
                                                                                may therefore duplicate information.

 42   1 -3000 -2000 A Early Minoan    U Crete                               L
                                                                                Culture. Reference says resulted from
                                                                                immigrants coming from AM.

384  23 -1650 -1475 N Early N.Bronze  U Denmark, see map 14a (18);          L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Early Northern Bronze
                                                                                Age. End date extended to conform to (170-
                                                                                5).

388  40  -800 -600  N E.BalticMonumen U W Latvia, Lithuania, W Estonia,     L
                                        see map 18a (39); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full culture name: "Eastern Baltic
                                                                                Mounument." Start date acc/to (387-35).

 13  24   400 500   A E. Germans      G U. Silesia & nr Czestochova         L
                                                                                Tribes not specified, possibly Gepids. (If
                                                                                named tribes shown in this area at this
                                                                                time, delete this record.)

 12  24   250 267   N E. Heruli       G Sea of Azov                         Q
                                                                                From S: Smaland, Halland, Blekinge. *{12-
                                                                                23}*

900 560   250 375   A E. Heruli       G {Sea of Azov} *{12-24}*             L
                                                                                For consistency with (12-24) & (11-66).

 11 131   267 276   N E. Heruli       G Bosporus, Aegean & Asia Minor.      N
                                                                                From Sea of Azov. *{12-24}*

  1  14   268 #     N E. Heruli       G R, BG, GR                           A
                                                                                From Sea of Azov. *{12-24}*

 11  66   375 #     N E. Heruli       G Balkans beyond Dnepr R & Danube     M
                                                                                From Sea of Azov. *{12-24}* Not clear
                                                                                whether they stayed there between 375 and
                                                                                ca 450 AD and then moved to E A & S
                                                                                Moravia or whether they moved there right
                                                                                away.

900 561   375 451   A E. Heruli       G {Balkans beyond Dnepr R & Danube}   L
                                        *{11-66}*
                                                                                For consistency with (11-66) & (1-37).
                                                                                From Sea of Azov. *{12-24}* Not clear
                                                                                whether they stayed there between 375 and
                                                                                ca 450 AD and then moved to E A & S
                                                                                Moravia or whether they moved there right
                                                                                away.

  1  37   451 #     N E. Heruli       G S Moravia & Lower A W of March R    M
                                        up to Vienna. Also betw March and
                                        Eipel (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia;
                                        acc/to ref (12-26)).
                                                                                From Balkans beyond Dnepr R & Danube. *{11-
                                                                                66}* Not clear whether they stayed there
                                                                                between 375 and ca 450 AD and then moved
                                                                                to E A & S Moravia or whether they moved
                                                                                there right away. Beaten and dispersed by
                                                                                Lombards in 508, N of L.
                                                                                Balaton. But R. Much cites 494 for this
                                                                                event.

900 562   451 508   A E. Heruli       G {S Moravia & Lower A W of March R   L
                                        up to Vienna. Also betw March and
                                        Eipel (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia;
                                        acc/to ref (12-26)).} *{1-37}*
                                                                                For consistency with (1-37) & (30-6), (133-
                                                                                32). Ref (12-26) notes a rapid numerical
                                                                                increase.

 12  27   473 508   A E. Heruli       G Pannonia, Noricum                   A
                                                                                From S Moravia & Lower A W of March R up
                                                                                to Vienna. Also betw March and Eipel
                                                                                (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia; acc/to ref (12-
                                                                                26)). *{1-37}*

 12  28   508 512   A E. Heruli       G Dacia Ripensis RP                   Q
                                                                                Parts of E. Eruli, beaten by Lombards,
                                                                                mistreated by Gepids, resettled by Romans.
                                                                                They provided many mercenaries for the
                                                                                Roman armies. From S Moravia & Lower A W
                                                                                of March R up to Vienna. Also betw March
                                                                                and Eipel (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia;
                                                                                acc/to ref (12-26)). *{1-37}*

 30   6   508 #     A E. Heruli       G Vaestergoetland                     Q
                                                                                From S Moravia & Lower A W of March R up
                                                                                to Vienna. Also betw March and Eipel
                                                                                (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia; acc/to ref (12-
                                                                                26)). *{1-37}* Start date acc/to several
                                                                                other sources (e.g. (133-31)). Ref (133-
                                                                                31) says they were the majority of
                                                                                the E. Heruli.

133  32   508 #     N E. Heruli       G Moesia Inferior RP                  Q
                                                                                Part of people. From S Moravia & Lower A W
                                                                                of March R up to Vienna. Also betw March
                                                                                and Eipel (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia; acc/to
                                                                                ref (12-26)). *{1-37}*

148  10   508 510   N E. Heruli       G Tisza R area                        Q
                                                                                From S Moravia & Lower A W of March R up
                                                                                to Vienna. Also betw March and Eipel
                                                                                (Ipel) RR (in Slovakia; acc/to ref (12-
                                                                                26)). *{1-37}* Join Gepidae.

900 563   512 550   A E. Heruli       G {Dacia Ripensis RP} *{12-28}*       L


                                                                                For consistency with (12-28) & (12-30).

 12  30   550 #     A E. Heruli       G Brenner Pass (Tyrol, A)             R
                                                                                From Dacia Ripensis RP *{12-28}*

 27  47  -700 -650  A Eburoni         G Belgium + SE NL                     M
                                                                                From ? (NE or E). This date obtained by
                                                                                context. Seems very early.

900 462  -700 1     N Eburoni         G {Belgium + SE NL} (see map ref      L
                                        352). *{27-47}*
                                                                                For consistency with (27-47). Condensation
                                                                                of (352-5), (180-9), (361-4). Defeated by
                                                                                Romans in 38 BC (acc/to ref 187, p.410).
                                                                                Still mentioned as Tungri in 100 AD
                                                                                (acc/to (353-6)).

230  12  -800 50    A Edetani         U Between Castellon & Alicante, near  L
                                        coast (E)
                                                                                End date acc/to (231-10). These are
                                                                                Iberians.

 47  82  -700 -650  A Edoni           P Mygdonia up to Axius R (see map     C
                                        16), also E of Strymon R betw it &
                                        Nestus R.
                                                                                From the east.

900 281  -700 -492  A Edoni           P {Mygdonia up to Axius R (see map    L
                                        16), also E of Strymon R betw it &
                                        Nestus R.} *{47-82}*
                                                                                End date based on (40-45) which is about
                                                                                the Odomanti, a subgroup of the Edoni.

 40  61  -241 -203  N Egyptians       O Thrace                              C
                                                                                From Egypt. Occupied by Egyptian troops by
                                                                                treaty.

383  35 -1800 -1100 N ElArgar         U S E, see map 13a (31);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (386-19). Ref 230
                                                                                says these gave rise to Iberians s. str.

 26  13 -1000 -500  A Elymi           U Tapani province, NW Sicily, Map p.  L
                                        359
                                                                                End date acc/to (320-18). Probably pre-IE
                                                                                people.

 47  59  -800 -650  A Enchelees       Y Albanian coastal plain, Shkumbi RV. L
                                                                                Syn. Enheleji.

 40   6 -1300 -1250 A Eneti           U Around Morava R, YU (See ref, Fig.  L
                                        12 for location.)

 40   9 -1250 -1200 A Eneti           U N AM (See ref, Fig. 12 for          M
                                        location.)
                                                                                From Around Morava R, YU (See ref, Fig. 12
                                                                                for location.) *{40-6}* Referred to as
                                                                                Paphlagonian Eneti.

 53  78  1072 1109  N English         G Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From GB. Not many. Resettled by King
                                                                                Alfonso VI.

901 127  1166 1171  N English         G E and S Ireland                     C
                                                                                from England. Anglo-Norman invasion of
                                                                                Ireland. acc/to E.

901 141  1166 1300  A English         G E and S Ireland                     L
                                                                                start date tct 901-127, end date tct 901-
                                                                                129.

227  13  1191 #     N English         G Cyprus                              C
                                                                                From GB. 3rd Crusade. English/French.

901 211  1282 #     N English         G Wales                               C
                                                                                From England.  Formal date of conquest of
                                                                                Wales.  Subsequent diffusion of English
                                                                                into Wales is difficult to document by our
                                                                                records.  Source: Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

901 129  1300 1425  A English         G E and S Ireland                     I
                                                                                by Irish. acc/to Eb and to Ploetz, p573

232  75  1381 #     N English         G Lisbon and from there to Spanish    N
                                        frontier
                                                                                From GB. Expeditionary force (came by sea)
                                                                                to aid the Portuguese.

901 130  1500 1700  A English         G E, S, and C Ireland                 Q
                                                                                from England. soldiers and farmers. acc/to
                                                                                E.

901 142  1500 1700  A English         G Ireland except for Ulster           L
                                                                                start date tct 901-130, end date is
                                                                                independence of Ireland

901 136  1600 1625  A English         G Ulster, N Ireland                   Q
                                                                                from England. acc/to E

901 139  1600 1970  A English         G Ulster, N Ireland                   L
                                                                                start date tct 901-136; end date still
                                                                                there.

901 140  1700 1922  A English         G Ireland except for Ulster           I
                                                                                by Irish, start date tct 901-130; end date
                                                                                is independence of Ireland.

345  11  1809 1813  N English         G P, E, S F                           A
                                                                                From GB. British army under Duke of
                                                                                Wellington fought its way across E, from P.

345  20  1814 #     N English         G F                                   A
                                                                                From GB. See ref for sites.

 47  53 -1000 -700  A Eordi           U Eordea (around Pateli) in Epirus,   L
                                        GR
                                                                                Descendants of Bronze Age people of
                                                                                unknown linguistic affinity.

 47  34 -1100 -1000 A Epirotes        H Upper Haliacmon RV                  L
                                                                                Group that spoke a Greek dialect.

 28  14  -280 -275  N Epirus          Y S I, Sicily                         A
                                                                                King Pyrrhus from Epirus with 20K
                                                                                mercenaries.

388  23  -800 -600  N Este            U Venice area, N I, see map 18a       L
                                        (22); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture synonymous with "Atestinska."
                                                                                Start date acc/to (387-19).

