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REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

221   7 -1200 -800  A Tabalians       A Area S of Halys R up to Taurus Mts. L
                                                                                These were older Luvians that had survived
                                                                                the Hittite collapse.

 12   9   248 377   N Taifali         G Dacia area of Banat & Lesser        L
                                        Valachia.
                                                                                Not a numerous people. Not explicit where
                                                                                they came from. May have arrived with
                                                                                Visigoths. End date acc/to (12-12).

 12  10   332 #     N Taifali         G Greater Phrygia                     R
                                                                                From Dacia area of Banat & Lesser
                                                                                Valachia. *{12-9}* Romans resettled part
                                                                                of vanquished Taifali.

 12  11   370 #     A Taifali         G Dacia & Thrace                      A
                                                                                From Dacia area of Banat & Lesser
                                                                                Valachia. *{12-9}* With W. Goths.

 12  13   377 #     N Taifali         G I: Mutina (Modena), Regium          R
                                        (Reggio), Parma.
                                                                                From Dacia area of Banat & Lesser
                                                                                Valachia. *{12-9}*

230  18  -800 -200  A Tartessians     U Guadalquivir RV, E                  L
                                                                                End date acc/to (53-1). These are Iberians.

 27  19  -800 -700  A Tarusconenses   K Tarascon in Ariege, F               L
                                                                                Possibly Celticized Pyreneans, not
                                                                                amalgamated until 5 C BC.

229  11  1325 1525  A Tatars          T Byelorussia: Hrodno, Minsk, Troki   S
                                        (modern Trakai), Vilna.
                                                                                From E Russia (Muscovite Empire). *{32-60}*

229  12  1325 1550  A Tatars          T Byelorussia: Hrodno, Minsk, Troki   I
                                        (modern Trakai), Vilna; PL:
                                        Bialystok.
                                                                                By Slavs. By then were Slavic Speakers.
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (32-59).

174   5  1350 #     A Tatars          T E BG                                Q
                                                                                From E Russia (Muscovite Empire). *{32-
                                                                                60}* As frontier guards.

213  17  1450 1970  N Tatars          T Tatar ASSR & scattered in SU (Area  L
                                        outlined on map, p.56 of ref 229.)
                                                                                5000-10000K people. The population figures
                                                                                from this book (a generally more detailed
                                                                                reference than 212) have been updated from
                                                                                1970 census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica. (See also
                                                                                information in record (229-1).)

900 369  1550 1970  A Tatars          S {Byelorussia: Hrodno, Minsk, Troki  L
                                        (modern Trakai), Vilna; PL:
                                        Bialystok.} *{229-12}*
                                                                                Slavicized, but still Islamic. Major
                                                                                emigrations to Ottoman lands in 17th &
                                                                                18th centuries (acc/to ref 229, p.86).

229  13  1600 1800  A Tatars          S Ottoman Empire                      Q
                                                                                Many left from Byelorussia (Hrodno, Minsk,
                                                                                Troki (modern Trakai), Vilna) & PL
                                                                                (Bialystok) because of persecutions. *{900-
                                                                                369}*

 47  39 -1050 -1000 A Taulantii       Y Epidamnos (Durres) & Mati RV (N     M
                                        Albania).
                                                                                From the North.

900 324 -1050 -300  A Taulantii       Y {Epidamnos (Durres) & Mati RV (N    L
                                        Albania).} *{47-39}*
                                                                                Acc/to (47-57), (47-71), (165-7). Although
                                                                                Liburni occupied area from 900 to 626 BC
                                                                                the Taulantii seem to have remained. End
                                                                                date inferred from various citations in
                                                                                the chronology of ref 165.

234  37  -350 -200  A Tauri           U Crimea (ancient Taurida)            L
                                                                                Indigenous (pre-Indoeuropean?) tribe.
                                                                                Become Tauro-Scythae.

 40  74  -250 1     N Taurisci        K Noricum RP                          L
                                                                                Dates conservative bounds. Start date to
                                                                                conform to (165-81), end date conservative
                                                                                guess based on this record.

165  79  -225 #     N Taurisci        K Telamon (modern Talamone)           A
                                        (Tuscany, I)
                                                                                From Alps. (Ref says from Gaul.
                                                                                Unsubstantiated.) Part of tribe
                                                                                annihilated by Romans.(Syn. Teurisci.)

165  81  -225 #     A Taurisci        K Area from L Balaton to SW Pannonia  Q
                                        RP
                                                                                From Noricum (later RP). Part of tribe.

110  31  -225 200   A Taurisci        K {Area from L Balaton to SW          L
                                        Pannonia RP} *{165-81}*
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (165-81).
                                                                                End date from this record.

132  12  -100 #     A Taurisci        K NE tip of N H, see map              Q
                                                                                From Pannonia RP *{110-31}*

234  38  -200 -100  A Tauro-Scythae   U Crimea (ancient Taurida)            L
                                                                                Formed by the amalgamation of Scythians &
                                                                                Tauri. (See records 234-36, 234-37).

169  11 -1000 -1    A Tavasts         F SF                                  L

900 120    -1 1000  A Tavasts         F {SF} - {W Lake District in          T
                                        interior SF, Kokemaeki & Kymi RR
                                        drainage systems.} *{169-11} -
                                        {202-10}*
                                                                                For consistency with (202-10). (Syn.
                                                                                Haemaelaeiset). To W Lake District in
                                                                                interior SF, Kokemaeki & Kymi RR drainage
                                                                                systems. *{202-10}*

202  10    -1 #     A Tavasts         F W Lake District in interior SF,     L
                                        Kokemaeki & Kymi RR drainage
                                        systems.
                                                                                (Syn. Haemaelaeiset).

173  21 -1800 -1200 A Tei             U Valachia E of Olt R, ROM            L
                                                                                Culture. Late Tei Culture is also included
                                                                                in record (385-15), Coslogeni.

131   6 -1700 -1400 A Tell Culture    U E H (see 131, p. 16, Fig.3, shades  L
                                        3a-3c)
                                                                                Culture comprised of Perjamos,
                                                                                Fuezesabony, & Gyulavarsand cultures.

 12 194  -100 -58   A Tencteri        G Modern Upper Hesse, N of Main R     L
                                                                                End date to conform to (12-189).

 12 189   -58 -55   N Tencteri        G Area N of Lippe R                   M
                                                                                From modern Upper Hesse, N of Main R .
                                                                                *{12-194}* Acc/to (187-7), had been
                                                                                displaced by Suebi from their ancestral
                                                                                homes in 58 BC, almost wiped out
                                                                                subsequently by Caesar while looking for
                                                                                land.

900 571   -58 70    N Tencteri        G {Area N. of Lippe R} *{12-189}*     L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-189). End date
                                                                                acc/to (9-28). Suffered heavy losses at
                                                                                hands of Romans in 55 BC. Merged with
                                                                                Tubanti whose name they assumed. Became
                                                                                part of Franks later.

 39  42  -500 -460  A Terizoi         P SE of rt bk Athrys R (modern        L
                                        Jantra) to Chora R (of the
                                        Odessites). (ref 40, fig 4)
                                                                                Subjugated by the Odrysae (by 460 BC).

 47  22 -1250 -1200 A Teucri          U Thrace, Pelagonia to Ionian Sea as  C
                                        far S as Peneus R (in NW
                                        Peloponnese)
                                                                                From AM. (Herodotus' term for Trojans.)

369   9   200 300   A Teuriochaemae   K Thueringerwald region, betw Saale   L
                                        & Werra RR, SW DDR.
                                                                                At time of Roman Empire at greatest
                                                                                extent; Munch thinks they are synonymous
                                                                                with Teurii & Taurisci.

 12  62  -250 -113  A Teutones        G Schleswig-Holstein                  L
                                                                                End date acc/to (12-65).

 12  65  -120 #     A Teutones        G Bohemia up Elbe R to Saxony,        A
                                        crossed Ore Mts. into Bohemia.
                                                                                Cimbri, Teutones, Ambrones travelled in
                                                                                concert for a long time. They left
                                                                                Schleswig-Holstein and surrounding areas
                                                                                because of presumed catastrophic tidal
                                                                                floods in the 2nd C BC. They are repulsed
                                                                                by Boii in Bohemia.

 12  69  -114 #     A Teutones        G Bosnia & Serbia along lower Save R  A
                                        up to Morava R.
                                                                                From Schleswig-Holstein.

900 471  -113 -102  N Teutones        G {S.W.D., land of the Helvetii, +    W
                                        Noricum, Gaul. (See ref 182, Abb
                                        51.)} *{900-469}*
                                                                                From Schleswig-Holstein via Bohemia & Save-
                                                                                Drave area.

900 472  -105 -102  N Teutones        G {RP Belgica} *{182-23}*             A
                                                                                From S.W.D., land of the Helvetii, +
                                                                                Noricum, Gaul. (See ref 182, Abb 51.)
                                                                                *{900-471}*

 11  13  -102 #     N Teutones        G Aix-en-Provence (F)                 A
                                                                                From S.W.D., land of the Helvetii +
                                                                                Noricum, Gaul. (See ref 182, Abb 51.).
                                                                                *{900-471}*

386  35 -1200 -950  N Textile Ceramic U N SU from Estonia to Vologda &      L
                                        Moscow, see map 16a (38);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (387-40).

387  40  -950 -700  N Textile Ceramic U Betw L Ladoga & Unza R, SU, see     L
                                        map 17a (38); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated between this
                                                                                record and (386-25). Culture.

388  42  -700 -150  N Textile Ceramic U N SU & SE SF, S of White Sea & N    L
                                        of Moscow, see ,map 18a (41)
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date to conform to (389-25).

353   5     1 100   A Texuandri       G SE NL, due W of Geldern, D          L
                                                                                Possibly synonymous with Batavi.

385  37 -1400 -1300 N Thapsos         U Sicily, see map 15a (32);           L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

 39   2 -1650 #     A Thracians       P SE Balkans (mostly BG)              M
                                                                                From E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly ROM
                                                                                and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-8).) *{900-
                                                                                253}* Now called Thracians after they
                                                                                leave (900-253).

900 289 -1650 -800  A Thracians       P {SE Balkans (mostly BG)} *{39-2}*   L
                                                                                Acc/to (39-2).

128   4 -1400 #     A Thracians       P GR                                  A
                                                                                From SE Balkans (mostly BG). *{900-289}*

900 290 -1300 #     A Thracians       P {Pieria} *{47-55}*                  S
                                                                                Inferred from (47-55). From SE Balkans
                                                                                (mostly BG). *{900-289}*

 47  55 -1300 -650  A Thracians       P Pieria                              L

900 292 -1200 -800  A Thracians       P {E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly     L
                                        ROM and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-
                                        8).)} *{900-253}*
                                                                                Acc/to (173-24), (173-25).

900 291  -800 #     A Thracians       P Thracian Chersones (modern          E
                                        Gallipoli or Gelibolu Peninsula.)
                                                                                Inferred from (39-22). From SE Balkans
                                                                                (mostly BG). *{900-289}*

900 294  -800 #     A Thracians       P Enclave up to Axius R in W, incl    E
                                        Crestonia in N, Crousis (Crusis)
                                        in S, Sithonia (in Chalcidice)
                                        (for these areas see Putzger Atlas
                                        map 7/8).
                                                                                Inferred from (47-83). From SE Balkans
                                                                                (mostly BG). *{900-289}*

123  14  -800 -1    A Thracians       P Greek Cities                        S
                                                                                Small steady migrations of traders &
                                                                                slaves became hellenized. Since this is
                                                                                for many cities, it is difficult to code
                                                                                until the locality consistency check. Time
                                                                                is probably later than 800 BC. From SE
                                                                                Balkans (mostly BG). *{900-289}*

900 293  -800 500   A Thracians       P {E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly     L
                                        ROM and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-
                                        8).)} + {SE Balkans (mostly BG)} +
                                        {Thracian Chersones (modern
                                        Gallipoli or Gelibolu Peninsula.)}
                                        + {Enclave up to Axius R in W,
                                        incl Crestonia in N, Crousis
                                        (Crusis)
                                        in S, Sithonia (in Chalcidice)          Acc/to (39-22), (47-83), (173-24), (173-
                                        (for these areas see Putzger Atlas      25), (39-2).
                                        map 7/8).} *{900-292} + {900-289}*
                                        * + {900-291} + {900-294}*

 40  32  -600 #     A Thracians       P Abdera on Thracian coast E of       C
                                        Nestos R.
                                                                                From E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly ROM
                                                                                and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-8).) + SE
                                                                                Balkans (mostly BG) + Thracian Chersones
                                                                                (modern Gallipoli or Gelibolu Peninsula.)
                                                                                + Enclave up to Axius R in W, incl
                                                                                Crestonia in N, Crousis (Crusis) in
                                                                                S, Sithonia in Chalcidice) (for these
                                                                                areas see Putzger Atlas map 7/8). *{900-
                                                                                293}*

110  54   180 305   A Thracians       P Aquincum in Pannonia RP             S
                                                                                From Thrace.

