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REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

386   3 -1200 -700  N Saalemuendungsg U Saale R mouth area, DDR, see map    L
                                        16a (4); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full culture name: "Saalemuendungsgruppe."
                                                                                End date acc/to (387-4).

 26  28  -800 -400  N Sabelli         I Region around L'Aquila, C I Map     L
                                        page 359
                                                                                End date is guess.

 26  29  -800 -500  A Sabini          I C I, Map page 359 (For better       L
                                        location, see map III,p. 21,
                                        Putzger)
                                                                                End date acc/to (320-8). Acc/to ref 164
                                                                                they are part of Umbri, but acc/to Nack-
                                                                                Waegner: Rom they are Sabelli.

 31   2   463 #     N Sabiri          T N Caucasian area                    M
                                                                                Location specified in (234-58); from
                                                                                Siberia acc/to (11-33).

900 376   463 550   A Sabiri          T N Caucasian area                    L
                                                                                To link (31-2) with (31-32). *(Location
                                                                                information duplicated from (234-58).)*

 31  32   550 600   N Sabiri          T N of Caucasus & Caspian             I
                                                                                Some Sabiri amalgamated with Bulgars to
                                                                                form Khazars.

369   3   200 300   A Saboci          U Betw San R & Zamosc, Roztoce        L
                                        region, SE PL.
                                                                                At time of greatest extent of Roman Empire.

 27  48  -700 -650  A Saefes          K N P                                 M
                                                                                From Hesse & Thuringia whence they were
                                                                                displaced by the Germanic Eburoni. Syn.
                                                                                Sepes.

900 958  -700 -600  A Saefes          K {N P} *{27-48}*                     L
                                                                                For consistency with (27-48) and (27-122).

 27 122  -600 -550  A Saefes          K Castilian High Plains               W
                                                                                From N P *{27-48}*

 27 127  -550 -500  A Saefes          K Castilian High Plains               I
                                                                                By Belgae.

 51 120   575 625   A Sagudati        S Vardar RV betw Saloniki & Vereja    M
                                        (Veroia, Veria).
                                                                                From Lower Danube R (E branch of S. Slavs)
                                                                                (ref (51-63) to ref (51-64)).

900 705   575 978   A Sagudati        S {Vardar RV betw Saloniki & Vereja   L
                                        (Veroia, Veria).} *{51-120}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-120). End date
                                                                                forming of Macedonian state (51-138).
                                                                                Eventually formed Macedonian Slavs.

 40  34  -700 -680  A Saii            P Thasos                              L
                                                                                German spelling Saiern or Saien, Thracic
                                                                                tribe. Occupied by Ionians in 680 BC.
                                                                                Start date not known.

355   3  -100 1     N Salassi         U Area around Aosta, Alpes Pennines,  L
                                        I.
                                                                                Probably Celtic tribe.

 48  10 -2200 -1800 A Salcuta         U Oltenia & E Banat (ROM)(see Fig. 1  L
                                        in ref)
                                                                                Culture.

 12 182   275 358   A Salii           G Batavia Isl. Island defined by      L
                                        branch of Waal R which in Roman
                                        times was located nr Cleve. N.
                                        border by crooked Old Rhine, S
                                        border by Waal R and then after
                                        its junction with the Maas, nr
                                        Workum and Gorkum (Gorinchem), the
                                        continuation
                                        of the two streams, known as the        For consistency with (2-3) and (2-10).
                                        Merwede, from Dordrecht up to the
                                        Old Maas R, & then up to its mouth
                                        below Brielle. Some of the
                                        Batavians also lived S beyond Waal
                                        R.

  2   3   284 #     N Salii           G Channel Coast (F & B)               A
                                                                                From Batavia Isl. Island defined by branch
                                                                                of Waal R which in Roman times was located
                                                                                nr Cleve. N border by crooked Old Rhine, S
                                                                                border by Waal R and then after its
                                                                                junction with the Maas, nr Workum and
                                                                                Gorkum (Gorinchem), the continuation
                                                                                of the two streams, known as the Merwede,
                                                                                from Dordrecht up to the Old Maas R, &
                                                                                then up to its mouth below Brielle. Some
                                                                                of the Batavians also lived S beyond Waal
                                                                                R. *{12-182}* These are Salian Franks.
                                                                                Acc/to (12-204) these are not the
                                                                                Salii who descended from the Chamavi.

  2  10   358 #     N Salii           G Toxandria Toxandria = Teisterbant   M
                                        area (in Dutch). It is the
                                        drainage area of the Drommel R in
                                        N Brabant, extending E to the Peel
                                        Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde R.
                                                                                Pushed back there by Emperor Julian, from
                                                                                Batavia Isl. Island defined by branch of
                                                                                Waal R which in Roman times was located nr
                                                                                Cleve. N border by crooked Old Rhine, S
                                                                                border by Waal R and then after its
                                                                                junction with the Maas, nr Workum
                                                                                and Gorkum (Gorinchem), the continuation
                                                                                of the two streams, known as the Merwede,
                                                                                from Dordrecht up to the Old Maas R, &
                                                                                then up to its mouth below Brielle. Some
                                                                                of the Batavians also lived S beyond Waal
                                                                                R. *{12-182}*

900 574   358 406   N Salii           G {Toxandria Toxandria = Teisterbant  L
                                        area (in Dutch). It is the
                                        drainage area of the Drommel R in
                                        N Brabant, extending E to the Peel
                                        Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde R.}
                                        *{2-10}*
                                                                                For consistency with (2-10) & (2-11). End
                                                                                date acc/to Doebler: Die Germanen p.242.

  2  11   406 #     A Salii           G Beyond Toxandria into Flanders      E
                                                                                Start date acc/to Doebler: Die Germanen.
                                                                                From Toxandria (Toxandria = Teisterbant
                                                                                area (in Dutch). It is the drainage area
                                                                                of the Drommel R in N Brabant, extending E
                                                                                to the Peel Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde
                                                                                R. *{2-10}*

  2  13   406 450   A Salii           G {Toxandria Toxandria = Teisterbant  L
                                        area (in Dutch). It is the
                                        drainage area of the Drommel R in
                                        N Brabant, extending E to the Peel
                                        Swamps, W to inlet of Schelde R.}
                                        + {Beyond Toxandria into Flanders}
                                        *{2-10} + {2-11}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to Doebler: Die Germanen.
                                                                                Become Franks later on.

225  16  -600 -100  A Saluvii         K Entremont nr Aix-en-Provence, S F   L
                                                                                The Urnfield pop overlaid by Hallstatt
                                                                                chieftains & influenced by Greece.