349   7  -100 1     N Estioni         K Area around Kempten, Bavaria, D     L

900 127   400 1970  A Estonians       F Estonia, & islands of Hiuma &       L
                                        Saaremaa, due W of Estonia.
                                                                                Acc/to (364-1), (328-18), (213-8).
                                                                                Population 1007K in 1970.

347   5  1919 1924  A Estonians       F Estonia                             R
                                                                                200K including Latvians + Lithuanians.
                                                                                From Area W of Moscow, SU. *{347-2}*

900 132  1945 1950  N Estonians       F N SU, SE of Leningrad               R
                                                                                Acc/to (348-26). 40K to N SU.

900 128  1945 1950  N Estonians       F E S                                 S
                                                                                Acc/to (348-26). 60K to S.

162   9 -1200 -400  A Eteocretans     U E Crete nr Praesus                  L
                                                                                An indigenous people, with their own
                                                                                language.

 26  15 -1000 -50   A Etruscans       U W I betw Pisa & Rome,Map page 359   L
                                        (better map in Putzger, p. 21,II)
                                                                                End date from various sources.

901 105  -800 -700  A Etruscans       U Area N of Arno R to Alps; NE I; E   E
                                        Corsica (see ref 168, map 6).
                                                                                From W I betw Pisa & Rome, map p. 359
                                                                                (better map in Putzger, p. 21, II). *{26-
                                                                                15}* Start date: guess. End date to
                                                                                conform to ref 168, map 6 & other sources.
                                                                                Location evidenced by maps in ref 164, &
                                                                                Atlas of Roman World p. 22, or Times
                                                                                Atlas of World History p. 86. Expansion to
                                                                                this area is necessary and is alluded to
                                                                                in Ploetz p. 95.

901 106  -800 -450  A Etruscans       U {Area N of Arno R to Alps; NE I; E  L
                                        Corsica (see ref 168, map 6).}
                                        *{901-105}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-105); end
                                                                                date to conform to (164-11).

901 109  -800 -500  A Etruscans       U E Corsica                           L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-105); end
                                                                                date to accomodate (374-7).

901 108  -700 -600  A Etruscans       U Campagna region, I (less Greek      E
                                        enclave, see Atlas of Roman World,
                                        p. 22 map)
                                                                                From W I betw Pisa & Rome,Map page 359
                                                                                (better map in Putzger, p. 21,II). *{26-
                                                                                15}* Record necessary to get Etruscans
                                                                                there (22-29). Dates to conform to (22-29).

 22  29  -700 -425  A Etruscans       U Campagna region, I (less Greek      L
                                        enclave, see Atlas of Roman World,
                                        p. 22 map)
                                                                                End date to conform to (26-43).

374   4  -524 #     N Etruscans       U Cumae, just W of Neapolis, I        A
                                                                                From Campania (see map p.26 in Ancient
                                                                                History Atlas by M. Grant). Greeks
                                                                                repelled the Etruscans.

374   5  -505 #     N Etruscans       U {Cumae, just W of Neapolis, I}      A
                                        *{374-4}*
                                                                                From Campania (see map p.26 in Ancient
                                                                                History Atlas by M. Grant). Greeks
                                                                                repelled the Etruscans.

374   6  -474 #     N Etruscans       U {Cumae, just W of Neapolis, I}      A
                                        *{374-4}*
                                                                                Greeks repelled the Etruscans.

901 107  -450 -250  A Etruscans       U Area N of Appenines in I (see map   I
                                        2 in ref 164)
                                                                                By Celts.

 26  43  -425 -325  A Etruscans       U {Campagna region, I (less Greek     I
                                        enclave, see Atlas of Roman
                                        World,p. 22 map)} *{22-29}*
                                                                                Amalgamation of Opici, Greeks (Ionians),
                                                                                Etruscans & Samniti (under the name of the
                                                                                latter?). End date: arrival of Romans (901-
                                                                                7).

361  14   -70 200   A Eudoses         G Rt bank of Rhine R between          L
                                        Karlsruhe & Strassbourg (W D).
                                                                                Pure Germanic acc. to map. Part of the
                                                                                Jutes. Map shows Romance-German Linguistic
                                                                                Boundary from Middle Ages-1200. Start date
                                                                                acc/to R. Much, p.97. End date is guess.
                                                                                Some authors claim they gave rise to
                                                                                Euthungi (see (191-2)).

164  14 -1000 -500  A Euganians       U NE I, See Map 2                     L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (26-17).

900 527   200 450   A Euthungi        G {N of Danube betw Regensburg &      L
                                        Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R.}; see
                                        Abb 69, p.343. *{191-10}*
                                                                                Acc/to (191-10). Some authors consider
                                                                                them descended from Eudoses (see (191-2)).

196   3   259 280   A Euthungi        G Raetia RP                           A
                                                                                From N of Danube betw Regensburg &
                                                                                Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R.; see Abb 69,
                                                                                p.343. *{900-527}*

191   2   270 #     N Euthungi        G I (Adriatic coast, Pavia)           A
                                                                                From N of Danube betw Regensburg &
                                                                                Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R.; see Abb 69,
                                                                                p.343. *{900-527}* Boasted of 40K
                                                                                horsemen, 80K foot soldiers.

191   4   357 #     N Euthungi        G Raetia RP                           A
                                                                                From N of Danube betw Regensburg &
                                                                                Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R. *{191-10}*

196   6   429 431   N Euthungi        G Raetia RP                           A
                                                                                From N of Danube betw Regensburg &
                                                                                Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R. *{191-10}*

191  10   450 500   A Euthungi        G N of Danube betw Regensburg &       I
                                        Guenzburg; E of Regnitz R.
                                                                                By Alamanni.

 26  22  -900 -367  A Falisci         I Region around Civita Castellana,C I L
                                                                                End date acc/to (165-5). Location from
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

172  37 -2200 -1550 A Fatjanovo       B C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26),    L
                                        CS Atlas)
                                                                                Anthrop. Europid.

900  98 -1550 -1100 A Fatjanovo       B {C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26),   L
                                        CS Atlas).} *{172-37}*
                                                                                Implied by (38-9), (38-10).

 38  10 -1500 -1250 A Fatjanovo       B Along Belaja R as far as S Ural     E
                                        Mts.
                                                                                From C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26), CS
                                                                                Atlas). *{172-37}*

900  99 -1500 -1100 A Fatjanovo       B {Along Belaja R as far as S Ural    L
                                        Mts.} *{38-10}*
                                                                                Implied by (38-9).

 38   9 -1400 -1100 A Fatjanovo       B E along Volga R & its tributaries,  E
                                        lower Oka, Sura, lower Vjatka,
                                        lower Kama RR.
                                                                                From C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26), CS
                                                                                Atlas). *{172-37}*

382  23 -2200 -1900 N Finger Grave    U CH, see map 12a (18                 L
                                        H);"Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture, part of Corded Ware & Battle Axe
                                                                                Cultures.

169  32 -2500 -2000 A Finno-Ugrians   F Oka & Volga RR basins               L
                                                                                Really Proto-Finno-Ugrians. End date is
                                                                                guess supported by (201-13). This record
                                                                                is largely based on linguistic data, hence
                                                                                times are pretty vague. Linkages to later
                                                                                Finns and Ugrians remain to be
                                                                                established. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants).

389  25  -150 -25   N Finno-Ugrians   F Volochow & Velikaja RR area,        L
                                        around & S of Leningrad, N SU & E
                                        SF, see map 20a(21,25);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Area coded 21 refers to Finno-Ugrian
                                                                                'tribes' who made 'textile ceramics'. A
                                                                                'Textile Ceramic Culture' had existed
                                                                                here, & to the N and E of here, since 1200
                                                                                BC according to this atlas. This clearly
                                                                                refers to a mixture of Finnic and
                                                                                Ugric tribes, not the Finno-Ugric
                                                                                ancestors. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants). End date
                                                                                interpolated between this record and (390-
                                                                                2).

900 795   -25 1     A Finno-Ugrians   F {SF, Estonia, Latvia, N SU & Oka R  E
                                        area, see map 21a(2);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.} - {Volochow &
                                        Velikaja RR area, around & S of
                                        Leningrad, N SU & E SF, see map
                                        20a(21,25); 'Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'.}
                                        *{390-2} - {389-25}*                    From Volochow & Velikaja RR area, around &
                                                                                S of Leningrad, N SU & E SF, see map
                                                                                20a(21,25); 'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                                                                Ceskoslovenska'. *{389-25}* To conform to
                                                                                (389-25) and (390-2). This clearly refers
                                                                                to a mixture of Finnic and
                                                                                Ugric tribes, not the Finno-Ugric
                                                                                ancestors. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants).

390   2   -25 200   N Finno-Ugrians   F SF, Estonia, Latvia, N SU & Oka R   L
                                        area, see map 21a(2);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Refers to Finno-Ugrian 'tribes'. This
                                                                                clearly refers to a mixture of Finnic and
                                                                                Ugric tribes, not the Finno-Ugric
                                                                                ancestors. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants). Start date
                                                                                interpolated between this record and (389-
                                                                                25). End date interpolated between this
                                                                                record and (391-5).

900 796   200 300   A Finno-Ugrians   F {N SU incl Estonia & Latvia, & C    E
                                        SU betw Volga & Don RR, see map
                                        22a (7); 'Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'.} - {SF,
                                        Estonia, Latvia, N SU & Oka R
                                        area, see map 21a(2);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.} *{391-5}
                                        - {390-2}*                              From SF, Estonia, Latvia, N SU & Oka R
                                                                                area, see map 21a(2); 'Archeologicky Atlas
                                                                                Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. *{390-2}* To
                                                                                conform to (390-2) and (391-5). This
                                                                                clearly refers to a mixture of Finnic and
                                                                                Ugric tribes, not the Finno-Ugric
                                                                                ancestors. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants).