114  12   500 1000  A Thracians       P Macedonia (YU, GR)                  I
                                                                                Merged with Macedonian Slavs.

900 296   500 600   A Thracians       P Serbia                              L
                                                                                To accomodate (114-34).

900 297   500 700   A Thracians       P BG                                  L
                                                                                To accomodate (114-5).

114  34   600 800   N Thracians       P {Serbia} *{900-296}*                I
                                                                                By Serbs.

114   5   700 1000  A Thracians       P {BG} *{900-297}*                    I
                                                                                By Bulgarian Slavs.

388   6  -700 -600  N Thuringian      U Betw Elbe & Weser RR, S DDR, see    L
                                        map 18a (6); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

 12 175   400 #     A Thuringians     G NL                                  Q
                                                                                From Mid Elbe R, Saale R area & N of
                                                                                Danube R. Thuringians' area greater than
                                                                                modern Thuringia. Limits: In S, N of
                                                                                Danube R. In Main R area betw Thuringian
                                                                                Forest & Wuerzburg borders area of the
                                                                                Alamanni. In NE up to Elbe R & in N up
                                                                                to Ohre R & Kolbitz-Letzlinger Heide
                                                                                (heath). Toward W & NW border is
                                                                                indefinite. *{195-3}* Some Thuringians
                                                                                were moved to NL under Roman auspices.
                                                                                Date set at 400 AD to conform to name
                                                                                change from Hermunduri to Thuringians.

195   3   400 451   A Thuringians     G Mid Elbe R, Saale R area & N of     L
                                        Danube R. Thuringians' area
                                        greater than modern Thuringia.
                                        Limits: In S, N of Danube R. In
                                        Main R area betw Thuringian Forest
                                        & Wuerzburg borders area of the
                                        Alamanni. In NE up to Elbe R & in
                                        N up to Ohre
                                        R & Kolbitz-Letzlinger Heide            End date to conform to (12-172). Believed
                                        (heath). Toward W & NW border is        to be direct descendants of Hermunduri.
                                        indefinite.                             Name changed around 400 AD.

 12 172   451 #     N Thuringians     G Thuringia In S they settle along    E
                                        Naab & Regen RR, pushing aside the
                                        Naristi who lived there then. In
                                        the N they expanded across the
                                        Harz up to Oker and Ohre RR and
                                        absorbed rests of Cherusci &
                                        Harudi.
                                                                                Former N. Hermunduri. From Mid Elbe R,
                                                                                Saale R area & N of Danube R. Thuringians'
                                                                                area greater than modern Thuringia.
                                                                                Limits: In S, N of Danube R. In Main R
                                                                                area betw Thuringian Forest & Wuerzburg
                                                                                borders area of the Alamanni. In NE
                                                                                up to Elbe R & in N up to Ohre R & Kolbitz-
                                                                                Letzlinger Heide (heath). Toward W & NW
                                                                                border is indefinite. *{195-3}*

900 523   451 500   A Thuringians     G {Thuringia In S they settle along   L
                                        Naab & Regen RR, pushing aside the
                                        Naristi who lived there then. In
                                        the N they expanded across the
                                        Harz up to Oker and Ohre RR and
                                        absorbed rests of Cherusci &
                                        Harudi.} *{12-172}*
                                                                                To conform with (12-172) & (12-173).

195   1   480 #     N Thuringians     G Passau (D)                          A
                                                                                From Thuringia. (In S they settle along
                                                                                Naab & Regen RR, pushing aside the Naristi
                                                                                who lived there then. In the N they
                                                                                expanded across the Harz up to Oker and
                                                                                Ohre RR and absorbed rests of Cherusci &
                                                                                Harudi.) *{12-172}*

 12 173   500 #     A Thuringians     G Land betw Werra R, the Thuringian   E
                                        Forest, Mulde, Elbe, Ohre, Aller,
                                        Oker RR, and the Kaufunger and
                                        Seulings forests.
                                                                                From Thuringia. (In S they settle along
                                                                                Naab & Regen RR, pushing aside the Naristi
                                                                                who lived there then. In the N they
                                                                                expanded across the Harz up to Oker and
                                                                                Ohre RR and absorbed rests of Cherusci &
                                                                                Harudi.) *{12-172}*

900 524   500 750   A Thuringians     G {Land betw Werra R, the Thuringian  L
                                        Forest, Mulde, Elbe, Ohre, Aller,
                                        Oker RR, and the Kaufunger and
                                        Seulings forests.} *{12-173}*
                                                                                To conform with (12-173). End date acc/to
                                                                                (357-5).

119  10  -700 #     A Thynians        P NW AM (N of Nicomedia)              S
                                                                                From area S of Gulf of Burgas. *{119-9}*
                                                                                Acc/to this ref they were the rest of the
                                                                                emigrated Bithynians; considered by the
                                                                                author as a numerous advance guard that
                                                                                crossed over into AM (together with the
                                                                                Bithynians?).

119   9  -700 -650  A Thynians        P S of Gulf of Burgas                 L
                                                                                Acc/to this ref they were the rest of the
                                                                                emigrated Bithynians.

355  10  -100 1     N Tigurini        K L Neuchatel area, CH                L
                                                                                A Helvetian tribe according to Geipel.

900 295  -441 -342  N Tilatei         P Along Isker R. (BG, fig ref 40)     L
                                                                                Acc/to (46-3); see also comment of (40-48).

 37   4 -2000 -1800 A Timbergrave     R Don to Ural RR (see fig 351,        L
                                        xerox).
                                                                                Proto-Scythians.

900 226 -1800 #     A Timbergrave     R Area west of Don to Ural RR (see    E
                                        fig 351, xerox). *{37-4}*
                                                                                From Don to Ural RR (see fig 351, xerox).
                                                                                *{37-4}* Proto-Scythians acc/to ref 37.

900 227 -1800 -750  A Timbergrave     R {Don to Ural RR (see fig 351,       L
                                        xerox).} + {Area west of Don to
                                        Ural RR (see fig 351, xerox).}
                                        *{37-4} + {900-226}*
                                                                                Proto-Scythians acc/to ref 37. We extend
                                                                                termination date from -1100 (ref 37) to -
                                                                                750 to link up with the appearance of
                                                                                Scythians proper. If we should find other
                                                                                gentes occupying this area between -1100
                                                                                and -750, we need to adjust this
                                                                                time.

 38  11 -1100 #     A Timbergrave     R Black Sea coasts                    E
                                                                                They were Proto-Scythians. From lower
                                                                                Volga steppes (part of (900-227)). *{900-
                                                                                227}*

230  11  -800 -500  A Titi            U S of present Basque region of E, W  L
                                        of Urgel Plain in Ebro RV.
                                                                                These are Celtiberians.

900 753   600 1400  A Tiverce         S S Bessarabia betw Prut and Dnestr   L
                                        RR.
                                                                                Acc/to (301-10), (234-154), (169-85), etc.
                                                                                Part of Antes.

143  16  -750 -50   A Tolosati        K Toulouse                            L
                                                                                Possibly Celticized. Pyreneans who were
                                                                                not amalgamated until the 5th c. BC.

388  28  -700 -600  N Tombe a Fossa   U Appenine Mts, C & S I, see map 18a  L
                                        (27); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Syn. "Ditch Grave" culture.

900 352  1300 1970  A Tosks           Y S Albania (S of Shkumbi R up to     L
                                        Aous R; see map 14 in Hammond).
                                                                                Acc/to N. Hammond: Migrations & invasions
                                                                                in Greece and adjacent areas, p.63. Also
                                                                                to conform to (176-11).

371   4   900 1000  N Trebovane       S W bank Odra R around Wroclaw        L
                                        (Breslau) & W to around Bobr R, SW
                                        PL.
                                                                                Will become part of Poles.

 40  16  -700 #     A Treri           P Bosporus, AM via Balkans            A
                                                                                From area along Isker R (Iskar R, BG). (It
                                                                                is in Rand McNally but not in index
                                                                                (tributary of Danube).) *{900-280}* With
                                                                                Cimmerians (ref (40-15)).

 40  21  -700 -650  A Treri           P Kyzikos, Chalcedon, Sinope,         A
                                        Trapezunt (Trapezus) & other
                                        Ionian cities of (N) AM.
                                                                                From area along Isker R (Iskar R, BG). (It
                                                                                is in Rand McNally but not in index
                                                                                (tributary of Danube).) *{900-280}* With
                                                                                Cimmerians (ref (40-20)).

900 280  -700 -429  A Treri           P Along Isker R (Iskar R, BG) (It is  L
                                        in Rand McNally but not in index
                                        (tributary of Danube).)
                                                                                End date acc/to (46-2). Start date
                                                                                inferred from (40-16).

224  25  -630 #     A Treri           P W AM at Sardis nr Izmir             A
                                                                                From Balkans?

900 981  -750 100   A Treveri         K Ardennes (B), Moselle RV            L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (143-23). These are
                                                                                Urnfield people hypothesized by Posch-
                                                                                Gimperato to be the early Treveri. End
                                                                                date acc/to (353-20). Considered
                                                                                Germanized Celts by some, Celticized
                                                                                Germanics by others (e.g. (183-7), (184-
                                                                                2)).
 
900 283  -500 -375  A Triballi        P {Betw Isker (Iskar) & Velika        L
                                        Morava RR}, but also lower portion
                                        of Southern (Juz.) Morava R. (See
                                        ref 117, map p.132.) *{See {117-
                                        3}, area in bracket.}*
                                                                                Acc/to (117-2) and (46-1).

 46   4  -376 -375  N Triballi        P Abdera (Thracian coast)             A
                                                                                From area betw Isker (Iskar) & Velika
                                                                                Morava RR, but also lower portion of
                                                                                Southern (Juz.) Morava R. (See ref 117,
                                                                                map p.132.) *{900-283}* 30K warriors.

 40  52  -376 #     N Triballi        P Hinterlands of Abdera & Maroneia    S
                                        (modern Maronia, S of Komotini)
                                                                                Pushed by Illyrians; settled there after
                                                                                unsuccessful attack on Abdera. End date
                                                                                not given. From BG portion of {900-283}.
                                                                                This is roughly between Struma and Iskar
                                                                                RR. *{900-284}*

900 285  -376 -300  A Triballi        P {Hinterlands of Abdera & Maroneia   L
                                        (modern Maronia, S of Komotini)}
                                        *{40-52}*
                                                                                Pushed by Illyrians; settled there after
                                                                                unsuccessful attack on Abdera. End date
                                                                                not given. (See ref (40-52).)

900 284  -375 -100  A Triballi        P BG portion of {900-283}. This is    L
                                        roughly between Struma and Iskar
                                        RR.
                                                                                Acc/to (27-84) and (23-19). Pushed into
                                                                                this smaller region by Autariatae who
                                                                                themselves were pushed by Celts.

 46   5  -339 -335  N Triballi        P Macedonia                           A
                                                                                From BG portion of {900-283}. This is
                                                                                roughly between Struma and Iskar RR. *{900-
                                                                                284}*

 46   8  -100 -30   N Triballi        P Betw lower S Morava & Isker RR      I
                                                                                By mixture of Y, K, P, I in area.