364  11   400 1000  A Samen           B Area betw Kaliningrad & Kursiv      L
                                        Zaliv (bay), Rossijskaja region, W
                                        SU.
                                                                                (Syn. Zamaites).

 26  27  -800 -450  A Samniti         I Samnium, SC I (map in Putzger, p.   L
                                        26)
                                                                                End date to conform to (26-41). Oscan
                                                                                speakers, members of the Osco-Umbrian
                                                                                group.

 26  41  -450 -400  A Samniti         I Campagna, SC I (see map p. 26 in    E
                                        Putzger)
                                                                                From Samnium, SC I (map in Putzger, p. 26)
                                                                                *{26-27}* by way of Volturnus RV.
                                                                                Conquered Capeia and Kyme in 423 BC and
                                                                                420 BC, respectively, and Herculaneum,
                                                                                Pompeii and Stabiae in 400 BC. Oscan
                                                                                speakers, members of the Osco-Umbrian
                                                                                group.

901   5  -450 -80   A Samniti         I {Samnium, SC I (map in Putzger, p.  L
                                        26)} + {Campagna, SC I (see map p.
                                        26 in Putzger)} *{26-27} + {26-41}*
                                                                                End date mentioned in Atlas of Roman
                                                                                World, p. 62. Oscan speakers, members of
                                                                                the Osco-Umbrian group.

143  20  -800 -700  A Santoni         K Betw Main & Neckar RR               L
                                                                                Start date: guess. End date to conform to
                                                                                (27-60).

 27  60  -700 -650  A Santoni         K Saintogne, F                        M
                                                                                From betw Main & Neckar RR *{143-20}*

356   4  -700 -50   N Santoni         K Saintonge region, W F               L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-60). End date
                                                                                (conservative) suggested by (356-4).

 31   3   463 #     N Saraguri        T Black Sea environs                  M
                                                                                From the East.

900 377   463 600   A Saraguri        T {Black Sea environs} *{31-3}*       I
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz, p.372. With Huns to form
                                                                                Bulgars.

164   7 -1000 -238  A Sardi           I Sardinia                            L
                                                                                End date establishment of RP Sardinia
                                                                                (ultra conservative).

900 235  -700 -400  N Sarmatians      R S SU, around lower Volga R, see     L
                                        map 18a (37a); 'Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Geographic zone for this gens is
                                                                                continuous with area for record # (388-
                                                                                37). The map does not show demarcation
                                                                                between the two although the gens in this
                                                                                record appears to be located farther east.
                                                                                The Don R is an arbitrary boundary.
                                                                                *(Location
                                                                                and comment attributed to (388-38).)*

900 236  -400 -300  A Sarmatians      R Russian steppes E of Don R          C
                                                                                Acc/to (169-43), (211-3). From S SU,
                                                                                around lower Volga R, see map 18a (37a);
                                                                                'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                                                                Ceskoslovenska'. *{900-235}*

900 237  -400 -150  A Sarmatians      R {S SU, around lower Volga R, see    L
                                        map 18a (37a); 'Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'.} +
                                        {Russian steppes E of Don R} *{900-
                                        235} + {900-236}*
                                                                                To connect (900-235) & (389-18).

900 238  -150 #     A Sarmatians      R {S & E SU & E R, betw Siret and     C
                                        Urals, see map 20a (19);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'. (See areas {900-
                                        237} + {900-238}.)} *{389-18}*
                                                                                Acc/to (389-18). From S SU, around lower
                                                                                Volga R, see map 18a (37a); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska' + Russian
                                                                                steppes E of Don R. *{900-237}*

389  18  -150 300   N Sarmatians      R S & E SU & E R, betw Siret and      L
                                        Urals, see map 20a (19);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'. (See areas {900-
                                        237} + {900-238}.)
                                                                                Upper date changed from -50 to 300 to
                                                                                correspond with other sources.

173  30  -100 300   N Sarmatians      R ROM                                 C
                                                                                From area S & E SU & E R, betw Siret and
                                                                                Urals, see map 20a (19); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. *{389-18}*

190   8   236 #     N Sarmatians      R Mid Danube R area                   A
                                                                                From Alfoeld (between Danube & Tisza RR).
                                                                                *{900-239}*

900 239   300 #     A Sarmatians      R Alfoeld (between Danube & Tisza     E
                                        RR.)
                                                                                From ROM. For consistency with (173-30)
                                                                                and (900-240).

900 241   300 #     N Sarmatians      R {S & E SU & E R, betw Siret and     T
                                        Urals, see map 20a (19);
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'. (See areas {900-
                                        237} + {900-238}.)} - {S SU, see
                                        map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as
                                        {389-18}, but
                                        contracted from N of the Psol R.)}      For consistency with (391-2). To S SU, see
                                        *{389-18} - {391-2}*                    map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                                                                Ceskoslovenska.' (Same as (389-18), but
                                                                                contracted from N of the Psol R.) *{391-2}*

391   2   300 500   N Sarmatians      R S SU, see map 22a (4);              L
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as {389-
                                        18}, but contracted from N of the
                                        Psol R.)
                                                                                Changed upper date to 500 from 400 to
                                                                                correspond with (139-17). Not clear how
                                                                                they disappeared. Probably by assimilation.

900 240   300 568   A Sarmatians      R {Alfoeld (between Danube & Tisza    L
                                        RR.)} *{900-239}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (173-30). Location
                                                                                indicated by (1-39). End date acc/to (133-
                                                                                43).

 40 106   324 337   N Sarmatians      R Scythia & Moesia II These are       R
                                        newly (284-305) reorganized RP
                                        within the Diocese Thracia. See
                                        ref 40, fig 22 for location.
                                                                                From S SU, see map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as
                                                                                {389-18}, but contracted from N of the
                                                                                Psol R.). *{391-2}*

110  59   332 #     N Sarmatians      R Pannonia RP                         A
                                                                                From S SU, see map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as
                                                                                {389-18}, but contracted from N of the
                                                                                Psol R.). *{391-2}*

110  62   332 #     N Sarmatians      R I; Balkans                          R
                                                                                From Pannonia H Plain. Acc/to possibly
                                                                                exaggerated sources, 300K, resettled.

110  60   356 #     N Sarmatians      R Pannonia RP & Upper Moesia RP       A
                                                                                From S SU, see map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as
                                                                                {389-18}, but contracted from N of the
                                                                                Psol R.) *{391-2}*

133  19   374 #     N Sarmatians      R S Pannonia                          A
                                                                                From S SU, see map 22a (4); 'Archeologicky
                                                                                Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'. (Same as
                                                                                {389-18}, but contracted from N of the
                                                                                Psol R.) *{391-2}*

169  50   500 1000  A Sarmatians      R Lower course Volga                  L
                                                                                Part of Khazar population substrate.
                                                                                Lowered start date to 500 from 700 to
                                                                                correct.