391   5   200 400   N Finno-Ugrians   F N SU incl Estonia & Latvia, & C SU  L
                                        betw Volga & Don RR, see map 22a
                                        (7); 'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Authors refer to 'Finno-Ugrian Inhabitants
                                                                                Culture'. I have used 'Finno-Ugrians' for
                                                                                the gens name. This clearly refers to a
                                                                                mixture of Finnic and Ugric tribes, not
                                                                                the Finno-Ugric ancestors. These may have
                                                                                to be recoded later with a
                                                                                letter other than F, to distinguish them
                                                                                from the Finnic and Ugric branches (their
                                                                                descendants). Start date interpolated
                                                                                between (390-2) and this record.

202   7  -200 400   A Finns           F W & SW SF; to Tavastia (Haeme), up  M
                                        the Kokemaeki R system. (map 1).
                                                                                From S side of Gulf of Finland, mainly
                                                                                Estonia.

900 121     1 1000  A Finns           F From White Sea to Oka R basin       L
                                                                                Acc/to (211-17), (169-114). End date
                                                                                extended as compromise with (901-126).

201   5   200 400   A Finns           F Into interior SW SF along Kumo RV.  E
                                        Toward Tampere & S Haeme. Also
                                        Vaasa hinterland.
                                                                                From SF SW coast.

201   6   400 800   A Finns           F Aland Is, E part of Lake District   E
                                        (Sysmae, Heinola, Karelian Isthmus)
                                                                                From the area of interior SW SF along Kumo
                                                                                RV. Toward Tampere & S Haeme. Also Vaasa
                                                                                hinterland. *{201-5}*

204   3   700 #     A Finns           F L Laatoka (=Ladoga?)                E
                                                                                From Aland Is, E part of Lake District
                                                                                (Sysmae, Heinola, Karelian Isthmus). *{201-
                                                                                6}*

170  31   700 1200  A Finns           F S                                   Q
                                                                                Slaves from E (SF), brought in by Vikings.

900 122   800 1000  A Finns           F {SW SF (map 1)} - {Aland Is, E      E
                                        part of Lake District (Sysmae,
                                        Heinola, Karelian Isthmus)} *{202-
                                        9} - {201-6}*
                                                                                For consistency with (202-9). (Syn.
                                                                                Suomalaiset). From Aland Is, E part of
                                                                                Lake District (Sysmae, Heinola, Karelian
                                                                                Isthmus). *{201-6}*

202   9   800 1970  A Finns           F SW SF (map 1)                       L
                                                                                (Syn. Suomalaiset).

901 152  1000 1970  N Finns           F Area W of L Onega, N SU +           L
                                        Leningrad area & Karelian ASSR
                                                                                Acc/to (346-5) and (213-20).  50-100K
                                                                                people.  The population figures from ref
                                                                                213 (a generally more detailed reference
                                                                                than 212) have been updated from 1970
                                                                                census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encylcopaedia Brittanica.  Start date
                                                                                compromise between
                                                                                (900-121) and (346-5), (213-20).  Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (900-121).

202  18  1348 #     N Finns           F Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From SW SF (map 1, ref 202). *{202-9}*

170  26  1500 1700  A Finns           F Dalarne, Vaermland, and E N.        S
                                                                                13K people. From Finland.

202  22  1601 #     N Finns           F Livonia                             A
                                                                                From SF.

170  27  1700 1800  A Finns           F N N                                 S
                                                                                From N SF.

208   8  1800 1867  A Finns           F Finnmark (N)                        S
                                                                                From SF.

170   4 -2500 -1500 A Fishers-Hunters U Norway N of Trondheim, Sweden N of  L
                                        Dalarne (Dalarna) region
                                                                                Culture.

189   1   258 #     N Franks          G Tarraco (Tarragona, Mediterr.       A
                                        coast of E).
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

190  20   275 276   N Franks          G Rhein-Mosel RR area (Trier)         A
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

193   1   275 #     N Franks          G Along highway Cologne-Tongeren (B)- A
                                        Bavay (nr Maubeuge, F).
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

193   4   280 290   A Franks          G Trier (D), Amiens, Beauvais,        R
                                        Troyes & Langres (all in F).
                                                                                By Romans. Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri,
                                                                                Chamavi, Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii,
                                                                                Salii, Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which
                                                                                of these were involved, hence where they
                                                                                came from.

180  15   291 #     N Franks          G S Brabant, Hainaut,Ardennes Mts,    R
                                        Moselle RV.
                                                                                By Romans. Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri,
                                                                                Chamavi, Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii,
                                                                                Salii, Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which
                                                                                of these were involved, hence where they
                                                                                came from.

362   9   294 #     N Franks          G Saone & Doubs RR area NE to around  Q
                                        Gray, F.
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

  2   5   341 #     N Franks          G Parts of Gaul                       A
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

  2   6   350 #     N Franks          G Cologne                             A
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

362   8   360 #     N Franks          G Saone & Marne RR area NE of Dijon,  Q
                                        F.
                                                                                Formed by Amsivarii, Bructeri, Chamavi,
                                                                                Chatti, Chattuarii, Usipii, Salii,
                                                                                Tencteri, Tubanti. Not clear which of
                                                                                these were involved, hence where they came
                                                                                from.

900 575   400 450   A Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR} +    L
                                        {Upper Wupper R} + {Area N of
                                        Lippe R} *{12-206} + {900-25} +
                                        {12-197}*
                                                                                Union of separate tribes to form Franks:
                                                                                Chamavi (900-555), Amsivarii (900-25),
                                                                                Tubanti (900-573).

900 576   450 457   A Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe
                                        R} + {Xanthen including areas to
                                        the right of the Rhine R, the
                                        Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden,
                                        & the Hettergau around Herbede.} +
                                        {Betw. Ruhr & Lippe RR} +
                                        {Toxandria
                                        Toxandria = Teisterbant area (in        Union of separate tribes to form Frankish
                                        Dutch). It is the drainage area of      Federation: Chattuarii (2-17), Bructeri
                                        the Drommel R in N Brabant,             (900-552), Salii (2-13). End date to
                                        extending E to the Peel Swamps, W       conform to (11-117).
                                        to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond
                                        Toxandria into Flanders} *{900-
                                        575} + {2-17} + {12-202}* * + {2-
                                        13}*

900 577   457 #     A Franks          G Cambrai & Somme RR + Alsace &       E
                                        Palatinate.
                                                                                Acc/to (11-110) & (11-117). From betw.
                                                                                Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper Wupper R +
                                                                                Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen including
                                                                                areas to the right of the Rhine R, the
                                                                                Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                                                                Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. *{900-576}*

900 578   457 480   A Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        Toxandria
                                        = Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It       For consistency with (900-577) & (362-7).
                                        is the drainage area of the
                                        Drommel R in N Brabant, extending
                                        E to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet
                                        of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                        into Flanders} + {Cambrai & Somme
                                        RR + Alsace & Palatinate.} *{900-
                                        576}
                                        + {900-577}*

362   7   480 #     N Franks          G Luxembourg, & along Mosel R into    E
                                        Rheinland-Pfalz, Hunsrueck,
                                        Saarland.
                                                                                From betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria
                                                                                = Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. *{900-578}*

900 579   480 486   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        Toxandria
                                        = Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It       For consistency with (362-7) & (2-20).
                                        is the drainage area of the
                                        Drommel R in N Brabant, extending
                                        E to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet
                                        of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                        into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR
                                        + Alsace & Palatinate.} +
                                        {Luxembourg,
                                        & along Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz, Hunsrueck, Saarland.} *{900-
                                        578} + {362-7}*

  2  20   486 494   N Franks          G Between Seine & Loire RR            E
                                                                                From betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria
                                                                                = Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg,
                                                                                & along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. *{900-579}*

900 580   486 496   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        Toxandria
                                        = Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It       For consistency with (2-20) & (2-24).
                                        is the drainage area of the
                                        Drommel R in N Brabant, extending
                                        E to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet
                                        of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                        into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR
                                        + Alsace & Palatinate.} +
                                        {Luxembourg,
                                        & along Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz, Hunsrueck, Saarland. +
                                        {Between Seine & Loire RR} *{900-
                                        579} + {2-20}*

197   7   496 #     N Franks          G Fritzlar-Waberner basin N of        C
                                        Knuell Mts & drained by Eder R,
                                        Kasseler basin adjacent in N, area
                                        of Diemel & Esse RR (Abb. 182).
                                                                                From betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria
                                                                                = Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg,
                                                                                & along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR. *{900-580}*

  2  24   496 497   N Franks          G Alaman Empire {(Alsace,             E
                                        Palatinate, Worms Rheingau,
                                        Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W
                                        of Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, &
                                        E CH + {Meuse R area, just W of
                                        Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                        Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L
                                        Constance, E is Iller
                                        & Danube RR. N of Main R, the           From betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                        Rheingau and Wetterau. + Dieuze,        Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                        betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille        including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                        R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes,       R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                        on Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +        the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                        Autun, E F. + Marne R area of           & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria
                                        Champagne Region, F. - N part of
                                        territory.)}
                                        *{900-7}*                               = Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg,
                                                                                & along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR. *{900-580}*

900 581   496 507   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        Toxandria
                                        = Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It       For consistency with (2-24), (197-7) &
                                        is the drainage area of the             (166-18).
                                        Drommel R in N Brabant, extending
                                        E to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet
                                        of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                        into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR
                                        + Alsace & Palatinate. +
                                        Luxembourg,
                                        & along Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz, Hunsrueck, Saarland. +
                                        Between Seine & Loire RR} +
                                        {Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                        Palatinate, Worms Rheingau,
                                        Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W
                                        of Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, &
                                        E CH + Meuse R area, just
                                        W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                        other areas}. See long record.
                                        *{900-580} + {2-24} + {197-
                                        7}*