 12 131   -70 -1    A Triboci         G Nr Stuttgart                        L
                                                                                End date to agree with (12-143).

900 602   -61 #     N Triboci         G {Nr Strassbourg} *{12-135}*         Q
                                                                                From area nr Stuttgart. *{12-131}* For
                                                                                consistency with (12-135).

 12 135   -61 100   N Triboci         G Nr Strassbourg                      L
                                                                                End date acc/to (353-17).

 46  33     1 200   A Triconenses     K NW Upper Moesia RP (Sopot, Ritopek) L
                                                                                May be a subgroup of the Scordisci.

234   1 -2500 -1800 A Tripolye        U Middle Dnepr R area in Ukraine      L
                                                                                Culture.

382   6 -2200 -1700 N Troy            U NW AM and Thrace, see map 12a (2);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (383-4). Culture comprises
                                                                                Troy V & VI.

384   3 -1700 -1250 N Troy            U W AM and Thrace, see map 14a (1b);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This is the Troy VI Culture. Start date
                                                                                for consistency with (382-6); end date
                                                                                acc/to (385-3) and for consistency with
                                                                                (386-14). This appears to be an expansion
                                                                                of area in (382-6). We are not certain
                                                                                this is correct.

386  14 -1250 -1100 N Troy            U NW AM, Thrace & W coast Black Sea,  L
                                        see map 16a (13); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This is the Troy VII culture. Start date
                                                                                for consistency with (384-3). This appears
                                                                                to be a relocation of (384-3). We are not
                                                                                certain this is correct.

 13   5 -1650 -1200 A Trzciniec       U E of Oder R between right           L
                                        tributaries of Oder R & middle
                                        course of Dnepr R (see Fig. 3, p.
                                        35)
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (384-25).
                                                                                Derived from Corded Pottery Ceramics. Gave
                                                                                rise to Belogrudov culture.

386  32 -1200 -1100 N Trzciniec       U S & E Belorussia and N Ukraine,     L
                                        see map 16a (33); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This culture includes Sosnick group. This
                                                                                is a smaller area than earlier (13-5).

 12 197   -55 #     N Tubanti         G Area N of Lippe R                   M
                                                                                Joined Usipii & Tencteri (unknown from
                                                                                where), the offshoot of one of whom they
                                                                                may have been originally. Thereafter the 3
                                                                                tribes are known as Tubanti. Estimate of
                                                                                430K souls must be a great exaggeration.

900 573   -55 400   A Tubanti         G {Area N of Lippe R} *{12-197}*      L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-197), end date
                                                                                acc/to (12-198). Merged with Tencteri &
                                                                                Usipii. Later became Franks.

112   6 -2100 -1300 A Tumulus         U W Serbia, Glasinac, Herzegovina,    L
                                        Montenegro & Dalmatia.

139  14 -1750 -1300 A Tumulus         U Danubian area (C Europe)            L
                                                                                & Urnfield.

353   6     1 100   N Tungri          G Area E of Brussels, B               L
                                                                                Germanic speakers according to Geipel.
                                                                                Successors of Eburoni.

383  42 -1800 -1550 N Turbino         U Area around Perm, SU, see map 13a   L
                                        (38); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (384-36).

385  27 -1400 -1300 N Turbino-Sejmin  U Area betw Vologdar Perm, C SU,see   L
                                        map 15a (23); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

 32   6  -300 -250  A Turcics         T N & E of Altai Mts                  L

234  72   572 #     N Turcics         T N Caucasian area                    C
                                                                                From Turkestan.

900 410   572 700   A Turcics         T {N Caucasian area} *{234-72}*       L
                                                                                For consistency with (234-72). End date is
                                                                                guess only.

234  73   576 #     N Turcics         T Crimea                              A
                                                                                From N Caucasian area. *{234-72}*

230  19  -800 50    A Turdetani       U Guadalquivir RV, E                  L
                                                                                End date acc/to (231-12). These are
                                                                                Iberians.

231  13  -100 50    A Turduli         U C & S Andalusia (E)                 L
                                                                                These are Iberians.

236   5  1040 1100  A Turkmens        T E provinces of Byzantine Empire (E  Q
                                        AM).
                                                                                From C Asia.

900 415  1100 1300  A Turkmens        T {E provinces of Byzantine Empire    L
                                        (E AM).} *{236-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-5). End date is
                                                                                a guess.

900 427  1200 1300  N Turks           T {AM (minus Cilicia)} *{130-8}*      Q
                                                                                Acc/to ref 130. From East. With Mongol
                                                                                armies.

130   8  1200 1970  N Turks           T AM (minus Cilicia)                  L

232  68  1307 1309  N Turks           T Athens (Duchy of) GR                Q
                                                                                From AM. Several thousand Turks recruited
                                                                                by Catalan freebooters.

149  44  1354 1365  N Turks           T Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv,    C
                                        BG), Adrianople (Edirne, TR).
                                                                                From AM.

900 444  1354 1970  N Turks           T Gallipoli, Adrianople (Edirne,      L
                                        TR). *2/3 of {149-44}*
                                                                                For consistency with (149-44).

900 449  1354 1885  N Turks           T Plovdiv (incl. all of E Rumelia)    L
                                        (see Putzger p. 97, map II). *1/3
                                        of {149-44}*
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map II.

 51 142  1371 1430  N Turks           T Macedonia                           C
                                                                                End date acc/to (130-14). From AM.

900 445  1371 1913  N Turks           T {Macedonia} *{51-142}*              L
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map II.

338  10  1389 #     N Turks           T Serbia                              C
                                                                                From Macedonia + Gallipoli, Philippople
                                                                                (Plovdiv, BG), Adrianople (Edirne, TR).
                                                                                *{51-142} + {149-44}* Under Bayezid I,
                                                                                reduced area to vassal status. No mention
                                                                                of extent of Turks' presence. Not
                                                                                including Belgrade.

900 446  1389 1817  N Turks           T N Serbia (see Putzger p.97, map I.) L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I.

900 448  1389 1878  N Turks           T S Serbia (see Putzger p.97, map I.) L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I.

338  11  1393 #     N Turks           T BG                                  C
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}* Under
                                                                                Bayezid I, absorbed this Medieval Slav
                                                                                Kingdom into Ottoman Empire.

900 450  1393 1878  N Turks           T BG (northern portion. See Putzger   L
                                        p.97, map I).
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map I.

338  25  1396 #     N Turks           T Area around Nicopolis, N BG, NW of  A
                                        Varna.
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}* But
                                                                                failed to take city in this Western
                                                                                campaign. (Source of this comment is
                                                                                unknown.)

338  26  1396 #     A Turks           T Area between Carpathian Mts & E     C
                                        coast R (Wallachia).
                                                                                From BG. *{338-11}* Area became a vassal
                                                                                state to Ottoman empire. No mention of
                                                                                extent of Turkish presence.

900 451  1396 1829  N Turks           T Wallachia                           L
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz p.828.

338  15  1413 1451  N Turks           T Coastal GR (except for              C
                                        Peloponnese), coastal Albania E to
                                        Elbasan, E across into S YU, & NE
                                        to Nis, YU. (See map 1, p.139,
                                        Times Atlas.)
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}*
                                                                                Conquests & reconquests under Mehemmed I,
                                                                                1413-1421, & Murad II, 1421-1451.

900 442  1413 1912  N Turks           T Albania                             L
                                                                                Area became independent (Ploetz).

900 443  1413 1830  N Turks           T Coastal Greece                      L
                                                                                Area became independent (Ploetz).

130  16  1453 #     N Turks           T Constantinople                      C
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}*

900 436  1453 #     N Turks           T Peloponnese (syn. Morea)            C
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.380). From European Turkey.

900 430  1453 1970  N Turks           T {Constantinople} *{130-16}*         L
                                                                                For consistency with (130-16).

900 437  1453 1699  N Turks           T {Peloponnese (syn. Morea)} *{900-   L
                                        436}*
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.380).

338  27  1455 #     A Turks           T E Carpathian Mts to Crimea (Bogdan  C
                                        = Moldavia).
                                                                                From area between Carpathian Mts & E coast
                                                                                R (Wallachia). *{338-26}* The Khanate of
                                                                                Crimea became a vassal state to Ottoman
                                                                                empire in 1575. No mention of extent of
                                                                                Turkish presence.

900 452  1455 1829  N Turks           T Moldavia                            L
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz p.828.

338  18  1456 #     N Turks           T Belgrade, YU                        A
                                                                                From Serbia (not including Belgrade).
                                                                                *{338-10}* Under Mehemmed II, but failed
                                                                                to take the city in this Western campaign.

149  51  1463 1501  N Turks           T Coastal Dalmatia, Negroponte        C
                                        (Euboia), Kaffa and other places
                                        around Straights of Kerc (Crimea),
                                        Scutari (Shkoder, Alb.)
                                                                                Naval conquests from European Turkey.
                                                                                Taken from Venetians and Genoese (Kaffa).

338  17  1463 1480  A Turks           T Bosnia, Herzegovina                 C
                                                                                From Serbia. Under Mehemmed II, absorbed
                                                                                this area back under Ottoman rule.

900 453  1463 1783  N Turks           T Crimea                              L
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz, p.692. Annexed by Russia.

900 454  1463 1830  N Turks           T Euboia                              L
                                                                                Greek independence (Ploetz).

900 455  1463 1699  N Turks           T Coastal Dalmatia                    L
                                                                                Acc/to Columbia History of the World p.612.

900 456  1463 1878  N Turks           T Bosnia-Herzegovina                  L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I. Occupied by
                                                                                Austria-Hungary.

130  18  1474 #     N Turks           T Cilicia                             C
                                                                                From AM (minus Cilicia). *{130-8}*

900 431  1474 1970  N Turks           T {Cilicia} *{130-18}*                L
                                                                                For consistency with (130-18).

338  22  1484 #     N Turks           T Kilija (Danube delta), S SU &       C
                                        Akkerman, around present day
                                        Belgorod Dnestrovskij, on Dnestr &
                                        Black Sea.
                                                                                From Moldavia. Along the land route from
                                                                                Constantinople to the Crimea.

900 457  1484 1829  N Turks           T {Kilija (Danube delta), S SU &      L
                                        Akkerman, around present day
                                        Belgorod Dnestrovskij, on Dnestr &
                                        Black Sea.} *{338-22}*
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz, p.1081. Taken over by
                                                                                Russians.

342  18  1520 1566  A Turks           T Transylvania                        C
                                                                                From Wallachia & reduced area to vassal
                                                                                status.

900 434  1520 1699  A Turks           T {Transylvania} *{342-18}*           L
                                                                                For consistency with (342-18). End date
                                                                                from Ploetz & Putzger. Area became
                                                                                Austrian.

342   6  1521 #     N Turks           T Belgrade, YU                        C
                                                                                From Serbia.

900 447  1521 1817  N Turks           T Belgrade                            L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I.

342  10  1522 #     N Turks           T Rhodes                              C
                                                                                From AM.

900 458  1522 1912  N Turks           T {Rhodes} *{342-10}*                 L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map II.

130  22  1526 #     N Turks           T H (includes Slavonija in N YU)      C
                                                                                From Serbia. Slavonija included acc/to
                                                                                Putger.

900 433  1526 1699  N Turks           T {H (includes Slavonija in N YU)}    L
                                        *{130-22}*
                                                                                For consistency with (130-22). End date
                                                                                from Ploetz & several other sources.
                                                                                Conquered by Hapsburgs.

342   5  1529 #     N Turks           T Vienna, A                           A
                                                                                From H. Ottoman siege.

342   9  1532 #     N Turks           T Guens (Koezeg), (H border w/A)      A
                                                                                From H. Ottoman siege.

342   8  1537 #     N Turks           T Corfu (W coast GR)                  N
                                                                                From European Turkey. Ottoman siege.

342  13  1537 #     N Turks           T Otranto, SE I ('heel')              N
                                                                                From European Turkey. Ottoman campaign.

342  17  1538 #     N Turks           T Moldavia, via Adrianople, BG        A
                                        Silistria, R & Jassy, Moldavia.
                                                                                From European Turkey.