133  48   568 #     N Sarmatians      R N I                                 Q
                                                                                Rests of the population; accompanying the
                                                                                Lombards. From Alfoeld (between Danube &
                                                                                Tisza RR.) *{900-240}*

234  17  -500 -400  A Sauromatae      U Lower Don & upper Donets RR         L

 12 103   150 225   A Saxons          G Holstein also on 3 islands at       L
                                        mouth of Elbe R.
                                                                                Start date to match end date of (194-15)
                                                                                (Reudigni) who may have been ancestral.
                                                                                End date compromise between (189-11) & (11-
                                                                                137) to permit expansion necessary for
                                                                                (189-11).

900 604   225 #     A Saxons          G {Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg, &     E
                                        other areas (area shown in Abb 1
                                        less Holstein, also on 3 islands
                                        at mouth of Elbe R).} *{189-11}*
                                                                                From Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. *{12-103}* For consistency with
                                                                                (12-103) & (189-11).

900 605   225 700   A Saxons          G {Holstein also on 3 islands at      L
                                        mouth of Elbe R.} + {Lower Saxony,
                                        W Mecklenburg, & other areas (area
                                        shown in Abb 1 less Holstein, also
                                        on 3 islands at mouth of Elbe R).}
                                        *{12-103} + {900-604}*
                                                                                Acc/to (189-11). End date acc/to (194-27).

194   7   285 460   A Saxons          G Coast betw Seine & Loire RR also    N
                                        further N (see Abb 117) & E coast
                                        of GB (see Abb 116).
                                                                                From Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg,
                                                                                & other areas (area shown in Abb 1 less
                                                                                Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth of
                                                                                Elbe R). *{900-605}*

194   1   300 400   N Saxons          G Area betw Rhine, Berkel & Ijssel    S
                                        RR in SE NL.
                                                                                Date corroborated by H. Doebler, Die
                                                                                Germanen. From Holstein, also on 3 islands
                                                                                at mouth of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W
                                                                                Mecklenburg, & other areas (area shown in
                                                                                Abb 1 less Holstein, also on 3 islands at
                                                                                mouth of Elbe R). *{900-605}*

900 609   300 1000  A Saxons          G {Area betw Rhine, Berkel & Ijssel   L
                                        RR in SE NL.} *{194-1}*
                                                                                For consistency with (194-1) & (166-20),
                                                                                (194-9). End date time after Frankish
                                                                                conquest during formation of German nation.

143  60   447 547   N Saxons          G Ilse of Thanet, Coast of Kent, S &  Q
                                        C England.
                                                                                From Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg,
                                                                                & other areas (area shown in Abb 1 less
                                                                                Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth of
                                                                                Elbe R). *{900-605}*

900 607   447 577   N Saxons          G {Ilse of Thanet, Coast of Kent, S   L
                                        & C England.} *{143-60}*
                                                                                For consistency with (143-60) & (143-61).

166  20   450 #     A Saxons          G Bayeux (Normandy, F)                R
                                                                                By Romans. From area betw Rhine, Berkel &
                                                                                Ijssel RR in SE NL. *{900-609}*

 12 106   531 #     N Saxons          G Part of Thuringia area between      Q
                                        Ohre, Elbe, Saale, Unstrut, Helme
                                        & Ocker RR. (Saxons settled more
                                        densely into area betw Bode R,
                                        Harz Mt & Saale R.)
                                                                                From Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg,
                                                                                & other areas (area shown in Abb 1 less
                                                                                Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth of
                                                                                Elbe R). *{900-605}* These are Eastern
                                                                                Saxons from Holstein and the Frankish
                                                                                Empire.

900 610   531 568   N Saxons          G {Part of Thuringia area between     L
                                        Ohre, Elbe, Saale, Unstrut, Helme
                                        & Ocker RR. (Saxons settled more
                                        densely into area betw Bode R,
                                        Harz Mt & Saale R.)} *{12-106}*
                                                                                For consistency with (12-106) & (900-611).

194   2   550 600   A Saxons          G NE NL & Gaul (coastal areas)        N
                                                                                From Holstein also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg,
                                                                                & other areas (area shown in Abb 1 less
                                                                                Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth of
                                                                                Elbe R). *{900-605}*

194   9   550 570   A Saxons          G Loire R mouth, F                    S
                                                                                From area betw Rhine, Berkel & Ijssel RR
                                                                                in SE NL. *{900-609}*

194   5   555 556   N Saxons          G Deutz nr Cologne                    A
                                                                                From Part of Thuringia area between Ohre,
                                                                                Elbe, Saale,Unstrut, Helme & Ocker RR.
                                                                                (Saxons settled more densely into area
                                                                                betw Bode R, Harz Mt & & Saale R.) *{900-
                                                                                610}* With Thuringians.

900 611   568 573   A Saxons          G N I & Gaul                          W
                                                                                From Part of Thuringia area between Ohre,
                                                                                Elbe, Saale, Unstrut, Helme & Ocker RR.
                                                                                (Saxons settled more densely into area
                                                                                betw Bode R, Harz Mt & & Saale R.) *{900-
                                                                                610}* End date acc/to (194-6). Moved to
                                                                                Italy but returned from on way,
                                                                                had to battle to regain their homes which
                                                                                had been occupied by N Suebians. They lost
                                                                                20K men in this battle and were limited to
                                                                                a smaller area thereafter.

900 612   573 #     N Saxons          G Betw Bode R, Harz Mt & Saale R      Q
                                                                                After (900-611). Moved to Italy but
                                                                                returned from on way, had to battle to
                                                                                regain their homes which had been occupied
                                                                                by N Suebians. They lost 20K men in this
                                                                                battle and were limited to a smaller area
                                                                                thereafter.

900 613   573 1000  N Saxons          G {Betw Bode R, Haig Mt & Saale R}    L
                                        *{900-612}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-612). End date
                                                                                time after Frankish conquest during
                                                                                formation of German nation.

143  61   577 #     N Saxons          G Severn RV (GB)                      E
                                                                                From Ilse of Thanet, Coast of Kent, S & C
                                                                                England. *{900-607}*

900 608   577 1100  A Saxons          G {Ilse of Thanet, Coast of Kent, S   L
                                        & C England.} + {Severn RV
                                        (GB)}*{143-60} + {143-61}*
                                                                                For consistency with (143-61). Population
                                                                                continued as Anglo-Saxons.