166  18   507 #     N Franks          G Tolosanic Empire (around)           C
                                        Toulouse, from Loire R to Pyrenees.
                                                                                From betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria (Toxandria
                                                                                = Teisterbant area (in Dutch).) It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders. + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg,
                                                                                & along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR. + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                                                                Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R, + Basel,
                                                                                CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. + Borders:
                                                                                W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is Iller
                                                                                & Danube RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. + more comment; see long record.
                                                                                *{900-581}*
900 582   507 531   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        Toxandria
                                        = Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It       For consistency with (166-18) & (900-583).
                                        is the drainage area of the
                                        Drommel R in N Brabant, extending
                                        E to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet
                                        of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                        into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR
                                        + Alsace & Palatinate. +
                                        Luxembourg,
                                        & along Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz, Hunsrueck, Saarland. +
                                        Between Seine & Loire RR + Alaman
                                        Empire (Alsace, Palatinate, Worms
                                        Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                        Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R, +
                                        Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse
                                        R area, just
                                        W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                        other areas}. See long record.
                                        *{900-581} + {166-18}*

900 583   531 541   N Franks          G {Thuringian Empire} + {SE F up to   C
                                        Durance R (RP Lugdunensis I)} +
                                        {Sapaudia (corresponds to French
                                        speaking part of modern CH & S
                                        Empire stretched from S Champagne
                                        to the Durance and the Maritime
                                        Alps.} + {Provence} + {Bayuvar
                                        Empire}
                                        + {Narbonne, Pamplona} *{12-174} +      From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                        {192-18} + {11-108}* * + {11-112}       Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                        + {12-157} * * + {232-31} *             including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-582}*
900 584   531 709   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        (=Teisterbant
                                        area in Dutch). Drainage area of        For consistency with (900-583) & (11-119).
                                        Drom- mel R in N Brabant, ext E to
                                        Peel Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde
                                        R + Beyond Toxandria into Flanders
                                        + Cambrai & Somme RR + Alsace &
                                        Palatinate +Luxembourg, & along
                                        Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz,Hunsruek,Saarland
                                        + Between Seine & Loire RR +
                                        Alaman Empire (Alsace, Palatinate,
                                        Worms Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                        Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R, +
                                        Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse
                                        R area, just W of Mosel R, around
                                        Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine
                                        R, S
                                        is L Constance, E is Iller &
                                        Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                        Rheingau and Wetterau. + Dieuze,
                                        betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                        R, Moselle Region, E F. + more
                                        areas. See long record. *{900-
                                        582} + {900-583}*

  2  29   538 #     N Franks          G Milan, Venetia                      A
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-582}*

 53  49   631 #     N Franks          G Zaragoza (E)                        A
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-584}*
 11 119   709 712   N Franks          G N I & CH (German-speaking part;     C
                                        see ref 357)
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-584}*
900 585   709 772   N Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        around Duisburg & Menden, & the
                                        Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw.
                                        Ruhr & Lippe RR + Toxandria
                                        (=Teisterbant
                                        area in Dutch). Drainage area of        For consistency with (11-119) & (900-586).
                                        Drom- mel R in N Brabant, ext E to
                                        Peel Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde
                                        R + Beyond Toxandria into Flanders
                                        + Cambrai & Somme RR + Alsace &
                                        Palatinate +Luxembourg, & along
                                        Mosel R into Rheinland-
                                        Pfalz,Hunsruek,Saarland
                                        + Between Seine & Loire RR +
                                        Alaman Empire (Alsace, Palatinate,
                                        Worms Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                        Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R, +
                                        Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse
                                        R area, just W of Mosel R, around
                                        Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine
                                        R, S
                                        is L Constance, E is Iller &
                                        Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                        Rheingau and Wetterau. + Dieuze,
                                        betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                        R, Moselle Region, E F. + more
                                        areas. See long record. *{900-
                                        584} + {11-119}*

900 586   772 801   N Franks          G {Betw mid & lower Rhine & mid       C
                                        Weser R (S Saxony)} + {Friulia,
                                        Istria} + {Coast N of Zuiderzee up
                                        to Ems R and betw Ems R & Weser R
                                        (East Frisia)} + {Bavaria} +
                                        {Havel & Peene RR (DDR)} +
                                        {Barcelona, Pallars, Ribagorza &
                                        Aragon counties}
                                        *{194-28} + {149-16} + {12-111}*        From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                        *+ {196-12} + {33-37} + {53-71}*        Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-585}*
900 587   772 900   A Franks          G {Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR +     L
                                        Upper Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R
                                        + Xanthen including areas to the
                                        right of the Rhine R, the Ruhrgau
                                        & the Hettergau + Betw. Ruhr &
                                        Lippe RR + Toxandria (=Teisterbant
                                        area) + Beyond Toxandria into
                                        Flanders
                                        + Cambrai & Somme RR + Alsace &         Start date acc/to (900-585). End date is
                                        Palatinate + Luxembourg, & along        artificial. Franks stayed in these areas,
                                        Mosel R + Between Seine & Loire RR      amalgamated with other peoples, assumed
                                        + Alaman Empire (Alsace,                other names.
                                        Palatinate, Worms Rheingau,
                                        Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W
                                        of Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, &
                                        E CH + Meuse
                                        R area, just W of Mosel R, around
                                        Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine
                                        R, S is L Constance, E is Iller &
                                        Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                        Rheingau and Wetterau. + Dieuze,
                                        betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                        R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes,
                                        on Seine
                                        R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E
                                        F. + Marne R area of Champagne
                                        Region, F - N part of terr.) +
                                        Fritzlar-Waberner basin N of +
                                        other areas. See long record.
                                        *{900-585} + {900-586}*

234 142   796 #     N Franks          G Tisza R banks                       A
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-585}*
231  32   800 1000  A Franks          G Santiago de Compostela (E)          S
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-585}*
  7  24   803 #     N Franks          G Pannonia                            A
                                                                                From Betw. Yssel & Lower Lippe RR + Upper
                                                                                Wupper R + Area N of Lippe R + Xanthen
                                                                                including areas to the right of the Rhine
                                                                                R, the Ruhrgau around Duisburg & Menden, &
                                                                                the Hettergau around Herbede. + Betw. Ruhr
                                                                                & Lippe RR + Toxandria =
                                                                                Teisterbant area (in Dutch). It is the
                                                                                drainage area of the Drommel R in N
                                                                                Brabant, extending E to the Peel Swamps, W
                                                                                to inlet of Schelde R. + Beyond Toxandria
                                                                                into Flanders + Cambrai & Somme RR +
                                                                                Alsace & Palatinate. + Luxembourg, &
                                                                                along Mosel R into Rheinland-Pfalz,
                                                                                Hunsrueck, Saarland. + Between Seine &
                                                                                Loire RR + Alaman Empire (Alsace,
                                                                                Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R, + Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH +
                                                                                Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, + more comment; see long
                                                                                record list. *{900-585}*

901  63   476 1970  N French          I French speaking areas of F, B & CH  L
                                                                                Start date: end of Roman empire; end date:
                                                                                still there.

 53  79  1072 1109  N French          I Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                Resettled by King Alfonso VI from various
                                                                                regions in F (Bourgogne, Gascony,
                                                                                Normandy, Provence, Toulouse).

227   1  1096 1097  N French          I Balkans                             W
                                                                                1st crusade (majority from France).

227   2  1098 1099  N French          I {Antioch (the crusader state, not   C
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)} +
                                        {Edessa (the crusader state, not
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)} *{227-
                                        5} + {901-64}*
                                                                                From F. 1.2 to 1.5K cavalry & 12K
                                                                                soldiers. Conquest of Edessa implied by
                                                                                map of ref. 227, page 302.

227   5  1098 1268  N French          I Antioch (the crusader state, not    L
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)
                                                                                Franks, as they were called, were a small
                                                                                minority of population.

901  64  1098 1144  N French          I Edessa (the crusader state, not     L
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)
                                                                                Franks, as they were called, were a small
                                                                                minority of population acc/to ref 227 p.
                                                                                302.

236  16  1101 1104  N French          I N AM                                A
                                                                                From F. These are Crusaders!

227   6  1191 #     N French          I Cyprus                              C
                                                                                From F. 3rd Crusade. English/French.

227   7  1202 #     N French          I Zara (modern Zadar, YU)             C
                                                                                From F. 4th Crusade. Mostly French.

227   8  1203 #     N French          I Constantinople                      C
                                                                                From F. 4th Crusade. Mostly French.

232  54  1209 #     N French          I Carcassone, Toulouse                A
                                                                                From N F.

333   8  1264 1268  N French          I I (NW & boot)                       A
                                                                                Attack by Charles of Anjou to aid Pope
                                                                                Clement IV.

232  65  1284 #     N French          I Aragon (old kingdom in E)           A
                                                                                From F.

232  79  1521 #     N French          I Navarre (ancient kingdom of E)      A
                                                                                From F.

901  77  1553 1559  N French          I Corsica                             
                                                                                From F. Occupied Is during this span.
                                                                                Displaced again by Genoese (acc/to E).

179  32  1650 #     A French          I Electorate Brandenburg (Putzger p.  Q
                                        75)
                                                                                From F. 200 K Huguenots.

901  66  1650 1750  A French          I {Electorate Brandenburg (Putzger    I
                                        p. 75)} *{179-32}*
                                                                                Acc/to (179-32). 200 K Huguenots.

901  78  1769 #     N French          I Corsica                             C
                                                                                From F. (Acc/to E.)

901  79  1769 1970  N French          I Corsica                             L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-78); end
                                                                                date: still there.

345   1  1796 1797  N French          I Mondovi, Dego, Lodi, Montenotte,    A
                                        Castiglione, Lonato, Bassano, &
                                        Arcole, Rivoli, N I
                                                                                From F. French victories under Napoleon's
                                                                                Italian campaign.

345   4  1799 #     N French          I Zurich, CH                          A
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

345   3  1800 #     N French          I Marengo, N I                        A
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

345   5  1800 #     N French          I Hohenlinden, (just E of Munich,D)   A
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

345   6  1805 #     N French          I Ulm, D & Austerlitz, CS             A
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

345   7  1806 #     N French          I Jena, DDR (Prussia)                 A
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

232  80  1807 1813  N French          I P, E                                A
                                                                                From F. Via the Pyrenees.

345   8  1807 #     N French          I Friedland & Eylau, E Prussia (NW    A
                                        SU)
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon.

345  15  1812 #     N French          I Berezina (on Berezina R SU, W of    A
                                        Moscow), Krasnoi, Smolensk,
                                        Maloyaroslavets, Borodino, &
                                        Moscow, W SU.
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon, &
                                                                                captured Smolensk & Moscow.