342  20  1538 #     N Turks           T Bender, just N of Black Sea S SU    C
                                                                                From Wallachia.

342  12  1543 #     N Turks           T Reggio, SW I ('toe')                N
                                                                                From European Turkey. Ottoman siege.

342  14  1565 #     N Turks           T Malta                               N
                                                                                From N Africa. Ottoman siege.

 50  11  1569 #     N Turks           T Pontic area (N of Black Sea) up to  A
                                        Astrakhan.
                                                                                From Crimea. 30K strong.

149  54  1571 #     N Turks           T Cyprus                              C
                                                                                From AM.

900 432  1571 1878  N Turks           T {Cyprus} *{149-54}*                 L
                                                                                For consistency with (149-54). Turkish
                                                                                Cypriots remained after end of Turkish
                                                                                occupation in 1878. Britain occupied the
                                                                                island at that time.

 50  17  1645 1669  N Turks           T Crete                               C
                                                                                From AM. Took it from the Venetians.

900 459  1645 1898  N Turks           T {Crete} *{50-17}*                   L
                                                                                Became autonomous. (Putzger, p.97, map II)

 50  19  1677 1680  N Turks           T Ukraine (except for Crimea).        A
                                                                                From Balkans. 'Great Turkish armies'.

 50  20  1677 1680  N Turks           T Podolia (see map p.65, Putzger).    C
                                                                                From Balkans. 'Great Turkish armies'.

900 435  1677 1699  N Turks           T {Podolia (see map p.65, Putzger).}  L
                                        *{50-20}*
                                                                                For consistency with (50-20). End date
                                                                                from Ploetz. Taken over by Poland.

344   5  1683 #     N Turks           T Vienna, A                           A
                                                                                From H. Laid siege to Vienna in July,
                                                                                1863. The citizens & garrison held out
                                                                                long enough for Polish relief forces to
                                                                                cross Danube & hilly countryside to the N
                                                                                & W of Vienna.

900 440  1719 #     N Turks           T {Peloponnese (syn. Morea)} *{900-   C
                                        436}*
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.380). From European Turkey.

900 441  1719 1830  N Turks           T {Peloponnese (syn. Morea)} *{900-   L
                                        436}*
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.382).

347  28  1913 1939  N Turks           T TR                                  R
                                                                                110K Turks left from BG.

347  30  1913 1939  N Turks           T TR                                  R
                                                                                80K Turks left from ROM.

347  24  1919 1924  A Turks           T TR                                  R
                                                                                350K Turks left from NE GR.

347  36  1919 1924  A Turks           T TR                                  R
                                                                                20K Turks left from YU.

900 428  1945 1970  N Turks           T CH                                  Q
                                                                                Acc/to (151-8). 27K from TR. 0.19 percent
                                                                                of CH population.

900 429  1945 1970  N Turks           T W D                                 Q
                                                                                Acc/to (151-13). 469K from TR. 0.77
                                                                                percent of population.

 27  49  -800 -700  A Turoni          K Thuringia                           L
                                                                                Start date: guess. End date: to conform to
                                                                                (27-57).

 27  57  -700 -650  A Turoni          K Touraine (F), Teruel (E)            M
                                                                                From Thuringia *{27-49}* Pushed out by
                                                                                Germanic tribes. Main population in
                                                                                Touraine, splinter group in Teruel
                                                                                (location furnished by (53-18)).

 53  18  -700 -600  A Turoni          K Teruel (E)                          L
                                                                                Dates are from this ref, but also to
                                                                                conform to (27-57) and (27-124).

900 964  -700 -50   A Turoni          K Touraine, F                         L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-57). End date
                                                                                (conservative) suggested by (356-2).

 27 124  -600 -550  N Turoni          K Castilian High Plains               W
                                                                                From Teruel (E) *{53-18}*

 27 129  -550 -500  A Turoni          K Castilian High Plains               I
                                                                                By Belgae.

367   5  -200 -100  A Tyritae         U Area just inland from Black Sea,    L
                                        betw Dnestr & Kogil'nik RR, S
                                        Moldavia, SU.
                                                                                Probably Iranian speakers (source?).

 26   4 -2400 -1900 A Tyrrhenian      U Castelluccio (SE Sicily)            L
                                                                                Culture. From East by way of sea, Aegaean
                                                                                influence. Dates need confirmation. They
                                                                                are only implicit.

355   6  -100 1     N Uberi           U Berner Alps area, near Brig, on     L
                                        Rhone R, CH.
                                                                                Probably Celtic tribe.

 12 207  -100 -58   A Ubii            G Betw Rhine & Main RR & Westerwald   L
                                        (S neighbors of Sugambri)
                                                                                End date for consistency with (12-208).

 12 208   -58 #     N Ubii            G Area of Eburoni N border area of    R
                                        the Cuberni nr Xanthen, S border
                                        along Vinxtbach (the border
                                        between upper & lower D), W border
                                        cities of Zuelpich & Dueren, E
                                        border the Rhine (including city
                                        of Cologne).
                                                                                From area betw Rhine & Main RR &
                                                                                Westerwald (S neighbors of Sugambri). *{12-
                                                                                207}* Resettled by Romans because Suebi
                                                                                attacked Ubii. The Ubii became Romanized
                                                                                quite early.

900 588   -58 100   A Ubii            G {Area of Eburoni N border area of   L
                                        the Cuberni nr Xanthen, S border
                                        along Vinxtbach (the border
                                        between upper & lower D), W border
                                        cities of Zuelpich & Dueren, E
                                        border the Rhine (including city
                                        of Cologne).} *{12-208}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-208). End date
                                                                                approximate. The Ubii became romanized
                                                                                early, partly as a result of the founding
                                                                                of a Roman veteran's colony (Colonia
                                                                                Agrippinensium, the modern Cologne) in
                                                                                their territory in 48 AD. Ref 12 says they
                                                                                later joined Franks who treated them as
                                                                                slaves.

169  31   500 1970  A Udmurts         F Udmurtian ASSR; also adjacent       L
                                        areas of Bashkiria, Perm,Kirov
                                        (see Fig 11).
                                                                                Start date: guess to correspond with other
                                                                                Finnic tribes. End date: still there.
                                                                                Udmurtian ASSR (476 K), Bashkiria (25 K),
                                                                                Perm (28 K), Kirov (50 K). Syn. Votyaks.

234 107   400 500   A Ugrians         C N Caucasian area                    Q
                                                                                From along Kama & Belaya RR modern area of
                                                                                Bashkiria. *{127-5}* Described as Ural and
                                                                                trans-Ural regions.

900 411   450 #     A Uguri           T {Volga R Steppes} *{11-36}*         M
                                                                                For consistency with (11-36). From Ural R
                                                                                Steppes. *{11-35}*

 11  35   450 500   A Uguri           T Ural R Steppes                      L
                                                                                Start date questionable.

 11  36   450 750   A Uguri           T Volga R Steppes                     L
                                                                                For consistency with (11-39).

 11  37   600 #     A Uguri           T Balkans                             A
                                                                                From Volga R Steppes. *{11-36}*

 11  38   680 #     A Uguri           T BG                                  Q
                                                                                From Volga R Steppes. To contribute to
                                                                                formation of Bulgars.

 11  39   750 800   A Uguri           T Volga R Steppes                     I
                                                                                Some contributed to formation of Magyars.

213   1  1400 1970  N Ukrainians      S Ukraine                             L
                                                                                Start date: to connect with various E.
                                                                                Slavic tribes in the area. End date: still
                                                                                there. In 1970, 40753K people. The
                                                                                population figures from this book (a
                                                                                generally more detailed reference than
                                                                                212) have been updated from 1970 census.
                                                                                Figures obtained from the Encyclopedia
                                                                                Brittanica.

341   6  1560 1700  A Ukrainians      S Forest-steppe zone (see wooded      Q
                                        steppe, ref 328)
                                                                                From PL.

 50  21  1672 1681  N Ukrainians      S E of Dnepr R                        Q
                                                                                From Podolia (betw U Dnestr & Juzhny Bug
                                                                                RR). Many, fleeing from Turks.

169  77  1800 1900  A Ukrainians      S Novorossja (S steppes N of Crimea)  Q
                                                                                From Ukrainian heartland (Kiev, Cernigov,
                                                                                Poltava).

900 754   700 1300  A Ulice           S N Bessarabia & S Podolia, betw      L
                                        Dnestr & Prut RR.
                                                                                Acc/to (169-72), (169-84), (147-2), (234-
                                                                                153). Part of Antes. Evidence on location
                                                                                is ambiguous. Refs (301-9) & (13-57) place
                                                                                them betw Juzhni Bug & Dnepr RR. (Syn:
                                                                                Ulichi, Uluchi, Uglichi, Ulutichi,
                                                                                Liutichi, Luchane.)

 26  31  -800 -500  A Umbri           I C I, Map page 359 (for better map   L
                                        see ref 164 map 3)
                                                                                Part of Umbri-Sabelli. End date acc/to
                                                                                (320-7).

164   4 -1000 -800  A Umbri-Sabelli   I C & S I exc Apulia (See Map 1)      L
                                                                                Spelled Ombri in ref. They split up into
                                                                                Umbri and Sabelli by 800 BC, which gives
                                                                                rise to end date.

383  15 -1800 -1675 N Unetice         U Elbe R, Oder R, and Morava (March)  L
                                        R areas (E A), S CS, D, & PL, see
                                        map 13a(13); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Called "Older Unetice." End date
                                                                                interpolated between this record and (384-
                                                                                17). Believed by (19-3) to have been Indo-
                                                                                Europeans.

384  17 -1675 -1550 N Unetice         U Elbe, Saale, Odra (Oder), Warta,    L
                                        Vltava RR, D, DDR, PL, CS, see map
                                        14a (12b); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Cuture called "Classical Unetice." Start
                                                                                date interpolated between this record and
                                                                                (383-15). Location shifted over (383-15).
                                                                                Believed by ref (19-3) to have been Indo-
                                                                                Europeans.

386  45 -1200 -700  N Unstrut         U Unstrut R, DDR, see map 16a (4a);   L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (387-4) where in
                                                                                Czech Atlas area 4a is called "related
                                                                                groups" (to Saalemuendungsgruppe).

383  16 -1800 -1700 N Unterwoebling   U Danube R area A, see map 13a (14);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

365   1 -1300 -700  A Urnfield        U C & E Europe (see Map 2 p 172,      L
                                        hatched central area for outline),
                                        & I (all) & Sicily.
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to Czech Atlas, map
                                                                                17a. In N & W I this culture is called
                                                                                Villanova. It eventually gave way to
                                                                                Etruscan culture.

157   8 -1200 -1100 A Urnfield        U Albania                             L
                                                                                Culture.

901 114 -1200 -700  A Urnfield        U NL, C & S D (W of {365-1}), B, E    L
                                        F, Rhone R basin, &
                                        Slovenia,Croatia, N Bosnia (mostly
                                        from Czech Atlas, map 16a & 17a,
                                        look for popelnicovyeh poli).
                                                                                Acc/to (179-16), (181-4), (365-4), and
                                                                                (365-6).  Culture.

225  19  -900 -700  A Urnfield        U Catalonia, Aragon, C Spain, also S  M
                                        F (acc/to (365-7))
                                                                                From NL, C & S D (W of {365-1}), B, E F,
                                                                                Rhone R basin, & Slovakia, Croatia, N
                                                                                Bosnia (mostly from Czech Atlas, map 16a &
                                                                                17a, look for popelnicovyeh poli). *{901-
                                                                                114}* Culture. Not
                                                                                a large ethnic contribution acc/to (230-
                                                                                22). Possibly earliest Celts.

901 115  -900 -700  A Urnfield        U {Catalonia, Aragon, C Spain, also   L
                                        S F (acc/to (365-7))} *{225-19}*
                                                                                For consistency with (225-19). Not a large
                                                                                ethnic contribution acc/to (230-22).
                                                                                Possibly earliest Celts.