194  27   700 750   A Saxons          G Lippe-Ruhr RR area betw mid &       E
                                        upper Rhine & mid Weser RR
                                                                                From Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth
                                                                                of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W Mecklenburg,
                                                                                & other areas (area shown in Abb 1 less
                                                                                Holstein, also on 3 islands at mouth of
                                                                                Elbe R). *{900-605}*

900 614   700 1000  A Saxons          G {Holstein also on 3 islands at      L
                                        mouth of Elbe R. + Lower Saxony, W
                                        Mecklenburg, & other areas (area
                                        shown in Abb 1 less Holstein, also
                                        on 3 islands at mouth of Elbe R).}
                                        + {Lippe-Ruhr RR area betw mid &
                                        upper Rhine & mid Weser RR} *{900-
                                        605}
                                        + {194-27}*                             For consistency with (194-27). End date
                                                                                time after Frankish conquest during
                                                                                formation of German nation.

900 615  1100 1300  N Saxons          G Hungary                             Q
                                                                                From Saxony. Acc/to (50-3).

149  40  1282 1321  N Saxons          G Serbia, Macedonia & BG              S
                                                                                From Hungary. *{900-615}* Ref to BG added
                                                                                because of (114-9), to Macedonia because
                                                                                of (114-18). Miners brought in.

114   9  1282 1500  A Saxons          G BG                                  I
                                                                                Start date acc/to (149-40). Miners. By
                                                                                Bulgarian Slavs.

900 616  1282 1450  A Saxons          G Macedonia & Serbia                  L
                                                                                For consistency with (149-40) & (114-3).

 50   3  1300 1500  A Saxons          G Transilvania                        S
                                                                                From Saxony. Brought in as silver miners.

114   3  1450 1800  A Saxons          G Macedonia & Serbia                  I
                                                                                BG in original record, but dealt with by
                                                                                (114-9). Macedonia included because of
                                                                                (114-18). By Slavs.

344   3  1683 #     N Saxons          G Bohemia & L A                       A
                                                                                From Saxony. Not really attack but advance
                                                                                of Saxon relief forces. Genetic
                                                                                consequences probably same as attack.

364  10   400 1000  A Schalauer       B N Rossijskaja area, on Baltic Sea   L
                                        (the area of E Prussia annexed by
                                        USSR post World War II).

364   7   400 1000  A Schamaiten      B Zemaitija region, W Lithuania       L

382   9 -2200 -1850 N Schneckenberg-G U R, see map 12a (6); "Archeologicky  L
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date interpolated between this record
                                                                                and (383-9) and (383-6). Full name of
                                                                                culture: "Schneckenberg-Glina III."
                                                                                Apparently fragmented into Late
                                                                                Schneckenberg (383-9) and Late Glina III
                                                                                (383-6).

382  24 -2200 -1900 N Schoenfeld      U Area at junction of Havel and Elbe  L
                                        RR, N DDR, see map 12a(18a)
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Apparently associated with Corded
                                                                                Ware (Corded Pottery).

900 473  -300 150   A Sciri           G Baltic area E of lower Vistula R.   L
                                                                                By implication acc/to ref 12 and (11-57).

 11   9  -230 -190  A Sciri           G Olbia Modern Nikolayev, SU nr       A
                                        mouth of Dnepr R.
                                                                                End date acc/to (12-35). From Baltic area
                                                                                E of lower Vistula R (acc/to (12-36)).

900 474   150 #     A Sciri           G Modern Galicia (USSR, PL)           M
                                                                                By implication acc/to (40-85), (12-37).

900 475   150 409   A Sciri           G {Modern Galicia (USSR, PL)} *{900-  L
                                        474}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-474) & (12-39),
                                                                                (12-40).

 40  85   167 168   N Sciri           G Dacia RP                            A
                                                                                From modern Galicia (USSR, PL). *{900-474}*

 12  38   409 #     N Sciri           G Dacia ripensis                      A
                                                                                From modern Galicia (USSR, PL). *{900-
                                                                                474}* Decimated, large portion of
                                                                                survivors sold into slavery.

 12  39   409 #     N Sciri           G Lower Moesia along lower Danube R   R
                                                                                From modern Galicia (USSR, PL). *{900-
                                                                                474}* Smaller part of survivors of battle
                                                                                in Dacia ripensis (12-38).

 12  40   409 #     N Sciri           G Betw. Waag R (Vah in Slovakia) &    R
                                        Sm. Carpath.
                                                                                From modern Galicia (USSR, PL). *{900-
                                                                                474}* Rel. greater part of survivors of
                                                                                battle in Dacia ripensis (12-38).

900 476   409 450   A Sciri           G {Betw Waag R & Small Carpathians}   L
                                        *{12-41}*
                                                                                For consistency with (12-40) & (12-41).

 12  41   450 500   A Sciri           G Betw Waag R & Small Carpathians     I
                                                                                Absorbed by the Heruli.

234  49     1 600   A Sclavini        S Betw Carpathian Mts & Middle Dnepr  L
                                        R, chiefly in Kiev region.
                                                                                (SYN = Sclaveni). Start date is guess.
                                                                                Gave rise to Slovenes.

900 670   500 #     A Sclavini        S Lower Danube R (E Valachia,         Q
                                        coastal Moldavia, ROM).
                                                                                Acc/to (234-49). Detailed locations acc/to
                                                                                (32-26) & Putzger, p.37/II (Sklowenen).
                                                                                From area betw Carpathian Mts & Mid Dnepr
                                                                                R, chiefly in Kiev region. *{234-49}*

900 671   500 600   A Sclavini        S {Lower Danube R (E Valachia,        L
                                        coastal Moldavia, ROM).} *{900-
                                        670}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-670) and (51-82).

 40 115   531 550   N Sclavini        S Thracia & Moesia inf RP (The newly  A
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, Fig 22).
                                                                                Record obtained from chronology of ref 40.
                                                                                From Lower Danube R (E Valachia, coastal
                                                                                Moldavia, ROM). *{900-670}*

 31  12   552 568   N Sclavini        S Pannonia                            Q
                                                                                Pulled along by Avars from Lower Danube R
                                                                                (E Valachia, coastal Moldavia, ROM). *{900-
                                                                                671}* Called Sclavones in ref.

900 673   552 650   A Sclavini        S {Pannonia} *{31-12}*                L
                                                                                For consistency with (31-12) & (31-16). To
                                                                                permit settlement before amalgamation.