345  16  1813 #     N French          I Lutzen, Leipzig, Dresden ;          A
                                        Bautzen, DDR & Hanau, D.
                                                                                From F. French victory under Napoleon,
                                                                                except at Leipzig.

345  24  1815 #     N French          I B                                   A
                                                                                From F. French defeated by Wellington
                                                                                (English) plus Dutch, Germans & Prussians.

346   7  1918 1921  N French          I Murmansk & Karelia, Archangel, N SU A
                                                                                From F. Anti-Bolshevik forces from the
                                                                                Entente fleet, via Barents & White Seas.

346  15  1918 1921  A French          I Odessa & Simferopol, on Black Sea   N
                                        coast, S SU
                                                                                Entente fleet attack on towns controlled
                                                                                by Bolsheviks since 1917.

151   3  1945 1970  N French          I CH                                  Q
                                                                                From F. 0.82 percent of population. Guest
                                                                                workers.

181   7  -200 500   A Frisians        G N NL                                L

 12 110   500 650   A Frisians        G Betw. Ems R & Weser R               E
                                                                                From Frisia. Area vacated by Saxons who
                                                                                went to Britain. End date taken from (11-
                                                                                140).

 11 142   500 #     A Frisians        G East Anglia (England)               S
                                                                                From Frisia.

900 467   500 850   A Frisians        G {N NL} + {Betw. Ems R & Weser R.}   L
                                        *{181-7} + {12-110}*
                                                                                Acc/to (181-7) & (12-110).

 11 141   850 #     A Frisians        G Betw. Elbe R & Eider R              E
                                                                                From N NL + Betw. Ems R & Weser R. *{900-
                                                                                467}*

234 175   855 #     N Frisians        G Novgorod (SU)                       S
                                                                                From Frisia.

386   2 -1200 -700  N Funerary Urns   U Bohemia, CS & E Bavaria, D, see     L
                                        map 16a (2a-e); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (387-2). Full culture
                                                                                name: "Bohemian & E. Bavarian Funerary
                                                                                Urn." Several group included within this
                                                                                culture. Not clear how this relates to
                                                                                Funerary Urn of (234-15).

234  15  -500 500   A Funerary Urns   U N Podolia, Volhynia                 L
                                                                                Author speculates whether these could be
                                                                                the Neuri of Herodotus whom he considers
                                                                                as proto-Slavs, although other sources
                                                                                consider them as early Balts. Not clear
                                                                                how this relates to Funerary urns of (386-
                                                                                2).

143  14  -750 -50   A Gabali          K Lozere, F                           L

143  40  -222 #     N Gaesates        K Clastidium (modern Casteggio), S    A
                                        of Po R, I
                                                                                From B.

900 424  1600 1800  A Gagauz          T BG                                  L
                                                                                Origins in dispute. Three theories: (1)
                                                                                Migration of Seldjuks from AM. Acc/to ref
                                                                                (236-24), (236-25) citing Wittek. (2)
                                                                                Descendants of Cumans who came to the
                                                                                Balkans. Acc/to ref 229 and (123-31). (3)
                                                                                Turkicized Bulgarians who retained
                                                                                their orthodox religion. Acc/to ref 229.

900 425  1800 1900  A Gagauz          T Dobrugea, Moldavian SSR & adjacent  Q
                                        areas of the Ukraine (Bessarabia).
                                                                                From BG. *{900-424}* 5K remained behind
                                                                                acc/to ref 229.

900 426  1800 1970  N Gagauz          T {Dobrugea, Moldavian SSR &          L
                                        adjacent areas of the Ukraine
                                        (Bessarabia).} *{900-425}*
                                                                                173K persons acc/to ref 229.

128  29  -279 #     N Galatians       K Galatia, AM (see Putzger p.16)      M
                                                                                From Balkans. 20K of whom 10K were armed
                                                                                (ref 143, p. 37).

900 986  -279 1     N Galatians       K {Galatia, AM (see Putzger p.16)}    L
                                        *{128-29}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (128-29). End
                                                                                date conservative bound after conquest by
                                                                                Romans (25 BC). Ref 128 mentions St.
                                                                                Hieronymos who reports Celtic still spoken
                                                                                in Galatia in the 4th c. AD.

 11   7  -230 #     N Galatians       K Olbia Modern Nikolayev, SU nr       A
                                        mouth of Dnepr R.
                                                                                From Thrace. These may not be Galatians
                                                                                proper but may be a synonym for Gauls or
                                                                                Celts.

210  10     1 900   A Galindians      B W part of Muscovy, SW part of       L
                                        Tver, (both principalities in
                                        Russia) districts of Rzhev &
                                        Zubtsov, E part of Smolensk.

363   8   300 400   A Galindians      B NE PL betw Pasteka & Nemunas RR &   L
                                        N of Pisa R; and area W of Moscow,
                                        along Protva R betw where Protva &
                                        Moskva RR meet & Aleksin & Kaluga,
                                        W SU.
                                                                                Note to digitizers: If this is within the
                                                                                area of (210-10), then this record can be
                                                                                deleted. If not then retain with no
                                                                                overlap and set date from 300 to 400.
                                                                                *(Note from CK: No overlap; original dates
                                                                                * *of 350, # now set to 300, 400.)
                                                                                *

364  14   400 1000  A Galindians      B Lake(Jazero) Shiardwy area, NE PL   L

210  11   900 1100  A Galindians      B W part of Muscovy, SW part of       I
                                        Tver, (both principalities in
                                        Russia) districts of Rzhev &
                                        Zubtsov, E part of Smolensk.
                                                                                By Russians.

900 109  1000 1150  A Galindians      B S of Smolensk, Moscow & Kaluga      L
                                        (see fig 50, xeroxed).
                                                                                Acc/to (38-20).

192  15     1 843   N Gallo-Romans    I S CH (modern Savoy) (ancient name:  L
                                        Sapaudia) & parts of E. F
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-120) (ca 100
                                                                                years following advent of Romans); end
                                                                                date start of West Frankish Kingdom
                                                                                (Ploetz p. 348). Succeeded by French.

192  17     1 843   N Gallo-Romans    I SE F: Durance(Lugdunensis I, RP)    L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-120) (ca 100
                                                                                years following advent of Romans); end
                                                                                date start of West Frankish Kingdom
                                                                                (Ploetz p. 348). Succeeded by French.

 17  50    50 843   N Gallo-Romans    I Area on Map III described as        L
                                        between Loire & Seine RR & N of
                                        Seine R, middle & lower V of Oise
                                        & Marne RR. (i.e.2nd Lyonnaise,
                                        major part of 3rd Lyonnaise & 4th
                                        Lyonnaise and S part of 2nd
                                        Belgium. These are RPP. See Map
                                        II).
                                                                                Start date approximately 100 years
                                                                                following conquest by Julius Caesar; end
                                                                                date start of West Frankish Kingdom
                                                                                (Ploetz p. 348). Succeeded by French.

190  16   100 290   N Gallo-Romans    I Agri Decumates (Dekumatland) see    L
                                        Abb. 69.
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-42); end
                                                                                date to conform to (193-3). Part of pop.
                                                                                left in 259; remainder expelled or
                                                                                assimilated by invading Germanic tribes.

 27  18  -800 -700  A Garumni         K Upper Garonne R                     L
                                                                                Possibly Celticized. Pyreneans who were
                                                                                not amalgamated until the 5th c. BC.

382  14 -2200 -1900 N Gaudo           U S I, see map 12a (11 and 13);       L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Note that Gaudo also found in
                                                                                area labelled as Lateriya (382-16).

131   9 -1200 -1100 A Gava            U H E of Tisza R, & Transilvania      M
                                        (ROM), map 16a(7);"Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. From Voivodina (Batshka & Banat).

386   6 -1200 -800  N Gava            U {H E of Tisza R, & Transilvania     L
                                        (ROM), map 16a(7);"Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."}
                                        *{131-9}*
                                                                                Culture. End date given by text at (131-
                                                                                9). Continued by record (387-9).

387   9  -800 -700  N Gava            U H, ROM, Ukraine,betw Dnestr &       L
                                        Tisza RR, see map 17a (9a-c);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Expanded over previous record
                                                                                (386-6) but no evidence of migration.

 12   1   175 250   A Gepidae         G Vistula-Nogat Delta                 L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (1-9). End date
                                                                                acc/to ref 12. Originated from remnants of
                                                                                Goths who had not migrated SE.

190  12   248 #     N Gepidae         G Moesia & Thrace                     A
                                                                                From the Vistula-Nogat Delta. *{12-1}*

900 564   250 269   A Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            M
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.)} *{12-2}*
                                                                                From Vistula-Nogat Delta. *{12-1}* Start
                                                                                date for consistency with (12-1). End date
                                                                                acc/to (12-2).

 12   2   250 340   N Gepidae         G North Dacia in wooded &             L
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.)
                                                                                End date acc/to (110-63).

110  63   340 #     N Gepidae         G Maros, Tisza & Koerces RR           E
                                        (Alfoeld, H).
                                                                                From North Dacia in wooded & mountainous
                                                                                areas, neighbors of W. Goths. (W corner of
                                                                                Ukraine, betw Uzgorod & Chust.) *{12-2}*

900 565   340 454   A Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            L
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.)} + {Maros, Tisza
                                        & Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H).} *{12-
                                        2} + {110-63}*
                                                                                For consistency with (110-63). End date
                                                                                acc/to (12-4).

124   4   448 #     N Gepidae         G Aquileia (I)                        A
                                                                                From North Dacia in wooded & mountainous
                                                                                areas, neighbors of W. Goths. (W corner of
                                                                                Ukraine, betw Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros,
                                                                                Tisza & Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). *{900-
                                                                                565}*

 12   3   451 #     N Gepidae         G Gaul                                A
                                                                                Under Hun leadership. From North Dacia in
                                                                                wooded & mountainous areas, neighbors of
                                                                                W. Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                                                                Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza & Koerces
                                                                                RR (Alfoeld, H). *{900-565}*

900 566   454 #     N Gepidae         G Part of Transilvania, R             E
                                                                                Acc/to (12-4). From North Dacia in wooded
                                                                                & mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                                                                Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw Uzgorod
                                                                                & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza & Koerces RR
                                                                                (Alfoeld, H). *{900-565}*

900 567   454 471   N Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            L
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza &
                                        Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H).} + {Part
                                        of Transilvania, R} *{900-565} +
                                        {900-566}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-566) & (12-5).