153  26  -800 -700  A Urnfield        U ROM, BG                             L
                                                                                Culture. Calibrated BC dates. Other
                                                                                locations mentioned but these were already
                                                                                captured in other records.

 12 193  -100 -58   A Usipii          G Modern Upper Hesse, N of Main R     L
                                                                                End date to conform to (12-188).

 12 188   -58 -55   N Usipii          G Area N of Lippe R                   M
                                                                                From modern Upper Hesse, N of Main R. *{12-
                                                                                193}* Acc/to (187-6), had been displaced
                                                                                by Suebi from their ancestral homes in 58
                                                                                BC, almost wiped out subsequently by
                                                                                Caesar while looking for land. (Syn. with
                                                                                Usipetes).

900 572   -58 70    A Usipii          G {Area N of Lippe R} *{12-188}*      L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-188). End date
                                                                                acc/to (9-28) for Tencteri. Suffered heavy
                                                                                losses at hands of Romans in 55 BC. Merged
                                                                                with Tubanti whose name they assumed.
                                                                                Became part of Franks later.

  7   4   375 700   A Utriguri        T Sea of Azov E shore Sea of Azov     L
                                        from Don R to Kerc (Crimea).
                                                                                End date for consistency with (234-89).

 40 113   481 558   N Utriguri        T Thracia & Moesia inf RP The newly   A
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.
                                                                                From Sea of Azov, E shore Sea of Azov from
                                                                                Don R to Kerc (Crimea). *{7-4}*

234  89   650 #     N Utriguri        T Lower Danube R region               S
                                                                                From Azov region.

 49   7   889 895   A Uzi             T {Area between Ural & Volga RR}      Q
                                        (given in ref as: Patxinachia,
                                        Chaxaria, Alania (transcribed from
                                        Greek). Former homeland of
                                        Pechenegi.) *{900-387}*
                                                                                Part of tribe. From C Asia, beyond Urals &
                                                                                Caspian Sea up to Altai Mts. *{49-6}*
                                                                                Dates to conform with (900-392).

900 397   889 1055  A Uzi             T {Area between Ural & Volga RR}      L
                                        (given in ref as: Patxinachia,
                                        Chaxaria, Alania (transcribed from
                                        Greek). Former homeland of
                                        Pechenegi.) *{49-7}*
                                                                                For consistency with (49-7) and (49-9).

 49   9  1055 1064  N Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        M
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) *{900-
                                        393}*
                                                                                From area between Ural & Volga RR (given
                                                                                in ref as: Patxinachia, Chaxaria, Alania
                                                                                (transcribed from Greek). Former homeland
                                                                                of Pechenegi.) *{49-7}* Probably coexisted
                                                                                with the Pechenegi for a period of time.

900 398  1055 1100  A Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        L
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) *{49-9}*
                                                                                For consistency with (49-9) and (49-11),
                                                                                (49-12).

 49  11  1100 #     A Uzi             T Macedonia                           R
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR
                                                                                (given in reference as: Bug, Sereth, Lower
                                                                                Danube RR.) *{900-398}* Part of tribe.
                                                                                Pushed out by Cumans.

 49  12  1100 #     A Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        T
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) -
                                        {Perislavija (SU)} *{900-398} -
                                        {901-222}*
                                                                                To Perislavija (SU). *{901-222}*  Part of
                                                                                tribe. Pushed out by Cumans.

901 222  1100 #     A Uzi             T Perislavija (SU).                   L
                                                                                For consistency with (49-12).

385  30 -1400 -1300 N Uzmen           U L Dvina R area, NE Belorussia, see  L
                                        map 15a (25a); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

231  14  -100 50    A Vaccaei         U N Old Castile (E)                   L
                                                                                Iberians (? text not entirely clear).

 30   2   400 550   A Vaestgoetar     G Vaestergoetland, S                  L

383  40 -1800 -1300 N Valdaj          U Lovat R area, NW SU, see map 13a    L
                                        (36); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-29).

  6   1  -200 -100  A Vandals         G Uppland in S                        L
                                                                                Also located by other authors (170-8) in N
                                                                                Jutland, DK.

170   8  -200 -100  A Vandals         G N Jutland                           L
                                                                                Also located by other authors in Uppland
                                                                                Prov., S (6-1).

  6   2  -100 #     A Vandals         G Bay of Gdansk                       M
                                                                                Crossed East Sea. From N Jutland + Uppland
                                                                                in S. *{170-8} + {6-1}*

900 544  -100 50    A Vandals         G {Bay of Gdansk} *{6-2}*             L
                                                                                To conform to (6-2) & (6-3).

  6   3    50 #     A Vandals         G S PL S Posen, Congress PL,          M
                                        Galicia, and the largest part of
                                        Silesia.
                                                                                From Bay of Gdansk. *{6-2}* They were
                                                                                pushed there by later arriving Rugii.

900 545    50 150   A Vandals         G {S PL S Posen, Congress PL,         L
                                        Galicia, and the largest part of
                                        Silesia.} *{6-3}*
                                                                                For consistency with (6-3), (900-546),
                                                                                (900-547).

  6   9   409 429   N Vandals         G RPP Gallaecia, Lusitania, Baetica,  W
                                        Carthaginiensis (E)
                                                                                From E. *{11-90}* Battles with Suebi,
                                                                                Goths, & others. They caused much
                                                                                destruction. Again called Vandals from now
                                                                                on.

 11  92   426 #     N Vandals         G Balearic Is, Mauretania             N
                                                                                From RPP Gallaecia, Lusitania, Baetica,
                                                                                Carthaginiensis (E). *{6-9}*

 11  93   429 #     N Vandals         G Tingis (mod Tangier, N Africa)      M
                                                                                From RPP Gallaecia, Lusitania, Baetica,
                                                                                Carthaginiensis (E). *{6-9}* Acc/to (6-
                                                                                10), census revealed 80K people total.

 11  94   429 439   N Vandals         G Carthage Most around Carthage in    M
                                        RP Proconsularis, some N of
                                        Bysazena, coast of Mauretanias nr
                                        Tipasa & Cherchel.
                                                                                From Tingis (mod Tangier, N Africa). *{11-
                                                                                93}*

900 551   439 533   N Vandals         G {Carthage Most around Carthage in   L
                                        RP Proconsularis, some N of
                                        Bysazena, coast of Mauretanias nr
                                        Tipasa & Cherchel.} *{11-94}*
                                                                                Acc/to (6-13) which says that population
                                                                                increased over initial 80K, but one
                                                                                reported estimate of 500K surely
                                                                                exaggerated. Defeated by Byzantines. Some
                                                                                Vandals resettled in RP Galatia (in Asia
                                                                                Minor), others dispersed over E. Roman
                                                                                Empire,
                                                                                some remained in N Africa.

 11  95   440 468   N Vandals         G Sicily                              C
                                                                                From Carthage. Most around Carthage in RP
                                                                                Proconsularis, some N of Bysazena, coast
                                                                                of Mauretanias nr Tipasa & Cherchel. *{11-
                                                                                94}*

308  18   454 #     A Vandals         G Malta                               N
                                                                                From Carthage. Most around Carthage in RP
                                                                                Proconsularis, some N of Bysazena, coast
                                                                                of Mauretanias nr Tipasa & Cherchel. *{11-
                                                                                94}*

 11  96   455 #     N Vandals         G Corsica, Sardinia                   C
                                                                                From Carthage. Most around Carthage in RP
                                                                                Proconsularis, some N of Bysazena, coast
                                                                                of Mauretanias nr Tipasa & Cherchel. *{11-
                                                                                94}*

  6  12   455 477   N Vandals         G Rome                                N
                                                                                From Carthage. Most around Carthage in RP
                                                                                Proconsularis, some N of Bysazena, coast
                                                                                of Mauretanias nr Tipasa & Cherchel. *{11-
                                                                                94}*

 11  97   460 500   N Vandals         G E, GR, I coasts                     N
                                                                                From Carthage. Most around Carthage in RP
                                                                                Proconsularis, some N of Bysazena, coast
                                                                                of Mauretanias nr Tipasa & Cherchel. *{11-
                                                                                94}*

 12 132   -70 -1    A Vangiones       G Hessen-Starkenburg (We can't        L
                                        locate this.)
                                                                                End date to agree with (12-145).

900 603   -61 #     N Vangiones       G {Nr Worms, D} *{12-137}*            Q
                                                                                For consistency with (12-137). From Hessen-
                                                                                Starkenburg. (We can't locate this.) *{12-
                                                                                132}*

 12 137   -61 14    A Vangiones       G Nr Worms, D                         L
                                                                                End date acc/to (183-15).

 27  81  -400 -300  A Vardae          Y Bosna R (Bosnia, YU)                L
                                                                                Conservative bracketing date.

 12  85  -100 50    A Varini          G N                                   L
                                                                                Dates are guesses.

900 591    50 #     A Varini          G {Barvithsysael in Jutland} *{12-    M
                                        86}*
                                                                                For consistency with (12-85) & (12-86).
                                                                                From N. *{12-85}*

 12  86    50 250   A Varini          G Barvithsysael in Jutland            L
                                                                                Dates are guesses.

 12  89   250 #     A Varini          G Dutch coast                         M
                                                                                From Barvithsysael in Jutland. *{12-86}*

900 592   250 540   A Varini          G {Dutch coast} *{12-89}*             L
                                                                                For consistency with (12-89), (12-92), &
                                                                                (12-96).

 12  92   540 #     A Varini          G S England                           Q
                                                                                Part of Varini fleeing (12-89) from
                                                                                conquest of their kingdom by Frankish King
                                                                                Theudebert.

 12  96   540 #     A Varini          G Betw. Saale & Mulde RR              Q
                                                                                From Dutch coast. *{12-89}*

148  13   540 594   N Varini          G Lower Saale & Mulde RR              L
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (12-96).
                                                                                Ref 12 says they form Thuringians together
                                                                                with Hermunduri, but (33-11) has them
                                                                                destroyed in 594 AD by the Franks.

234 130   739 775   N Varyagi         G Sea of Azov                         Q
                                                                                From settlements in Russia. (SYN =
                                                                                Varangians, Slavicized name of Swedish
                                                                                Vikings.) End date due to discrepancy with
                                                                                (32-45) (same author!).

900 647   739 800   N Varyagi         G {Sea of Azov} *{234-131}*           L
                                                                                To conform with (234-130) & (234-131).

234 131   800 900   A Varyagi         G Sea of Azov                         I
                                                                                (SYN = Varangians). By the Rus (see 234-
                                                                                122).

 31  34   943 #     N Varyagi         G Baku, Berda on Kura R               C
                                                                                From Kiev Kaganate (?). May already have
                                                                                become heavily Slavicized.

 31  35   965 969   N Varyagi         G Sarkel (p44, Putzger, Lendl,        C
                                        Wagner), (Itil; nr modern
                                        Astrachan)
                                                                                From Kiev Kaganate (?). May already have
                                                                                become heavily Slavicized. End of Khazar
                                                                                Empire.

231  38  -800 50    A Vasconi         U Basque Provinces, Navarre, parts    L
                                        of Aragon (E).
                                                                                Start date acc/to (230-9), which considers
                                                                                them Celtiberians.

108   6 -1700 -1550 A Vatin           U YU Danube, see Map 4, p. 59         L
                                                                                Culture.

131   7 -1700 -1475 A Vatya           U C H betw Transdanubia & Tisza R     L
                                                                                Culture. End date compromise between this
                                                                                record and (384-9).

 51 121   575 625   A Velegeziti      S Around Teba (Thebae Phthiae) and    M
                                        Demetrias (ancient towns,
                                        Demetrias is modern Volos (Bolos)
                                        on Gulf of Volos (Pagasitikos
                                        Kolpos)) GR. (See map 7/8 in
                                        Putzger.)
                                                                                From Lower Danube R (E branch of S. Slavs)
                                                                                (ref (51-63) to ref (51-64)).