 31  16   650 796   A Sclavini        S {Pannonia} *{31-12}*                I
                                                                                Amalgamated with Avars. Start date to
                                                                                conform to (900-673). End date defeat of
                                                                                Avars. Called Sclavones in ref.

123  16  -335 #     N Scordisci       K Morava RV, Belgrade, also area      M
                                        betw Mouth of Drave R & Iron Gate
                                                                                From C Europe. Date from map (307-12).
                                                                                Expanded location field in view of (46-26).

900 982  -335 -100  A Scordisci       K {Morava RV, Belgrade, also area     L
                                        betw Mouth of Drave R & Iron
                                        Gate}*{123-16}*
                                                                                Everywhere were mixed with older Y,
                                                                                Thracian or Dacian inhabitants. Start date
                                                                                for consistency with (123-16). End date
                                                                                for consistency with (165-72) & (165-73).
                                                                                Ancient geographers divided them into
                                                                                Greater Scordisci (in the Save R area
                                                                                up to the Morava R) and the Lesser
                                                                                Scordisci (E of the Morava R).

 46   6  -280 -200  A Scordisci       K Betw lower S Morava & Isker RR      A
                                        (YU, BG)
                                                                                Area of the Triballi. From Morava RV,
                                                                                Belgrade, also area betw Mouth of Drave R
                                                                                & Iron Gate *{123-16}*

165  70  -278 #     N Scordisci       K Delphi, GR                          A
                                                                                From Morava RV, Belgrade, also area betw
                                                                                Mouth of Drave R & Iron Gate *{900-982}*

165  71  -150 #     A Scordisci       K Macedonia RP                        A
                                                                                From Morava RV, Belgrade, also area
                                                                                between mouth of Drave R & Iron Gate *{900-
                                                                                982}*

143  52  -135 #     N Scordisci       K Thrace                              A
                                                                                From Morava RV, Belgrade, also area
                                                                                between mouth of Drave R & Iron Gate *{900-
                                                                                982}*

 27 110  -114 #     N Scordisci       K Delphi                              A
                                                                                From Balkans.

 46  29  -109 -106  N Scordisci       K Macedonia RP                        A
                                                                                From Morava RV, Belgrade, also area
                                                                                between mouth of Drave R & Iron Gate *{900-
                                                                                982}*

165  73  -100 #     A Scordisci       K C Pannonia RP                       Q
                                                                                Lesser Scordisci from (165-72), part of
                                                                                tribe.

165  72  -100 -50   A Scordisci       K The part of (900-982) (Morava RV,   I
                                        Belgrade, also area betw Mouth of
                                        Drave R & Iron Gate)that is E of
                                        Morava R
                                                                                Lesser Scordisci, by Moesi, Triballi &
                                                                                Thracians.

132   9  -100 -88   A Scordisci       K {Morava RV, Belgrade, also area     L
                                        betw Mouth of Drave R & Iron
                                        Gate}- {E of Morava R} *{900-
                                        982} - {165-72}*
                                                                                For end date see (132-15).

132  15   -88 #     N Scordisci       K {Morava RV, Belgrade, also area     T
                                        betw Mouth of Drave R & Iron
                                        Gate - E of Morava R} - {Sirmium
                                        (Srem) area, YU} *{132-9} - {900-
                                        983}*
                                                                                To Sirmium (Srem) area YU. *{900-983}*
                                                                                (Ref says N Sirmium but (110-7) says E
                                                                                Sirmium, so left it just Sirmium).

900 983   -88 200   A Scordisci       K Sirmium (Srem) area, YU             L
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (132-15).
                                                                                End date acc/to (110-37).

 46  30   -16 #     N Scordisci       K Macedonia RP                        A
                                                                                From Sirmium (Srem) area, YU *{900-983}*

 27 180   100 200   A Scoti           K Britain, Normandy to Loire R mouth  A
                                                                                From Ireland. These are the Goidelic
                                                                                inhabitants of Ireland.

 11 153   300 500   A Scoti           K Cornwall, S. & N. Wales             Q
                                                                                From Ireland. End date is guess.

 11 154   350 450   A Scoti           K W coast of Scotland                 Q
                                                                                From Ireland. Pirates at first.

900 955   350 800   A Scoti           K {W coast of Scotland} *{11-154}*    L
                                                                                For consistency with (11-154) & (27-185).

 27 185   800 1000  A Scoti           K S. Scotland                         E
                                                                                From W coast of Scotland *{11-154}*

900 956   800 1970  A Scoti           K {W coast of Scotland } + {S.        L
                                        Scotland} *{11-154} + {27-185}*
                                                                                To conform to (27-185). Still there today,
                                                                                although most are now English speakers.

901 128  1315 1316  N Scoti           K Ulster, Connacht, Ireland           
                                                                                intervention by Edward Bruce, brother of
                                                                                the Scottish king, on behalf of Irish
                                                                                rebels against the English. from Scotland.
                                                                                acc/to Ploetz, p 573.

901 131  1550 1560  A Scoti           K County Antrim, Ireland              Q
                                                                                from Scotland, acc/to E

901 138  1550 1970  A Scoti           K Ulster, N Ireland                   L
                                                                                start date tct 901-131; end date still
                                                                                there. English-speaking today.

901 135  1600 1625  A Scoti           K Ulster, N Ireland                   Q
                                                                                from Scotland, primarily the Lowlands,
                                                                                acc/to E. 200,000 migrants acc/to The
                                                                                Story of English p152

 38  12  -800 #     A Scythians       R Black Sea coasts                    C
                                                                                From E Steppes (E of Urals). Scythians
                                                                                conquered the Cimmerians there.

129   3  -800 #     A Scythians       R Transcaucasia (area S of Causasus). E
                                                                                From E steppes (E of Urals).

129  10  -750 #     N Scythians       R S Russia (similar to {900-227}).    C
                                                                                From E steppes (E of Urals). Superimposed
                                                                                upon area of Timbergrave culture which is
                                                                                also known as Proto-Scythian.

900 233  -750 200   A Scythians       R {S Russia (similar to {900-227}).}  L
                                        *{129-10}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (129-10). End date
                                                                                acc/to (122-25). Finally conquered and
                                                                                dispersed by Goths.

122  11  -722 -705  N Scythians       R L Urmia                             C
                                                                                From Transcaucasia.

129  12  -720 -700  N Scythians       R Pontus region of AM                 C
                                                                                From L Urmia. *{122-11}* Together with
                                                                                Assyrians, conquered the Cimmerians there.