 12   5   471 #     N Gepidae         G Sirmium (and intervening area, RP   E
                                        Pannonia II, YU).
                                                                                From North Dacia in wooded & mountainous
                                                                                areas, neighbors of W. Goths. (W corner of
                                                                                Ukraine, betw Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros,
                                                                                Tisza & Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                                                                Transilvania, R. *{900-567}*

900 568   471 504   N Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            L
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza &
                                        Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                        Transilvania, R} + {Sirmium (and
                                        intervening area, RP Pannonia II,
                                        YU).} *{900-567}
                                        + {12-5}*                               Start date acc/to (12-5). End date for
                                                                                consistency with (900-569).

 12   6   504 #     N Gepidae         G Gaul                                R
                                                                                From Sirmium (and intervening area, RP
                                                                                Pannonia II, YU). *{12-5}*  By East Goths.

900 569   504 #     N Gepidae         G {Sirmium (and intervening area, RP  T
                                        Pannonia II, YU).} *{12-5}*
                                                                                To North Dacia in wooded & mountainous
                                                                                areas, neighbors of W. Goths. (W corner of
                                                                                Ukraine, betw Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros,
                                                                                Tisza & Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                                                                Transilvania, R. *{900-567}* (This is (900-
                                                                                568) - (12-5).) Acc/to (12-7). Displaced
                                                                                by Ostrogoths.

900 570   504 600   A Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            L
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza &
                                        Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                        Transilvania, R} *{900-567}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-569) & (18-5).

133  51   568 #     N Gepidae         G N I                                 Q
                                                                                From North Dacia in wooded & mountainous
                                                                                areas, neighbors of W. Goths. (W corner of
                                                                                Ukraine, betw Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros,
                                                                                Tisza & Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                                                                Transilvania, R. *{900-567}* Accompanied
                                                                                Lombards after defeat by Avars.

 18   5   600 900   A Gepidae         G {North Dacia in wooded &            I
                                        mountainous areas, neighbors of W.
                                        Goths. (W corner of Ukraine, betw
                                        Uzgorod & Chust.) + Maros, Tisza &
                                        Koerces RR (Alfoeld, H). + Part of
                                        Transilvania, R} *{900-567}*
                                                                                Dates approximate. Part of tribe that
                                                                                remained; assimilated with Avar mixture
                                                                                and later with Magyars.

161   4  -550 -450  A Gergithes       U Troad: Gergis (W coast of AM from   L
                                        N of Lesbos to Gallipoli)

 53  19  -700 -600  A Germani         K Oretania (E). See map p.36.         L
                                                                                These are Celts not Germanics.

 27  62  -600 -500  A Germanics       G Wallonia, B                         I
                                                                                By Belgae. Could be Eburoni. But Eburoni
                                                                                are still reported from time of Caesar.
                                                                                Confirmed by (143-34).

306   3  -400 -100  A Germanics       G NE CS around Podmokly, Jestrebi     L
                                        and Kobyly.
                                                                                Identified non-Celtic (Germanic)
                                                                                populations.

 32  10  -200 300   A Germanics       G Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea   L
                                        of Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of
                                        Black Sea).
                                                                                Early part of this period not confirmed by
                                                                                sources on specific Germanic tribes. Later
                                                                                part could be Goths and/or Heruli.

180  12    50 100   A Germanics       G B                                   Q
                                                                                From across the Rhine R.

199   1   200 375   A Germanics       G Area betw Elbe & Oder RR also       L
                                        Pomerania (Pomorza) (GDR + FRG).
                                                                                These tribes were not reported by
                                                                                historians. There is a marked diminution
                                                                                of the population in middle & E of area,
                                                                                presumably due to emigration but it is not
                                                                                recorded whereto this went. Author
                                                                                mentions the possibility of shifts to W
                                                                                Mecklenburg. However, see (179-22).

179  22   300 700   A Germanics       G D, (W of Elbe R)                    Q
                                                                                From D, E of Elbe R. Under pressure of
                                                                                Huns & Avars. See also (199-1).

 13  25   350 450   A Germanics       G Along E sea from Ruegen past the    L
                                        mouths of the Oder & Vistula RR up
                                        to the Passarge R, then up the
                                        Oder & Vistula into Greater Poland
                                        up to the Kujavia (Kujawy) area at
                                        Wapno.
                                                                                Possibly Gepids.

199   2   450 550   A Germanics       G Area betw Elbe & Oder RR            Q
                                                                                From SCA or North Suevians. Repopulation
                                                                                of the area.

196   7   530 540   A Germanics       G Raetia II RP (mainly into Danube R  Q
                                        knee, & Muenchener Platte).
                                                                                Elbe Germanics (comprises Lombards,
                                                                                Semnones, Hermunduri, Marcomanni & Quadi)
                                                                                from Bohemia. Also see ref (10-8).

114  27   600 900   A Germanics       G Pannonian Plain                     I
                                                                                By Slovenes. Check later which tribes were
                                                                                involved.

199   4   600 700   A Germanics       G Area betw Elbe & Oder RR            I
                                                                                By Slavs. (The relatively few that
                                                                                remained.)

359   1   700 1000  N Germanics       G (Valleys of) CH, except for S & E   L
                                        CH.
                                                                                Start date to connect (approximately) with
                                                                                earlier records of specific tribes. This
                                                                                ref furnishes map with language boundary
                                                                                at 800 AD and at present.

199   5   800 950   A Germanics       G Area betw Elbe & Oder RR            E
                                                                                From W. End date to conform to records on
                                                                                Germans.

166  21   800 814   N Germanics       G Bayeux (Normandy, F)                R
                                                                                From beyond (E of) Elbe R; by Charlemagne
                                                                                in 9th century (before he died in 814).

359   2  1000 1200  N Germanics       G W CH, N of L Geneva, & E to NW      E
                                        border Bodensee.
                                                                                Very few Germanic place names near
                                                                                Bodensee, but many along and N & NE of L
                                                                                Geneva, evidenced by Germanic place names.
                                                                                Not necessarily expansion from (359-1).
                                                                                Could be migration from elsewhere.

359   3  1300 #     N Germanics       G S CH N of Rhone R, incl Berner      E
                                        Alps, Lepantine Alps, & Glarner
                                        Alps.
                                                                                Sparse distribution of Germanic place
                                                                                names in these Alpine regions; densest
                                                                                expansion in Luzern area; evidenced by
                                                                                Germanic place names. Not necessarily
                                                                                expansion from (359-1). Could be migration
                                                                                from elsewhere. But from W CH, N of
                                                                                L Geneva, & E to NW border Bodensee. *{359-
                                                                                2}*

329   5   936 947   A Germans         G Middle Elbe R area, betw            A
                                        Brandenburg & Lake Mueritz, & E
                                        toOder R & W to Elbe R, DDR.
                                                                                From Saxony. Otto I's campaign & attempt
                                                                                to colonize & convert Veleti, Heveller,
                                                                                Reda (Settled Slavic tribes). Established
                                                                                North March as a district of G. empire.

329   6   936 950   A Germans         G Upper Elbe & Saale RR, area around  A
                                        Zeitz; W to Saale Rc DDR.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Otto I's campaign &
                                                                                attempt to colonize & convert settled
                                                                                Slavs: Sorbs, Dalminci. Established March
                                                                                of Zeitz as a district of G. empire.

329  14   940 946   A Germans         G Lorraine & West Francia, W of       A
                                        Rhine R, Laon & Rheims, F.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Campaign led by Otto I
                                                                                resulted in area's inclusion in G. empire.

329  12   951 961   N Germans         G N I betw St. Moritz (CH) & Nice in  C
                                        theW, to Mantua & Brescia in the E.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Otto led campaign that
                                                                                succeeded in conquering Kingdom of Italy.

329   4   955 #     A Germans         G Lower Elbe R area, N of Lake        A
                                        Mueritz, extending N & E to Baltic
                                        Sea, & W to Elbe R,
                                                                                From Saxony. Otto I's campaign & attempt
                                                                                to colonize & convert settled Slavs:
                                                                                Obodrites, Polabians, Warnawi. Established
                                                                                March of Billings as a district of G.
                                                                                empire.

 53  77  1072 1109  N Germans         G Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From D. Not many. Resettled by King
                                                                                Alfonso VI.

 50   1  1100 1300  A Germans         G N Transilvania                      S
                                                                                From D.

339   1  1125 1226  A Germans         G Betw Elbe & Oder RR                 E
                                                                                From area to the W. Germans began moving
                                                                                east as a result of population pressure &
                                                                                quickly submerged the small West Slavs:
                                                                                Wagrians. Abodrites, Sorbs, & Lusatians.
                                                                                Military & predatory at first, it soon
                                                                                developed into a vast movemant
                                                                                of peasants, often called in by Slav
                                                                                princes to develop their territories.

900 649  1125 1226  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} *{339-1}*     L
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (339-1), to permit (340-1) to come from an
                                                                                occupied area. End date ?

339   2  1143 #     A Germans         G Wagria (area E of Kiel), N D        N
                                                                                From D. This conquest opened the Baltic to
                                                                                the Germans.

339   4  1143 #     N Germans         G Luebeck FRG; Wismar, Rostock,       S
                                        Stralsund, Greifswald, Cammin,
                                        Kolberg; all along Baltic coast,
                                        DDR.
                                                                                From D. Founded these German cities.

332   2  1154 1155  N Germans         G Parma, Bologna, Rome, & Ancona,     A
                                        Verona
                                                                                From Roncaglia, nr Piacenza Lombardy, N I.
                                                                                Frederick I's first Expedition route. No
                                                                                info on ethnic composition of Frederick's
                                                                                army.