900 707   575 978   A Velegeziti      S {Around Teba (Thebae Phthiae) and   L
                                        Demetrias (ancient towns,
                                        Demetrias is modern Volos (Bolos)
                                        on Gulf of Volos (Pagasitikos
                                        Kolpos)) GR. (See map 7/8 in
                                        Putzger.)} *{51-121}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-121). End date
                                                                                forming of Macedonian state (51-138).
                                                                                Eventually formed Macedonian Slavs.

900 679   500 625   A Veleti          S E portion of Mecklemburg, all of    M
                                        Brandenburg (DDR). (For more
                                        precise outline see ref 302, red
                                        stippled area labeled Veleti=
                                        Lutici.)
                                                                                Dates are compromise between (32-22) and
                                                                                frontpaper map in ref 14, supported by (33-
                                                                                9) & (192-6). From SE, possibly area of H.
                                                                                Into the area vacated by Germanic tribes.

900 683   500 1200  A Veleti          S {E portion of Mecklemburg, all of   L
                                        Brandenburg (DDR). (For more
                                        precise outline see ref 302, red
                                        stippled area labeled Veleti=
                                        Lutici.)} *{900-679}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-679). End
                                                                                date last mention of Veleti in chronology
                                                                                of ref 14. (Syn. Lutici, Wilzen). This is
                                                                                an aggregation of tribes including
                                                                                Chyzini, Crespenane, Dolenci, Ratari,
                                                                                Ukrane, Recane, Moricane, Havolane,
                                                                                Sprevane, & Lubusane, whose separate
                                                                                location could be found on map 302. There
                                                                                is some evidence in ref 14 that Havolane =
                                                                                Heveller = Stodorane may be a relatively
                                                                                major group of equal rank to Veleti. But
                                                                                E article on Polabians mentions
                                                                                them as subgroups of Lutici (Lutycy) or
                                                                                Wilzen (Wilcy).

 27 118  -650 -600  A Veliocassi      K Upper Normandy (Departments:        L
                                        Seine - Maritime & Eure), F

143  13  -750 -50   A Vellavii        K Velay region in F in Haute Loire,   L
                                        between Yssingeau and St. Etienne

 13   3     1 200   A Venedi          S E of Vistula R up to the            L
                                        Carpathians Mts and the
                                        settlements of the Peuci & the
                                        Finns.
                                                                                Some authors believe that these are early
                                                                                Slavs. Mentioned by Ptolemy.

900 331 -1000 -200  A Veneti          U NE continental I, from Adige R to   L
                                        Gail R toward Karawanken
                                        (Karavanche) Mts. See map 1 in ref
                                        164.
                                                                                Acc/to (164-3), (26-8). End date acc/to
                                                                                (139-10). May be Illyrian speakers, but
                                                                                could be Keltic speakers.

 27  42  -900 -800  A Veneti          K Lausitz (Silesia)                   L
                                                                                For consistency with (47-41).

 27  41  -800 #     A Veneti          K Bretagne, Vendee (adjoining         M
                                        regions in F).
                                                                                From Lausitz (Silesia). *{27-42}*

900 332  -800 100   A Veneti          K {Bretagne, Vendee (adjoining        L
                                        regions in F).} *{27-41}*
                                                                                Acc/to (27-41); end date uncertain.

143  57   -56 #     N Veneti          K Somerset (Meare, Glastonbury)       S
                                                                                Celts not Veneti from Venice. Came from
                                                                                Bretagne.

900 333   -56 100   A Veneti          K {Somerset (Meare, Glastonbury)}     L
                                        *{143-57}*
                                                                                End date uncertain.

331  23   940 #     N Venetians       I Comacchio, S of Venice, I           S
                                                                                From Venice.

331  24   944 #     N Venetians       I Ravenna, S of Venice, I             S
                                                                                From Venice.

149  29  1000 #     N Venetians       I Coasts of Dalmatia & Istria         S
                                                                                From Venice.

149  53  1200 1209  A Venetians       I Port cities along Greek coast (see  S
                                        map in Putzger, p. 49)
                                                                                From Venice. Time span given is for the
                                                                                settlement. They stayed until ca 1500 AD.

901  73  1200 1500  A Venetians       I {Port cities along Greek coast      L
                                        (see map in Putzger, p. 49)} *{149-
                                        53}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (149-53); end
                                                                                date acc/to Putzger, p. 49.

901  74  1202 1214  N Venetians       I {Coast of Albania nr Durres         N
                                        (Durazzo)} *{149-37}*
                                                                                From Venice.

149  37  1392 #     N Venetians       I Coast of Albania nr Durres          S
                                        (Durazzo)
                                                                                From Venice.

901  72  1392 1501  N Venetians       I {Coast of Albania nr Durres         L
                                        (Durazzo)} *{149-37}*
                                                                                Both dates to conform to (149-37).

149  50  1419 1421  N Venetians       I Coastal Dalmatia                    S
                                                                                From Venice.

149  46  1423 1430  N Venetians       I Thessaloniki, GR                    N
                                                                                Lost it to Turks.

149  52  1489 #     N Venetians       I Cyprus                              S
                                                                                From Venice.

901  75  1489 1571  N Venetians       I {Cyprus} *{149-52}*                 L
                                                                                Dates acc/to (149-52).

900 438  1699 #     N Venetians       I {Peloponnese (syn. Morea)} *{900-   C
                                        436}*
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.380). From Venice.

900 439  1699 1719  N Venetians       I {Peloponnese (syn. Morea)} *{900-   L
                                        436}*
                                                                                Acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica 15th ed.
                                                                                (Greece p.380).

900 133  1000 1500  A Vepses          F From Seksna R (now betw Rybinsk     L
                                        Reservoir and L Beloje) in S to N
                                        Dvina (Severnaja Dvina) R in N.
                                                                                Acc/to (169-14), (213-21). Syn. Chudes.
                                                                                Probably syn. with Cud. Already captured.
                                                                                But note that Geipel states that Chudes
                                                                                are Vepses plus Votes. We cannot
                                                                                corroborate this.

900 131  1500 1970  A Vepses          F Triangle between S ends of LL       L
                                        Onega & Ladoga and city of Vologda.
                                                                                Acc/to (213-21), (169-13). 15 to 16K
                                                                                acc/to 1970 census figures.

355   4  -100 1     N Veragri         U Berner Alps area, near Martigny,    L
                                        on Rhone R, CH.
                                                                                Probably Celtic tribe.

384  15 -1650 -1550 N Veterovo-Moravi U C & S CS & N A, see map 14a (12a);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Veterovo-Moravian.

231  15  -100 50    A Vettones        U Betw Douro & Guadiana RR (E)        L
                                                                                Iberians (? text not entirely clear).

 15   3   793 #     N Vikings         G Lindisfarne (Scotland)              N
                                                                                From SCA.

 15   4   799 #     N Vikings         G Coast of Aquitaine (SW F)           N
                                                                                From SCA.

 53  69   844 #     N Vikings         G Ria de Arosa (bay in Galicia, E),   N
                                        Lisbon
                                                                                From SCA. Called Normandos in ref.

232  40   844 #     N Vikings         G Nr Seville                          S
                                                                                From SCA. Called Normans in ref. Attack
                                                                                followed by settlement of the Vikings and
                                                                                their conversion to Islam.

 53  70   858 #     N Vikings         G Algeciras, Orihuela, Pamplona (E)   N
                                                                                From SCA. Called Normandos in ref.

 43  15   901 #     N Vikings         G Isle of Man, Scotland               Q
                                                                                From Dublin. Expelled by Irish.

 43  17   913 917   N Vikings         G IRL                                 C
                                                                                From Britain.

 27  26  -750 1     A Vindelici       K Wuerttemberg, S Bavaria             L
                                                                                End date based on (355-12).

108   5 -1800 -1700 A Vinkovci        U YU Danube Basin (includes: Szava    L
                                        nr Siklos, Gradina on Bosut R,
                                        Vinkovci, Sirmia, part of
                                        Slavonia, Baranja area,
                                        Svetozarevo in W Serbia, Szeged in
                                        H.)
                                                                                Full name: Vinkovci-Somogyvar Culture.

110  49   240 #     A Visigoths       G Lower Danube & Olt Limes            Q
                                                                                From NW of Black Sea State between
                                                                                Carpathians, Don R, Vistula R, Sea of
                                                                                Azov, centered on lower Dnepr R. *{900-
                                                                                489}* Partial migration with respect to
                                                                                the entire Gothic population (1-24). The
                                                                                differentiation of Goths in W & E branches
                                                                                occurred about 240 AD. The W branch was
                                                                                first called Terwingians, later Visigoths.
                                                                                The E branch first Greuthungi, then
                                                                                Ostrogoths. We call them by their later
                                                                                names as of 240 AD.

900 490   240 271   A Visigoths       G {Lower Danube & Olt Limes} *{110-   L
                                        49}*
                                                                                Acc/to (11-30) and for consistency with
                                                                                (110-49) & (11-60). The differentiation of
                                                                                Goths in W & E branches occurred about 240
                                                                                AD. The W branch was first called
                                                                                Terwingians, later Visigoths. The E branch
                                                                                first Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths.
                                                                                We call them by their later names as of
                                                                                240 AD.

190   9   248 #     N Visigoths       G Moesia & Thrace                     A
                                                                                From the lower Danube & Olt Limes. *{900-
                                                                                490}* The differentiation of Goths in W &
                                                                                E branches occurred about 240 AD. The W
                                                                                branch was first called Terwingians, later
                                                                                Visigoths. The E branch first Greuthungi,
                                                                                then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names as of 240 AD.

 40  96   253 262   N Visigoths       G AM (Lydia, Phrygia)                 N
                                                                                From Ukrainian ports. The differentiation
                                                                                of Goths in W & E branches occurred about
                                                                                240 AD. The W branch was first called
                                                                                Terwingians, later Visigoths. The E branch
                                                                                first Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names
                                                                                as of 240 AD.

 40  95   254 #     N Visigoths       G Saloniki                            A
                                                                                From the lower Danube & Olt Limes. *{900-
                                                                                490}* The differentiation of Goths in W &
                                                                                E branches occurred about 240 AD. The W
                                                                                branch was first called Terwingians, later
                                                                                Visigoths. The E branch first Greuthungi,
                                                                                then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names as of 240 AD.

  1  12   255 268   N Visigoths       G Coasts: R, BG                       N
                                                                                From Ukrainian ports. The differentiation
                                                                                of Goths in W & E branches occurred about
                                                                                240 AD. The W branch was first called
                                                                                Terwingians, later Visigoths. The E branch
                                                                                first Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names
                                                                                as of 240 AD.

 11  59   257 276   N Visigoths       G Bosporus, Cilicia                   N
                                                                                From Ukrainian ports.

211   6   267 #     N Visigoths       G Athens                              N
                                                                                From Ukrainian ports. The differentiation
                                                                                of Goths in W & E branches occurred about
                                                                                240 AD. The W branch was first called
                                                                                Terwingians, later Visigoths. The E branch
                                                                                first Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names
                                                                                as of 240 AD.

  1  13   268 #     N Visigoths       G R, BG, GR, Naissus (Nis, YU)        A
                                                                                From the lower Danube & Olt Limes. *{900-
                                                                                490}* The differentiation of Goths in W &
                                                                                E branches occurred about 240 AD. The W
                                                                                branch was first called Terwingians, later
                                                                                Visigoths. The E branch first Greuthungi,
                                                                                then Ostrogoths. We call
                                                                                them by their later names as of 240 AD.

 11  60   271 #     N Visigoths       G Dacia                               E
                                                                                From the Lower Danube & Olt Limes. *{900-
                                                                                490}*

900 491   271 376   N Visigoths       G {Lower Danube & Olt Limes} +        L
                                        {Dacia} *{900-490} + {11-60}*
                                                                                For consistency with (11-60) & (144-1).

 40 105   323 #     N Visigoths       G Thracia & Moesia inf RP The newly   A
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.
                                                                                From the lower Danube & Olt Limes + Dacia.
                                                                                *(900-491)* The differentiation of Goths
                                                                                in W & E branches occurred about 240 AD.
                                                                                The W branch was first called Terwingians,
                                                                                later Visigoths. The E branch first
                                                                                Greuthungi, then Ostrogoths.
                                                                                We call them by their later names as of
                                                                                240 AD.