122  14  -700 #     A Scythians       R Urartu (in part of modern           E
                                        Azerbadjan).
                                                                                From L Urmia. *{122-11}*  Established
                                                                                capital at Sakiz, controlled lands W of
                                                                                Halys R.

129  14  -678 -628  N Scythians       R Assyria, Media                      A
                                                                                From across Caucasus Mts.

122  15  -625 -611  N Scythians       R Syria, Palestine, Egypt             A
                                                                                From Urartu (in part of modern
                                                                                Azerbadjan). *{122-14}*

109   2  -600 #     A Scythians       R Alfoeld in H                        E
                                                                                From S Russia (similar to {900-227}).
                                                                                *{129-10}* Actually 'peoples of Steppe
                                                                                origin with a Scythian culture'. Perhaps
                                                                                Cimmerians.

113   4  -600 #     A Scythians       R Transylvania (Mures & two Tirnava   E
                                        RR)
                                                                                From S Russia (similar to {900-227}).
                                                                                *{129-10}*

123  21  -600 -400  A Scythians       R Dobrugea                            E
                                                                                From S Russia (similar to {900-227}).
                                                                                *{129-10}*

152  12  -600 -400  A Scythians       R Slovakia                            E
                                                                                From S Russia (similar to {900-227}).
                                                                                *{129-10}* Dates changed acc/to CSSR atlas
                                                                                (could not find this ref to date again).
                                                                                The dates in this ref are pre C 14.

900 234  -600 -200  A Scythians       R Alfoeld (H), Transylvania (ROM)     L
                                                                                Replaced by Kelts acc/to (172-18).

 39  39  -513 #     N Scythians       R Thrace                              A
                                                                                From Dobrugea + Transylvania (Mures & two
                                                                                Tirnava RR). *{123-21} + {113-4}* Pursued
                                                                                Persians all the way to S border.

122  19  -495 #     N Scythians       R Thrace                              A
                                                                                From Dobrugea + Transylvania (Mures & two
                                                                                Tirnava RR). *{123-21} + {113-4}*

 39  44  -460 #     A Scythians       R {Along lower Danube R} *{900-231}*  E
                                                                                From Dobrugea + Transylvania (Mures & two
                                                                                Tirnava RR) nr ROM-BG border. *{123-21} +
                                                                                {113-4}*
                                                                                To conform with 900-231.

900 231  -460 -354  N Scythians       R Along lower Danube R                L
                                                                                (Synonym Getes). (Author of ref 23 thinks
                                                                                Getes is a synonym. We think the Getae are
                                                                                P speakers.) *{Location attributed to (23-
                                                                                18).}*

900 232  -339 -334  N Scythians       R Dobrugea (up to W of Balcik, BG)    
                                                                                Acc/to (113-8), (122-21). From S Russia,
                                                                                pushed by Sarmatian expansion.

234  36  -300 -100  A Scythians       R Crimea (ancient Taurida)            Q
                                                                                From S Russia, pushed by Sarmatians. Will
                                                                                mix with native Tauri to form Tauro-
                                                                                Scythae. This process took 200 yrs.

234  25  -150 #     A Scythians       R Dobrugea                            Q
                                                                                From Dniepr R area. Part of Scythians only.

389  17  -150 -50   N Scythians       R Crimea, NW coast Black Sea, SU,     L
                                        see map 20a (18); 'Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Assimilated by Tauri.

900 735   500 600   A Sedlcane        S Around Karlovy Vary, CS             M
                                                                                From N in E PL (acc/to (19-22)). Implied
                                                                                since (19-22) talks about W. Slavs only.
                                                                                These are a Czech tribe. *Location acc/to
                                                                                (302-48).*

900 739   500 900   A Sedlcane        S {Around Karlovy Vary, CS} *{900-    L
                                        735}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-735). End
                                                                                date is arbitrary. No evidence for
                                                                                individual tribes after 900 AD. After that
                                                                                date we will group and call the Czech
                                                                                Slavs as Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks.
                                                                                Between 623-658 they were part of the
                                                                                Greater Moravian Empire.

355   5  -100 1     N Seduni          U Berner Alps area, near Sion, on     L
                                        Rhone R, CH.
                                                                                Probably Celtic tribe.

352  13   -60 100   A Sedusii         G E of Rhine & S of Neckar RR, NE of  L
                                        Karlsruhe, D.
                                                                                End date is guess. An 'unmixed' German
                                                                                tribe, according to map legend.

165  75  -500 -1    A Segestani       Y Sisak (Croatia, YU) (See map 1,     L
                                        ref 165.)

353   9     1 100   N Segni           G Ardennes area, SE B                 L
                                                                                Start date acc/to (361-7). They were left
                                                                                Rhenish-Germans at time of Caesar.

143  12  -750 -50   A Segusavi        K Lyon area, F                        L

236   2   689 #     N Seldjuks        T Transoxania (between Syr Darya &    M
                                        Darya RR).
                                                                                From Afghan-Chinese border. A subtribe of
                                                                                the Oghuzes.

900 416   689 1040  A Seldjuks        T {Transoxania (between Syr Darya &   L
                                        Darya RR).} *{236-2}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-2) & (130-2).

130   2  1040 1089  N Seldjuks        T From L Aral & India to Upper        E
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.
                                                                                From L Aral & Lower Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) R
                                                                                (Transoxania).

900 417  1040 1065  A Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.} *{130-2}*
                                                                                For consistency with (130-2) & (325-12).

236   8  1045 #     N Seldjuks        T Kars, L Van (AM)                    A
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

236  10  1047 1059  N Seldjuks        T Erzerum, Ani, Kars, Melitene        A
                                        (Malayta), Sebaste (Sivas) [AM]
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

236   7  1055 #     N Seldjuks        T Baghdad                             A
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

325  12  1065 #     N Seldjuks        T Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil        E
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

900 418  1065 1078  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.} + {Anatolia betw Halys R
                                        (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See
                                        112/ 113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)} *{900-417} + {325-12}*
                                                                                For consistency with (325-12) & (236-12).

900 419  1078 1106  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)} *{900-418}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-12) & (236-17).