332   4  1158 1162  N Germans         G Verona, I Roncaglia-Piacenza,       A
                                        Pavia, Milan, Dole, F.
                                                                                From Besancon, on Saone R, F (see (332-
                                                                                3)). Frederick I's second Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

332   6  1163 1164  N Germans         G Bozen, D, Bologna, I                A
                                                                                From Area nr Innsbruck, Bavaria, D. *{332-
                                                                                5}* Frederick I's third Italian expedition
                                                                                route. No info on ethnic composition of
                                                                                Frederick's army.

332   8  1167 1168  N Germans         G Brenner Pass A/I, Bozen (Bolzano,   A
                                        I), area E of Verona, I, Ancona,
                                        Rome, Parma, Pavia, Dijon, F.
                                                                                From Area S of Augsburg, Bavaria, D. *{332-
                                                                                7}* Frederick I's fourth Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

332  10  1174 1178  N Germans         G Alessandria, Chiavenna (N of Lake   A
                                        Como), Milan, Anagni, Venice, all
                                        I.
                                                                                From Area around Dijon, F. *{332-9}*
                                                                                Frederick I's fifth Italian expedition
                                                                                route. No info on ethnic composition of
                                                                                Frederick's army.

332  12  1183 1186  N Germans         G Verona, Milan, I                    A
                                                                                From Konstanz, NE of Zurich, CH. *{332-
                                                                                11}* Frederick I's sixth Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

339   5  1186 1201  N Germans         G Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval         S
                                        (Talinn), SU.
                                                                                From N D (from cities that later formed
                                                                                the Hanseatic League). In a series of
                                                                                expeditions intendeded to extend German
                                                                                sway as far as Gulf of Finland.
                                                                                Appreciable German colonisation limited to
                                                                                these cities. German enclaves remained
                                                                                important
                                                                                element in Baltic states, right down to
                                                                                20th century, but the bulk of the
                                                                                peasantry retained their Finno-Ugrian
                                                                                character (in Estonia). End date correct
                                                                                for Riga acc/to (211-29).

900 653  1186 1201  N Germans         G {Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval        L
                                        (Talinn), SU.} *{339-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (339-5) & (340-13).

330   3  1190 1194  N Germans         G Tagliacozzo, Lucera Gaeta, Naples,  A
                                        San Germano, Troia,Salerno, Melfi,
                                        Taranto, Cosenza, Reggio, Messina,
                                        Cefaln, Palermo, all I.
                                                                                From D. An invasion of the Kingdom of
                                                                                Sicily. We don't know ethnic composition
                                                                                of the army.

340  13  1201 1274  N Germans         G N from Riga into Livonia, & E to    C
                                        Semgallen & SW to Courland; also W
                                        to Saarenaa, off W coast Estonia.
                                                                                From Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval (Talinn),
                                                                                SU. *{339-5}*

900 652  1201 1346  N Germans         G {Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval        L
                                        (Talinn), SU.} + {N from Riga into
                                        Livonia, & E to Semgallen & SW to
                                        Courland; also W to Saarenaa, off
                                        W coast Estonia.} *{900-653} +
                                        {340-13}*
                                                                                For consistency with (340-13) & (340-16).

340   1  1226 1232  A Germans         G PL W of Vistula R minus Pomerellia  E
                                        (see map ref 340)
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR. *{900-649}*
                                                                                Advance of Teutonic Knights.

900 650  1226 1232  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} + {PL W of    L
                                        Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see
                                        map ref 340)} *{339-1} + {340-1}*
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (340-1); end date to conform to (340-6).

340   6  1232 1255  A Germans         G (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula &       E
                                        Nemunas (Memel) RR
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340).
                                                                                *{900-650}* Expansion by Teutonic Order.

900 651  1232 1329  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of      L
                                        Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see
                                        map ref 340)} + {(Old) Prussia,
                                        betw Vistula & Nemunas (Memel) RR}
                                        *{900-650} + {340-6}*
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (340-6); end date acc/to (340-10).

202  13  1242 #     N Germans         G L Peipus                            A
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340) +
                                                                                (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula & Nemunas
                                                                                (Memel) RR. *{900-651}* End date to
                                                                                conform to (340-1).

206   4  1300 1450  A Germans         G N                                   Q
                                                                                In connection with Hanseatic League. From
                                                                                N D.

340   8  1309 #     N Germans         G Pomerelia, betw Danzig & Kulm, NE   S
                                        PL (see map in ref)
                                                                                From {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} + {PL W of
                                                                                Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see map ref
                                                                                340)} + {(Old) Prussia, betw Vistula &
                                                                                Nemunas (Memel) RR} *{900-651}* 1309 marks
                                                                                end of systematic subjugation of Pagan
                                                                                Prussian tribes and the beginning
                                                                                of 70 years of prosperity.

340  10  1329 1383  N Germans         G Area around Memel, (present day     S
                                        Klaipeda, Lithuania).
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340) +
                                                                                (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula & Nemunas
                                                                                (Memel) RR *{900-651}*

340  16  1346 #     N Germans         G Estonia                             S
                                                                                From Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval (Talinn),
                                                                                SU + N from Riga into Livonia, & E to
                                                                                Semgallen & SW to Courland; also W to
                                                                                Saarenaa, off W coast Estonia. *{900-652}*
                                                                                Estonia sold by Danish King to Teutonic
                                                                                Order.

202  19  1348 #     N Germans         G Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From D. Mercenaries accompanying Swedes &
                                                                                Finns.

211  37  1500 1600  N Germans         G W Ukraine                           S
                                                                                From D?

 50  27  1762 1772  N Germans         G Banat (from Danube-Sava junction    R
                                        to Iron Gate.
                                                                                From Swabia, D. The Swabians. 11K families.

235   1  1762 1766  N Germans         G Volga R area S of Saratov N of      S
                                        Volgograd (= Stalingrad,
                                        Tsaritsyn). Also small area N of
                                        Kuybishev.
                                                                                From a triangle defined by Frankfurt,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Kassel. About 27K settlers.
                                                                                Became Volga Germans.

900 654  1762 1970  N Germans         G {Volga R area S of Saratov N of     L
                                        Volgograd (= Stalingrad,
                                        Tsaritsyn). Also small area N of
                                        Kuybishev.} *{235-1}*
                                                                                Volga Germans. For consistency with (235-
                                                                                1). Population estimated at between 1 M
                                                                                (213-28) and 230K (212-18).

179  34  1860 1900  N Germans         G Ruhr & Rhine-Westphalian            Q
                                        industrial area.
                                                                                From Mecklenburg, Pommerania, W & E
                                                                                Prussia; 379 K people.

346  12  1918 1921  A Germans         G Area S of Pskov, N SU               A
                                                                                From Latvia & Lithuania. Baltic Germans;
                                                                                attacked western boundary of area
                                                                                controlled by Bolsheviks.

150   6  1918 1925  N Germans         G D                                   Q
                                                                                700 K people from W PL, Danzig (Gdansk),
                                                                                Memel (Klaipeda, Lithuania).

347  54  1919 1924  A Germans         G E D                                 Q
                                                                                40,000 Germans from CS.

235   2  1941 #     N Germans         G Siberia & C Asia                    R
                                                                                From Volga R area S of Saratov N of
                                                                                Volgograd (= Stalingrad, Tsaritsyn). Also
                                                                                small area N of Kuybishev. *{900-654}*
                                                                                Volga Germans. By Soviets. (1.8M people
                                                                                incl other Germans in Russia in 1956).

151   1  1945 1970  N Germans         G CH                                  Q
                                                                                1.85 percent of population. From D.

179  39  1945 1968  N Germans         G W D (FRG)                           Q
                                                                                From DDR, more than 6 M people.

179  38  1945 1950  N Germans         G D (FRG + GDR)                       R
                                                                                From E provinces lost after WWII, 11.8 M
                                                                                people. (E Prussia, new W PL, CS
                                                                                (Sudetenland).)

900 353  1300 1400  A Ghegs           Y GR (Acania, Aetolia, Boetia,        Q
                                        Attica).
                                                                                Acc/to (149-38), N. Hammond: Migrations
                                                                                and invasions in Greece & adjacent area,
                                                                                p.63. From N Albania (N of Shkumbi R &
                                                                                including Kossovo & Metahia districts in
                                                                                YU). *{900-351}*

900 351  1300 1970  A Ghegs           Y N Albania (N of Shkumbi R &         L
                                        including Kossovo & Metahia
                                        districts in YU).
                                                                                Acc/to N. Hammond: Migrations & invasions
                                                                                in Greece and adjacent areas, p.63. Also
                                                                                to conform to (176-10).

160   1  1400 #     A Ghegs           Y Peloponnese: Tripolis               Q
                                                                                From Albania. Observer in 1689 writes
                                                                                there are 3 times as many Albanians as
                                                                                Greeks and Turks. Reference does not
                                                                                distinguish between Ghegs and Tosks. N.
                                                                                Hammond: Migrations & invasions in Greece
                                                                                and adjacent areas, page 61 states 10K
                                                                                migrants.

177   3  1400 1600  A Ghegs           Y Calabria & Sicily                   Q
                                                                                From GR, especially Peloponnese.
                                                                                Diminished Albanian element in GR.

900 354  1400 1600  A Ghegs           Y NW of Albania (Kosovo)              Q
                                                                                Acc/to (149-38), (176-7). From N Albania
                                                                                (N of Shkumbi R & including Kossovo &
                                                                                Metahia districts in YU). *{900-351}*

385   7 -1400 -1100 N Glasinac        U C YU, see map 15a (5);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Labelled Glasinac I between 1400
                                                                                and 1300 BC. End date acc/to (386-9) which
                                                                                also lists an Illyrian region.

388  21  -700 -375  N Golasecca       U Milan area & N into Alps, I, see    L
                                        map 18a (21); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Continued in reduced area in (389-
                                                                                5).

389   5  -375 -50   N Golasecca       U Alps of N C I, see map 20a (5);     L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Late phase of this culture.
                                                                                Continuation of (388-21).