144   1   376 395   N Visigoths       G RPP Moesia Inferior Haemimontus,    W
                                        Rhodopa, Thracia, Scythia. (See
                                        map p.34, Putzger.)
                                                                                From the lower Danube & Olt Limes + Dacia.
                                                                                *{900-491}* Ref (190-3) says 70K West
                                                                                Goths resettled by Romans. Scythia added
                                                                                from ref (40-107). End date to conform to
                                                                                (308-10).

308  10   395 396   A Visigoths       G E & S GR                            W
                                                                                From RPP Moesia Inferior, Haemimontus,
                                                                                Rhodopa, Thracia, Scythia. (See map p.34,
                                                                                Putzger.) *(144-1)* Also discussed in ref
                                                                                1.

308  11   397 401   A Visigoths       G Albania & SE YU (Macedonia acc/to   W
                                        ref 1.)
                                                                                From E & S GR. *(308-10)*

 11  69   401 412   N Visigoths       G I (See map, ref 308.)               W
                                                                                End date acc/to (11-71). From Albania & SE
                                                                                YU. (Macedonia acc/to ref 1.) *(308-11)*
                                                                                Wolfram (ref 1) estimates them at 50K men,
                                                                                lower than some other estimates.

232  27   412 418   N Visigoths       G Baetica RP, Lusitania &             C
                                        Carthaginensis RP + {Tarraconensis
                                        RP} *{232-21}*
                                                                                From I. (See map, ref 308.) *{11-69}*

900 498   412 418   A Visigoths       G {Aquitania RP Roman Province of     Q
                                        Aquitania (specific areas assigned
                                        to Goths were valley of Garonne R
                                        from Toulouse to Bordeaux as well
                                        as Atlantic coast from Pyrenees
                                        almost to Loire R). They founded
                                        the Tolosanic Empire there with
                                        their
                                        capital at Toulouse. Since 468          From I. (See map, ref 308.) *{11-69}*
                                        also in the NE of Iberian               Start date acc/to (11-71), end date acc/to
                                        peninsula.} *{1-31}*                    (1-31).

900 501   412 418   A Visigoths       G Narbonnensis RP                     Q
                                                                                From I. (See map, ref 308.) *{11-69}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (11-71), end date by
                                                                                analogy with (1-31).

  1  31   412 482   N Visigoths       G Aquitania RP Roman Province of      L
                                        Aquitania (specific areas assigned
                                        to Goths were valley of Garonne R
                                        from Toulouse to Bordeaux as well
                                        as Atlantic coast from Pyrenees
                                        almost to Loire R). They founded
                                        the Tolosanic Empire there with
                                        their
                                        capital at Toulouse. Since 468          End date to conform to (17-45). Wolfram
                                        also in the NE of Iberian               estimates between 100K-200K people as the
                                        peninsula.                              W Gothic component of the Tolasanic
                                                                                Empire. Reference calls them W. Goths.

232  30   412 726   A Visigoths       G Tarraconensis RP, Baetica RP,       L
                                        Lusitania & Carthaginensis RPP.
                                                                                200K out of total Spanish population of 9M.

900 499   412 531   A Visigoths       G {Narbonnensis RP} (See map p.34,    L
                                        Putzger.) *{900-501}*
                                                                                Start date, for consistency with (900-
                                                                                501); end date acc/to Putzger map 39-I.

 53  42   417 418   N Visigoths       G Betw Minho & Sil RR & Canatabrian   A
                                        coast, Cartaginense & Lusitania
                                        RPP.
                                                                                From I. (See map, ref 308.) *{11-69}*

232  28   456 #     N Visigoths       G Galicia                             A
                                                                                From Tarraconensis RP, Baetica RP,
                                                                                Lusitania & Carthaginensis RPP. *{232-30}*

 17  43   469 #     N Visigoths       G Bretagne                            A
                                                                                From Aquitania RP. (Roman Province of
                                                                                Aquitania (specific areas assigned to
                                                                                Goths were valley of Garonne R from
                                                                                Toulouse to Bordeaux as well as Atlantic
                                                                                coast from Pyrenees almost to Loire R).
                                                                                They founded the Tolosanic Empire there
                                                                                with their capital at Toulouse. Since 468
                                                                                also in the NE of Iberian peninsula.) *{1-
                                                                                31}*

900 503   482 #     N Visigoths       G {Pyrenees to Loire R from Atlantic  E
                                        Ocean to Rhone R & from E of that
                                        R in the region reaching just to
                                        the Alps, comprising that area
                                        between the Durance and the
                                        Mediterranean Sea.} *{17-45}*
                                                                                From Aquitania RP. (Roman Province of
                                                                                Aquitania (specific areas assigned to
                                                                                Goths were valley of Garonne R from
                                                                                Toulouse to Bordeaux as well as Atlantic
                                                                                coast from Pyrenees almost to Loire R).
                                                                                They founded the Tolosanic Empire there
                                                                                with their capital at Toulouse. Since 468
                                                                                also in the NE of Iberian peninsula.) *{1-
                                                                                31}*

 17  45   482 507   N Visigoths       G Pyrenees to Loire R from Atlantic   L
                                        Ocean to Rhone R & from E of that
                                        R in the region reaching just to
                                        the Alps, comprising that area
                                        between the Durance and the
                                        Mediterranean Sea.
                                                                                End date acc/to (1-31).

900 504   507 #     N Visigoths       G E less Galicia                      M
                                                                                From the Pyrenees to Loire R, from
                                                                                Atlantic Ocean to Rhone R & from E of that
                                                                                R in the region reaching just to the Alps,
                                                                                comprising that area between the Durance
                                                                                and the Mediterranean Sea. *{17-45}*
                                                                                Acc/to (11-74), (53-46), (167-13).
                                                                                Exception of Galicia to conform to (11-
                                                                                75). Acc/to (11-74), by middle of 6th C
                                                                                Gothic language died out. 70-80K Visigoths
                                                                                entered E.

900 502   531 #     N Visigoths       G {Narbonnensis RP} (See map p.34,    T
                                        Putzger.) - {Septimania (See map
                                        I, p.39, Putzger.) (This is a
                                        subset of Narbonnensis.)} *{900-
                                        499} - {900-500}*
                                                                                By implication acc/to reference sources
                                                                                for (900-499) and (900-500). To Septimania
                                                                                (see map I, p. 39, Putzger.) (This is a
                                                                                subset of Narbonensis.) *{900-500}*

900 500   531 726   N Visigoths       G Septimania (See map I, p.39,        L
                                        Putzger.) (This is a subset of
                                        Narbonnensis.)
                                                                                Conquered by Moors. See Ploetz p. 456.

 11  75   585 #     N Visigoths       G Galicia                             C
                                                                                From Tarraconensis RP, Baetica RP,
                                                                                Lusitania & Carthaginensis RPP. *{232-30}*
                                                                                Conquered kingdom of the Suevi.

900 505   585 726   N Visigoths       G {Galicia} *{11-75}*                 L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (11-75), end date to
                                                                                conform to (232-30).

232  42   726 800   A Visigoths       G Castile                             I
                                                                                Start date to conform to (232-30). By
                                                                                Basques or Cantabrians, but speaking a
                                                                                Romance dialect.

900 719   400 1000  N Vislane         S Upper Vistula (mostly N of it,      L
                                        reaching W to Cracow, E to San R
                                        mouth) PL.
                                                                                Start date from (301-18), supported by (14-
                                                                                2), end date from (371-1) (but note that
                                                                                (147-18) lists them as Vislane until 1200
                                                                                AD). Will become part of Poles. (Syn.
                                                                                Visilane)

301   2   600 800   A Vjatice         S Upper Oka R SU, extending E to      L
                                        Borshevo. (See Vana, World of
                                        Ancient Slavs, 1983, p.46.)
                                                                                Borshevo Culture. Ref (234-164) mentions
                                                                                presumed origin along Don R as far S as
                                                                                Boguchar, but no date is given, nor could
                                                                                we find confirmation elsewhere. In
                                                                                contrast, Vana: The World of the Ancient
                                                                                Slavs, 1983, p.47, states that their
                                                                                original home was PL.

900 755   800 #     A Vjatice         S S part of Oka RV & upper Don        E
                                        region, covering the territory of
                                        Orel, Kaluga, Tula & Rjazan. +
                                        Left bank Oka R up to Cernigov
                                        area & right tributaries of Oka R.
                                        Along their S border they fuse
                                        with the Severjane.
                                                                                Acc/to (234-159), (169-113), (13-56);
                                                                                Vana: World of Ancient Slavs, 1983, p.49.
                                                                                From Upper Oka R SU, extending E to
                                                                                Borshevo. (See Vana, World of Ancient
                                                                                Slavs, 1983, p.46.) *{301-2}* *Location
                                                                                acc/to (234-159) + (169-113).*

900 756   800 900   A Vjatice         S {S part of Oka RV & upper Don       L
                                        region, covering the territory of
                                        Orel, Kaluga, Tula & Rjazan. +
                                        Left bank Oka R up to Cernigov
                                        area & right tributaries of Oka R.
                                        Along their S border they fuse
                                        with the Severjane.} + {Upper Oka
                                        R SU, extending
                                        E to Borshevo. (See Vana, World of      Start date to conform to (900-755). End
                                        Ancient Slavs, 1983, p.46.)} *{900-     date acc/to Vana: World of Ancient Slavs,
                                        755} + {301-2}*                         1983, p.49.

900 757   900 1000  A Vjatice         S {S part of Oka RV & upper Don       T
                                        region, covering the territory of
                                        Orel, Kaluga, Tula & Rjazan. +
                                        Left bank Oka R up to Cernigov
                                        area & right tributaries of Oka R.
                                        Along their S border they fuse
                                        with the Severjane. + Upper Oka R
                                        SU, extending
                                        E to Borshevo. (See Vana, World of      Acc/to Vana: World of Ancient Slavs, 1983,
                                        Ancient Slavs, 1983, p.46.)} -          p.49. To Rjazan area (SU). *{900-758}*
                                        Rjazan area (SU). *{900-756} -
                                        {900-758}*

900 758   900 1300  A Vjatice         S Rjazan area (SU)                    L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-757). End
                                                                                date acc/to (147-11).

901  57  1100 1400  A Vlachs          I Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia   Q
                                        (ROM)
                                                                                From Area of Greater BG empire (W BG & E
                                                                                Serbia & E Macedonia). *{901-56}* Gradual
                                                                                spread first to Transylvania, then
                                                                                Wallachia, then Moldavia (acc/to
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Brittanica). Start date for
                                                                                consistency with (120-5); end date acc/to
                                                                                E.

114   8  1100 1300  A Vlachs          I {Area of Greater BG empire (W BG,   I
                                        E Serbia & E Macedonia)} *{901-54}*
                                                                                By Bulgarian Slavs. Syn Valachi, earlier
                                                                                called Daco-Romans.

901  58  1100 1881  A Vlachs          I {Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia  L
                                        (ROM)} *{901-57}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-57); end
                                                                                date foundation of ROM Kingdom. Listed as
                                                                                Romanians thereafter. Locations given in
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Brittanica, also (50-4).

 27  23  -800 -700  A Voconti         K The Durance & Alps, F               L
                                                                                Possibly Celticized Aboriginal population.

169  21  1400 1500  A Voguls          C N Urals, Cussovaja (Cusovaja) R &   L
                                        Pecora R
                                                                                (Syn. Mansi). None W of Urals by 1600 AD.
                                                                                They and the related Ostyaks now are
                                                                                entirely E of Urals.

900 711   525 550   A Vojniti         S Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along     M
                                        Upper Vardar R betw Tetovo &
                                        Gostivar) YU.
                                                                                Dates to allow for (51-125). Migration to
                                                                                conform to other Macedonian tribes. From
                                                                                Lower Danube R (E branch of S. Slavs) (ref
                                                                                (51-63) to ref (51-64)).