236  17  1106 1107  N Seldjuks        T Malatya (anc. Melitene),            C
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.) *{900-418}*

900 420  1106 1164  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + {Malatya (anc. Melitene),             For consistency with (236-17) & (236-18).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.} *{900-419} +
                                        {236-17}*

236  18  1164 1169  N Seldjuks        T Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)         C
                                        Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR).
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. *{900-420}*

900 421  1164 1214  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-18) & (236-20).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.} + {Elbistan,
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR).} *{900-420}
                                        + {236-18}*

236  20  1214 #     N Seldjuks        T Antalya, Sinope (AM)                C
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. + Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)
                                                                                Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR). *{900-421}*

900 422  1214 1220  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-20) & (236-21).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul. + Elbistan,
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR).} + {Antalya,
                                        Sinope (AM)} *{900-421} + {236-20}*

236  21  1220 #     N Seldjuks        T Kalonoros (Alaiye = Alanya, S       C
                                        coast AM)
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. + Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)
                                                                                Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR). + Antalya,
                                                                                Sinope (AM). *{900-422}*

900 423  1220 1305  A Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-21) & ref 236
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul. + Elbistan,        chronology. End of Seldjuk Empire results
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,              in fragmentation into Turkish kingdoms,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR). + Antalya,        rise of Osman Turks.
                                        Sinope (AM)} + {Kalonoros (Alaiye
                                        = Alanya, S coast AM)} *{900-422}
                                        + {236-21}*

364   6   400 1000  A Selen           B E part of Zemgale region, Latvia    L

 40  63  -195 #     N Seleucids       U S Thracian coast (mod. GR & TR)     A
                                                                                From AM and/or Syria. This is a dynasty at
                                                                                this time ruling Syria & AM. Army probably
                                                                                Greek-speaking.

364   4   400 1000  A Semigallians    B Area betw Gulf of Rigaton, N        L
                                        Lithuania to S, Dougava & Abava
                                        RR, W Latvia, incl. Zemgale region.

900 110  1000 1100  A Semigallians    B W Dvina R                           L
                                                                                Acc/to (234-101).

900 525  -200 180   A Semnones        G Elbe-Havel RR area bounded by Elbe  L
                                        R in W and in S by Hermunduri
                                        tribal area (Middle Oder R area).
                                        E border Burgundians, separated by
                                        Spree or Havel RR. (See Abb 4,
                                        p.48.)
                                                                                Acc/to (182-9), (183-10), (185-8), (185-9).

900 526   180 #     A Semnones        G Betw Main & Danube RR; (see Abb 1,  Q
                                        p.13).
                                                                                From Elbe-Havel RR area bounded by Elbe R
                                                                                in W and in S by Hermunduri tribal area
                                                                                (Middle Oder R area). E border
                                                                                Burgundians, separated by Spree or Havel
                                                                                RR (see (185-8)). They are called Alemanni
                                                                                hereafter. Date acc/to (185-9).

 27  51  -800 -700  A Senoni          K Lorraine                            L
                                                                                End date for consistency with (27-52).

 27  52  -700 -650  A Senoni          K Yonne RV                            M
                                                                                From Lorraine *{27-51}*

900 972  -700 -50   A Senoni          K {Yonne RV} *{27-52}*                L
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (27-52).
                                                                                End date: reported in Caesar's time. See
                                                                                G. Herm, The Celts, p. 178.

143  38  -400 #     A Senoni          K N Adriatic coast betw Ancona &      S
                                        Rimini, I
                                                                                From Yonne RV *{900-972}*. Location
                                                                                details from (28-12).

 28  12  -400 -268  A Senoni          K N Adriatic coast betw Ancona &      L
                                        Rimini, I
                                                                                Start date to conform to (143-38). End
                                                                                date acc/to (17-35). Ref (28-12) says they
                                                                                were pushed out following their defeat by
                                                                                the Romans; ref (17-35) says they were
                                                                                wiped out.

 26  50  -387 #     N Senoni          K Rome                                A
                                                                                From between Ancona & Rimini *{28-12}*
                                                                                Exact date from Ploetz.

143   8  -750 -200  A Sequani         K Franche-Comte, F                    L
                                                                                End date to conform to (900-974).

900 974  -200 -100  A Sequani         K Alsace, Palatinate, S-Rhine-Hesse   E
                                                                                From Franche-Comte, F *{143-8}* This
                                                                                record created to allow for their presence
                                                                                in these areas acc/to (12-134). Date and
                                                                                fact of expansion are questionable.

 12 134  -200 -61   A Sequani         K {Franche-Comte, F} + {Alsace,       L
                                        Palatinate, S-Rhine- Hesse} *{143-
                                        8} + {900-974}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-974).

900 975   -61 #     N Sequani         K {Franche-Comte, F + Alsace,         T
                                        Palatinate, S-Rhine- Hesse} -
                                        {Alsace, Palatinate, S-Rhine-
                                        Hesse} *{12-134} - {900-974}*
                                                                                To Franche-Comte, F *{356-10}* Displaced
                                                                                by Ariovist.

356  10   -61 -50   N Sequani         K Franche-Comte region, F             L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-975). End
                                                                                date conservative guess before
                                                                                Romanization and assimilation.

900 340     1 200   A Serapilli       Y {Area of Iovia (mod. Ludbreg,       L
                                        Croatia, YU) S of Drava R
                                        (Pannonia RP)} *{110-40}*
                                                                                For consistency with (110-40).

110  40   200 400   A Serapilli       Y Area of Iovia (mod. Ludbreg,        I
                                        Croatia, YU) S of Drava R
                                        (Pannonia RP)
                                                                                Celticized tribe. By Romans. Location from
                                                                                next unabstracted ref p.141, in same book.

900 690    50 150   A Serbs           S European Sarmatia (area betw        M
                                        Dnestr & Vistula RR and
                                        Carpathians; see (51-114)).
                                                                                Extracted from ref 51, just before (51-
                                                                                111). Start date in ref, end date guess to
                                                                                conform to (900-691). From 'Asiatic
                                                                                Sarmatia' (area N of Don R to Caucasus).

900 691    50 450   A Serbs           S {European Sarmatia (area betw       L
                                        Dnestr & Vistula RR and
                                        Carpathians; see (51-114)).} *{900-
                                        690}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-690) & (900-
                                                                                692). This is a wild guess.

900 692   450 #     A Serbs           S White Serbia (area S of Sudeten     M
                                        Mts, in CS).
                                                                                From European Sarmatia (area betw Dnestr &
                                                                                Vistula RR and Carpathians; see (51-114)).
                                                                                *{900-690}* Necessary to get them from
                                                                                (900-690) into this area. They are known
                                                                                from each, but we have no record of
                                                                                movement or dates. This date is
                                                                                compatible with parallel movements of
                                                                                related Sorbs.

900 693   450 626   A Serbs           S {White Serbia (area S of Sudeten    L
                                        Mts, in CS).} *{900-692}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-692) & (51-113).