302  32   800 1000  A Goplane         S W of Wisla R, around Inowroclaw,    L
                                        PL (betw Wisla and Notec RR).
                                                                                End date: Our generally accepted date for
                                                                                formation of the Polish people. Will
                                                                                become part of the Poles.

387  39  -800 100   N Gorodec         U Area betw Moscow & Samara R, see    L
                                        map 17a (37); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date to conform to (390-3).

 16   1  -100 400   A Goths           G Oester- & Vaestergoetland & Island  L
                                        of Gotland.
                                                                                End date acc/to (205-6). Not all left to
                                                                                go to Gothi-Scandza. In ref 1 they are
                                                                                called Amali while still in SCA.

900 486   -25 #     A Goths           G {Gothi-Scandza (Gothi-Scandza = N   Q
                                        PL. & N D. between Vistula & Oder
                                        RR covering modern cities of
                                        Gdansk, Szeszin, & Grudziadz.)}
                                        *{1-2}*
                                                                                From Oester- & Vaestergoetland & Island of
                                                                                Gotland. *{16-1}*. Necessary to move Goths
                                                                                from (16-1) to (1-2). Partial migration
                                                                                because (205-6) mentions as Goths as
                                                                                remaining in Goetland.

  1   2   -25 -7    A Goths           G Gothi-Scandza (Gothi-Scandza = N    L
                                        PL. & N D. between Vistula & Oder
                                        RR covering modern cities of
                                        Gdansk, Szeszin, & Grudziadz.)
                                                                                Called Gutoni in reference.

900 487    -7 17    A Goths           G Middle Oder R Both sides of middle  E
                                        Oder R, S boundary reached in E.
                                        Mark Brandenburg, into the Lausitz
                                        area and Lower Silesia.
                                                                                From Gothi-Scandza. (Gothi-Scandza = N PL.
                                                                                & N D. between Vistula & Oder RR covering
                                                                                modern cities of Gdansk, Szeszin, &
                                                                                Grudziadz). *{1-2}*

  1   3    -7 175   N Goths           G {Middle Oder R Both sides of        L
                                        middle Oder R, S boundary reached
                                        in E. Mark Brandenburg, into the
                                        Lausitz area and Lower Silesia.} +
                                        {Gothi-Scandza (Gothi-Scandza = N
                                        PL. & N D. between Vistula & Oder
                                        RR covering modern cities of
                                        Gdansk,
                                        Szeszin, & Grudziadz.)} *{900-487}      Start date to be consistent with (900-
                                        + {1-2}*                                487). End date acc/to (1-9). Reference
                                                                                calls them Gutoni.

  1   9   175 #     A Goths           G Marshes nr Azov Sea                 M
                                                                                From the middle Oder R, both sides of
                                                                                middle Oder R, S boundary reached in E.
                                                                                Mark Brandenburg, into the Lausitz area
                                                                                and Lower Silesia. + Gothi-Scandza. (Gothi-
                                                                                Scandza = N PL. & N D. between Vistula &
                                                                                Oder RR covering modern cities
                                                                                of Gdansk, Szeszin, & Grudziadz.) *{1-3}*
                                                                                Called Gutoni in reference.

900 488   175 240   A Goths           G {Marshes nr Azov Sea} *{1-9}*       L
                                                                                For consistency with (1-9) and (110-49).

 11  55   200 230   N Goths           G NW of Black Sea State between       E
                                        Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea
                                        of Azov, centered on lower Dnepr R.
                                                                                From the marshes nr Azov Sea. *{900-488}*

900 489   200 240   N Goths           G {NW of Black Sea State between      L
                                        Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea
                                        of Azov, centered on lower Dnepr
                                        R.} *{11-55}*
                                                                                For consistency with (11-55) & (110-49).

  1  10   238 #     N Goths           G Dacia & Illyria                     A
                                                                                From NW of Black Sea State between
                                                                                Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea of
                                                                                Azov, centered on lower Dnepr R. *{900-
                                                                                489}*

 11  58   238 #     N Goths           G Thrace                              A
                                                                                From NW of Black Sea State between
                                                                                Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea of
                                                                                Azov, centered on lower Dnepr R. *{900-
                                                                                489}*

 47  12 -1900 -1600 A Greeks          H Pelagonia                           W
                                                                                From NE.

900 188  -700 -600  A Greeks          H Rhode (Rosas, E)                    S
                                                                                From Massalia. Acc/to (53-14), & R. Bosi:
                                                                                Magna Graecia.

900 189  -700 -600  A Greeks          H Heraclia (NE of Gibraltar), Portus  S
                                        Menusius (NW of Cadiz). (See map
                                        p.36 of ref 53.)
                                                                                Acc/to (53-14). From Greece (?).

 11   4  -700 -230  A Greeks          H Olbia, Modern Nikolayev, SU nr      L
                                        mouth of Dnepr R (and possibly
                                        other localities along N coast of
                                        Black Sea.)
                                                                                Refer back to (39-30).

900 190  -650 -550  N Greeks          H Herakleia, Keiros, Tios, Sesamos,   S
                                        Kytoros (all on N coast of AM).
                                        (See map p.66/67 in Levi: Atlas of
                                        the Greek World.)
                                                                                Replaces (224-39). Origin of Herakleia
                                                                                acc/to Ploetz. From Epirus.

 25  22  -648 #     N Greeks          H Himera (Imera, N Sicily)            S
                                                                                Sources differ on founders. Zancle & Mylai
                                                                                (Mylae)(Ionians) are both given in Bosi,
                                                                                as is the possibility of Syracuse
                                                                                (Dorians) which is also given in ref 25.
                                                                                (Use E Sicily as source.) From E Sicily.

900 191  -648 -409  N Greeks          H Himera, NC Sicily                   L
                                                                                For consistency with (25-22). City
                                                                                destroyed by Carthaginians in 409 acc/to
                                                                                (372-4).

317   5  -490 #     A Greeks          H Marathon, GR                        A
                                                                                From Greece. The Persian naval expedition
                                                                                was, incredibly, defeated here.

317  12  -480 #     A Greeks          H Salamis, E GR                       A
                                                                                From Greece.

900 199  -400 #     A Greeks          H Cherson (nr Crimea)                 S
                                                                                From Herakleia which in turn was founded
                                                                                by Megara.

231  20  -250 -150  A Greeks          H E coast of Spain                    L

111   2   193 235   A Greeks          H Pannonia RP                         S
                                                                                From Greece.

900 183  1204 1246  N Greeks          H Skutari, Ochrid & Prilep, Maritza   C
                                        (Marica) R, Thessaloniki (GR),
                                        Skoplje.
                                                                                Acc/to (149-34), (51-140). Acc/to ref 149
                                                                                are Greek, acc/to ref 51 they could
                                                                                possibly be Slavs. From Epirus.

175  10  1600 1800  N Greeks          H YU                                  Q
                                                                                They settled in cities. Not clear whether
                                                                                in all provinces or only in Old Serbia &
                                                                                Macedonia. From Greece.

174   8  1750 1850  A Greeks          H BG                                  Q
                                                                                From Greece; settled in cities.

900 202  1750 1908  A Greeks          H {BG} *{174-8}*                      L
                                                                                In cities. Expelled after independence.

 50  25  1794 1830  N Greeks          H Crimea                              Q
                                                                                Said to be 'massive'. From Greece.

233   1  1900 1923  A Greeks          H E Thrace & Constantinople           L
                                                                                650K to 730K.

233   2  1900 1923  A Greeks          H AM: Aegean coast, Bythinta area,    L
                                        Cappadocia, Pontus (Pontic area--
                                        note this is in AM not N of Black
                                        Sea). See map on p.146.
                                                                                2M in AM.

 45   1  1914 1923  N Greeks          H GR                                  R
                                                                                From Aegean coast.

347  16  1919 1924  A Greeks          H Thrace, GR                          M
                                                                                60K Greeks left from Caucasus for here.
                                                                                Shown on map as NW TR, W of Istanbul, but
                                                                                must be as indicated.

347  20  1919 1924  A Greeks          H Area around Thessaloniki, GR        R
                                                                                From area immediately E of Istanbul, TR.
                                                                                *{347-19}* 300K Greeks left TR for here.

233   3  1920 1923  N Greeks          H Macedonia GR                        R
                                                                                1.5M from AM. Only 43 percent of
                                                                                Macedonian population ethnically Greek
                                                                                before population exchange.

347  22  1922 1924  N Greeks          H N GR                                R
                                                                                1M Greeks left from NW TR for here.

212  17  1940 1960  N Greeks          H Around Kherson & Dnepropetrovsk     L
                                                                                286K people. His figures are pre WW II.

151   6  1945 1970  N Greeks          H CH                                  L
                                                                                0.14 percent of population.

151   9  1945 1970  N Greeks          H W D                                 L
                                                                                0.56 percent of population.

213   6  1960 1970  N Greeks          H Ukrainian villages nr Black Sea     L
                                        (Equivalent to area described in
                                        {212-17}).
                                                                                300-1000K people. The population figures
                                                                                from this book (a generally more detailed
                                                                                reference than 212) have been updated from
                                                                                1970 census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica.

383  20 -1800 -1550 N Grob-Smiardow   U Area W of Oder R and N of Warta R,  L
                                        NW PL, see map 13a(17);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (384-21). Syn.
                                                                                Grob II acc/to (384-21).

901 123 -2800 -2000 A Gumelnita       U Dobrugea (ROM)                      L
                                                                                Culture. Acc/to (173-8).

 48   7 -2200 -1800 A Gumelnita       U Mid & W Muntenia (Valachia) ROM     L
                                                                                Culture.

 30   4   400 550   A Gutar           G Goetland (Island off S)             L

 30   9   500 550   A Gutar           G E Baltic & E sea coast              Q
                                                                                From Goetland (Island off S). *{30-4}*

213   7  1600 1970  A Gypsies         O Moldavia, Ukraine                   L
                                                                                Start date: arbitrary, unknown. 100-300K
                                                                                people. The population figures from this
                                                                                book (a generally more detailed reference
                                                                                than 212) have been updated from 1970
                                                                                census. Figures obtained from the                                                                                
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica. Scattered.


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