 51 125   525 978   A Vojniti         S {Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along    L
                                        Upper Vardar R betw Tetovo &
                                        Gostivar) YU.} *{900-711}*
                                                                                Eventually formed Macedonian Slavs. Start
                                                                                date for consistency with (900-711). End
                                                                                date is forming of Macedonian State (51-
                                                                                138).

 51 126   575 625   A Vojniti         S W. of Saloniki                      Q
                                                                                From Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along Upper
                                                                                Vardar R betw Tetovo & Gostivar) YU (by
                                                                                inference). *{51-125}*

900 712   575 800   A Vojniti         S {W. of Saloniki} *{51-126}*         L
                                                                                For consistency with (51-126). End date
                                                                                pure guess to allow for (51-127).

 51 127   800 #     A Vojniti         S S Epirus around Arta Bay            M
                                        (Amvrakikos Kolpos) GR.
                                                                                From W of Saloniki. Date is pure guess.
                                                                                This is labeled M since presumably all
                                                                                left, but there was another part of this
                                                                                tribe in Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along
                                                                                Upper Vardar R betw Tetovo & Gostivar) YU
                                                                                (900-711).

900 713   800 1400  N Vojniti         S {S Epirus around Arta Bay           L
                                        (Amvrakikos Kolpos) GR.} *{51-127}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-127) & (51-128).

 51 128  1400 1500  A Vojniti         S {S Epirus around Arta Bay           I
                                        (Amvrakikos Kolpos) GR} *{51-127}*
                                                                                By Hellenes.

 17  20  -350 -275  A Volcae          K Bavaria, U. Styria                  L
                                                                                End date for consistency with (17-28).
                                                                                Note that (19-11) has them living in N
                                                                                Bohemia and perhaps in Moravia between 300
                                                                                BC & 100 BC, but this is quite
                                                                                conjectural. Depends on location of
                                                                                Hercynian Forest. (Syn. Volcae Tectosages)

 27  88  -298 -279  N Volcae          K Bulgaria, Illyria Macedonia,        A
                                        Paeonia (in Balkans), Thrace,
                                        Delphi.
                                                                                From Bavaria, U. Styria *{17-20}* With
                                                                                other unnamed Celts. Syn. Volcae
                                                                                Tectosages.

 17  28  -275 #     A Volcae          K Toulousain                          M
                                                                                From Bavaria, U. Styria *{17-20}*

900 378   680 1550  A Volga Bulgars   T {Middle Volga R (around Kama R      L
                                        mouth).} *{31-28}*
                                                                                Acc/to (169-52), (328-6). End date is
                                                                                provisional. They survived Mongol conquest
                                                                                in 1237.

900 380  1550 1750  A Volga Bulgars   T {Middle Volga R (around Kama R      I
                                        mouth).} *{31-28}*
                                                                                Estimated time of assimilation by Slavs
                                                                                (Russians?). Assimilation took place
                                                                                according to Encyclopaedia Britannica.

900 767   900 1100  A Volhyni         S Volhynia, along Gorin R             L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (234-77).
                                                                                Believed by Vana: World of Ancient Slavs
                                                                                1983, p.47 to be descendants of Duljebi.
                                                                                End date approximates formation of
                                                                                Principality of Volhynia. (Syn. Volynane).
                                                                                Note that there are some labeled thus
                                                                                located in N PL nr Wolin (302-28) but no
                                                                                confirmation from other sources.

383  41 -1800 -1675 N Volosovsk       U Area SE of L. Ladoga, extending NE  L
                                        to Vaga R & E to Vjetka R, NW SU,
                                        see map
                                        13a(37);"ArcheologickyAtlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (384-35).

384  35 -1675 -1550 N Volosovsk       U SE of Lake Ladoga, extending E to   L
                                        Vjatka R area, N SU, see map 14a
                                        (27a); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-41). Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (383-41).

 26  40  -800 -500  A Volsci          I (Conca del) Fucino area, C I        L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (26-30). They are Osco-
                                                                                Umbrians, but sources differ on whether
                                                                                they belonged to the Oscans, Umbrians, or
                                                                                Sabelli.

900 996  -500 #     A Volsci          I Region along Sea betw Albanese      M
                                        Mts. (SE of Rome) and Garigliano
                                        R, I (see map 3, ref 164)
                                                                                From (Conca del) Fucino area, C I. *{26-
                                                                                40}* They are Osco-Umbrians, but sources
                                                                                differ on whether they belonged to the
                                                                                Oscans, Umbrians, or Sabelli.

900 997  -500 -400  A Volsci          I {Region along Sea betw Albanese     L
                                        Mts. (SE of Rome) and Garigliano
                                        R, I (see map 3, ref 164)} *{900-
                                        996}*
                                                                                Acc/to (26-40). End date is very
                                                                                conservative.

 13  49   600 800   A Volyncevo       S Left bank Middle Dnepr R plus Sejm  L
                                        & Desna RR.
                                                                                Culture which transformed itself into
                                                                                Romny-Borsevo Culture.

140  14   400 #     A Votadini        K NW Wales                            R
                                                                                From area betw Tyne & Forth.

900 130   400 1970  A Votes           F Large area E of Narva R (now SU).   L
                                                                                Acc/to (169-5), (169-6). Now a very small
                                                                                group.

382   8 -2200 -1850 N Vucedol         U YU, A, H, see map 12a (4);          L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Also referred to as Zok Complex.
                                                                                It includes several groups: Mako-Kosihy,
                                                                                Nyirseg-Zatin. End date interpolated
                                                                                betwen this record and (383-5).

386  30 -1200 -600  N Vysock          U N Ukraine, see map 16a (31);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (388-34).

387  23  -800 -700  N Wallington      U Ireland, see map 17a (21b);         L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Referred to as a "group," not as a
                                                                                "culture."

170  25  1600 1650  A Walloons        I S: Uppland, Oestergoetland          Q
                                        Vaestmanland, Vaermland.
                                                                                From B. Several K people.

901  65  1600 1700  N Walloons        I {S: Uppland, Oestergoetland         I
                                        Vaestmanland,Vaermland} *{170-25}*
                                                                                Rapidly assimilated by Swedes.

178  13  1200 1300  N Walsers         U Romanches (F?), Liechtenstein,      Q
                                        Vorarlberg (Kleines & Grosses
                                        Walsertal) (A), Tessin (Ticino),
                                        Lombardy, Trentino Mts (I), Val
                                        d'Aosta (I), Bas-Valais (F).
                                                                                From Canton Vallois. Not clear at this
                                                                                time whether migrants were Italic or
                                                                                Germanic speakers.

384  54 -1650 -1300 N Wessex          U S coast England, see map 14a (46);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-47).

 12  32   250 280   A W. Heruli       G Lower Rhine R (NL)                  Q
                                                                                For consistency with (12-23). From S:
                                                                                Smaland, Halland, Blekinge. *{12-23}* Ref
                                                                                11 says they were the larger portion of
                                                                                the Heruli.

900 558   250 500   A W. Heruli       G {Lower Rhine R (NL)} *{12-32}*      L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-32). End date by
                                                                                implication acc/to (11-132).

 12  33   286 #     N W. Heruli       G Gaul (coasts)                       N
                                                                                From Lower Rhine R (NL). *{12-32}*

 12  34   360 #     N W. Heruli       G Britain (S of Hadrian's wall)       A
                                                                                From Lower Rhine R (NL). *{12-32}* As part
                                                                                of the Roman army.

900 559   409 #     N W. Heruli       G Gaul (coasts)                       N
                                                                                From Lower Rhine R (NL). *{12-32}*

 11 132   450 #     A W. Heruli       G Coasts of Cantabria (N Iberia) and  N
                                        of RPP Gallaecia & Baetica.
                                                                                From Lower Rhine R (NL). *{12-32}*

383  44 -1800 -700  N White Sea       U Onezkij Peninsula W of              L
                                        Archangelsk, N SU, see map 13a
                                        (41); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (387-45).

384  46 -1650 -1550 N Wickelschnurker U NL & N D, see map 14a (38a);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Ref calls this a group, not a culture.
                                                                                Full name is "Wickelschnurkeramik."

900 221  -150 1     N Wielbark        U {N PL, S to Varta R & Notec R, E    L
                                        to Olsztyn Lakes, incl Masovia &
                                        Podlasia.} *{185-12}*
                                                                                Acc/to (185-12) and (148-2).

148   2     1 400   A Wielbark        U {C Pommerania, Lower & C Vistula    L
                                        area. (Probably same region as in
                                        (900-221.)}.
                                                                                Incl. Rugii, Goths, Gepidae, Veneti &
                                                                                Slavs.

384  11 -1650 -1550 N Wieselburg-Gata U NW H, see map 14a (9);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

173  18 -1800 -1200 A Wietenberg      U E & SE Transilvania (ROM)(See Fig.  L
                                        4 in ref)
                                                                                Culture.

387  22  -800 -700  N Wilburton       U Britain, see map 17a (21a);         L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Referred to as a "group," not as a
                                                                                "culture."

328  25  1054 1242  N Yatvagi         S Area betw Grodno, Pinsk, &          L
                                        Berestae, W SU & E PL.
                                                                                Eastern Slavic tribe according to
                                                                                reference. Could these be Slavicized
                                                                                Yatvingi (see (234-104)).

210   5  1100 1200  A Yatvingi        B Latvia                              L

234 104  1100 1200  A Yatvingi        B Upper Niemen & Narev RR             L
                                                                                (SYN = Yatviagians).

328   2  1054 1242  N Yugra           U Area betw Pechora & Vychegda RR, W  L
                                        of Ural Mtns N SU.

389  19  -150 -25   N Zarubincy       U N Ukraine, S & E Belorussia, &      L
                                        Upper Desna R area, see map 20a
                                        (20); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Assumed by some to have been early Slavs.
                                                                                However recent sources, e.g. Vana: World
                                                                                of Ancient Slavs and Struve in Bernhard &
                                                                                Kandler-Palsson question whether Zarubincy
                                                                                are Slavs. Culture. End date compromise
                                                                                with (390-6).

390   6   -25 200   N Zarubincy       U N Ukraine, Belorussia (except       L
                                        Vitebsk area), Dema R area, see
                                        map 21a (7); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Assumed by some to have been early Slavs.
                                                                                However recent sources, e.g. Vana: World
                                                                                of Ancient Slavs and Struve in Bernhard &
                                                                                Kandler-Palsson question whether Zarubincy
                                                                                are Slavs. Culture. An apparent expansion
                                                                                over (389-19), but population
                                                                                movement not firm enough to warrant a
                                                                                separate expansion record. Start date
                                                                                compromise with (389-19). End date
                                                                                compromise with (391-7).

391   7   200 450   N Zarubincy       U E Belorussia, N Ukraine & Upper     L
                                        Desna R area, see map 22a (9);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Authors refer to "Late Zarubincy Monument
                                                                                Culture"; I have used Zarubincy for the
                                                                                gens name. Assumed by some to have been
                                                                                early Slavs. However recent sources, e.g.
                                                                                Vana: World of Ancient Slavs and Struve in
                                                                                Bernhard & Kandler-Palsson
                                                                                question whether Zarubincy are Slavs. An
                                                                                apparent contraction from (390-6), but
                                                                                population movement not firm enough to
                                                                                warrant a separate contraction record.
                                                                                Start date compromise with (390-6). End
                                                                                date compromise with (169-101).

234 103  1100 1200  A Zhmud           B Niemen R mouth                      L

900 732   500 600   A Zlicane         S Betw Labe and Sazava RR, due E of   M
                                        Prague, CS.
                                                                                Acc/to (302-43). From N in E PL (acc/to
                                                                                (19-22)). Implied since (19-22) talks
                                                                                about W. Slavs only. These are a Czech
                                                                                tribe.

900 734   500 900   A Zlicane         S {Betw Labe and Sazava RR, due E of  L
                                        Prague, CS.} *{900-732}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-732). End
                                                                                date is arbitrary. No evidence for
                                                                                individual tribes after 900 AD. After that
                                                                                date we will group and call the Czech
                                                                                Slavs as Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks.
                                                                                Between 623-658 they were part of the
                                                                                Greater Moravian Empire.

Abbreviations References

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Last Altered January 15, 1996
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