 51 113   626 #     N Serbs           S Illyricum (former RP) (For a        M
                                        slightly more precise locality
                                        definition, use (51-71).)
                                                                                From White Serbia (area S of Sudeten Mts,
                                                                                in CS). *{900-693}* Illyricum is poorly
                                                                                defined but we found no more precise ref,
                                                                                except for an area called Srpciste (not
                                                                                located). Later found ref (51-71) where
                                                                                predecessors of Serbs are mentioned
                                                                                and which has a slightly better defined
                                                                                area. (Other syn: Srbi.) Ref 51 also
                                                                                mentions that while Serbs themselves came
                                                                                from White Serbia, the mass of the Slavs
                                                                                that settled in Serbia may have come
                                                                                directly from European Sarmatia and have
                                                                                been dominated by Serbs from White Serbia.

900 694   626 900   N Serbs           S {Illyricum (former RP) (For a       L
                                        slightly more precise locality
                                        definition, use (51-71).)} *{51-
                                        113}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-113) & (51-44).

900 695   900 #     N Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      E
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU).} -
                                        {Illyricum (former RP) (For a
                                        slightly more precise locality
                                        definition, use (51-71).)} *{51-
                                        44} - {51-113}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-113) & (51-44).
                                                                                Date is a guess to conform to (51-44).
                                                                                From Illyricum (former RP). (For a
                                                                                slightly more precise locality definition,
                                                                                use (51-71).) *{51-113}*

 51  44   900 1100  A Serbs           S Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,       L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU).
                                                                                Includes subgroups of Neretljani,
                                                                                Zahumljani, Travunjani, Konavljani,
                                                                                Dukljani, Srbica. End date from (51-115).

 51 115  1100 1200  A Serbs           S Morava R                            E
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). *{51-44}*

900 696  1100 1200  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU).} + {Morava
                                        R} *{51-44} + {51-115}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-44) and (51-117).

 51 117  1200 1331  A Serbs           S Macedonia                           C
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R. *{900-696}*

900 697  1200 1331  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava
                                        R} + {Macedonia} *{900-696} + {51-
                                        117}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-696), (51-117)
                                                                                as well as (149-41).

149  41  1331 1346  N Serbs           S Albania (excluding Durazzo),        C
                                        Epirus, Macedonia (excluding
                                        Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. -
                                        {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in
                                        YU). + Morava R + Macedonia} *          From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                        Albania ... - {900-697}*                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R + Macedonia. *{900-
                                                                                697}* Conquest of Czar Stefan Dusan.

900 698  1331 1400  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia} + {Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      For consistency with (149-41) and (149-1).
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia} *{900-697} + {149-
                                        41}*

149   1  1400 1450  A Serbs           S YU: N of Danube & S H               Q
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R. + Macedonia + Albania
                                                                                (excluding Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                                                                (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-
                                                                                Vardar
                                                                                line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia, Bosnia,
                                                                                Neretva area, Zahumlje, Travunija,
                                                                                Konavlje, Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                                                                Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R +
                                                                                Macedonia. *{900-698}* Dates are
                                                                                compromise between (149-1) & (51-118). As a
                                                                                result of Turkish pressure.

900 699  1400 1500  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia + [Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      Start date for consistency with (149-1).
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,         End date for consistency with (114-19).
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia]} + {YU: N of Danube
                                        & S H} *{900-698} + {149-1}*

 51 144  1500 1700  A Serbs           S Montenegro                          Q
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU) + Morava R + Macedonia + Albania
                                                                                (excluding Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                                                                (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-
                                                                                Vardar
                                                                                line with Belgrade in N - Serbia, Bosnia,
                                                                                Neretva area, Zahumlje, Travunija,
                                                                                Konavlje, Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                                                                Macedonia, rest in YU) + Morava R +
                                                                                Macedonia + YU: N of Danube & S H. *{900-
                                                                                699}* 'Massive settlement' (massive
                                                                                probably
                                                                                with respect to Montenegrin population).

900 700  1500 #     A Serbs           S {Macedonia (YU)} *{114-19}*         T
                                                                                For consistency with (900-699) and (114-
                                                                                19). To Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R + Macedonia + Albania
                                                                                (excluding Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                                                                (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-
                                                                                Vardar line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,
                                                                                Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje, Travunija,
                                                                                Konavlje, Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                                                                Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R +
                                                                                Macedonia + YU: N of Danube &
                                                                                S H. - Macedonia (YU). *{900-701}*

114  19  1500 1600  A Serbs           S Macedonia (YU)                      I
                                                                                By Macedonian Slavs.

900 701  1500 1690  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia + [Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      For consistency with (900-700) & (149-58).
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia] + YU: N of Danube &
                                        S H} - {Macedonia (YU)} *{900-
                                        699} - {900-700}*

900 703  1500 1970  A Serbs           S {Montenegro} *{51-144}*             L
                                                                                These are the Montenegrins. See also (114-
                                                                                46). Dates: for consistency with (51-144)
                                                                                & still present as Montenegrins.

149  58  1690 #     N Serbs           S Srem (Syrmien) region (betw Danube  E
                                        & Save RR)
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R + Macedonia + Albania
                                                                                (excluding Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                                                                (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-
                                                                                Vardar
                                                                                line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia, Bosnia,
                                                                                Neretva area, Zahumlje, Travunija,
                                                                                Konavlje, Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                                                                Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R +
                                                                                Macedonia + YU: N of Danube & S H. -
                                                                                Macedonia (YU). *{900-701}*

900 702  1690 1970  N Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia + Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      Start date to conform to (149-58). End
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,         date: still there today. In some of the
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,            area Serbian may not now be spoken due to
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean                assimilations.
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia + YU: N of Danube &
                                        S H - Macedonia (YU)} + {Srem
                                        (Syrmien) region
                                        (betw Danube & Save RR)} *{900-
                                        701} + {149-58}*

346   9  1918 #     A Serbs           S Murmansk, Karelia SU                A
                                                                                From Serbia.

901  94     1 200   A Serretes        U {Poetovio, Pannonia RP (mod. Ptuj,  L
                                        YU)} *{110-39}*
                                                                                Start date: ref 111, p. 141. End date to
                                                                                conform to (110-39).

110  39   200 250   A Serretes        U Poetovio, Pannonia RP (mod. Ptuj,   I
                                        YU)
                                                                                End date: conservative guess. By Romans.

147   9   800 1300  A Severjane       S Desna R area & tributaries          L
                                                                                Arose from Romny culture (q.v.) but not
                                                                                all E. Slavs. Romny may be Severjane. Ref
                                                                                (234-157), (234-160), (234-163) has them
                                                                                expand from Donets R to Psiol & Desna RVV
                                                                                in 850. Found no confirmation for this.

214   1 -1400 -1200 A Sherden         U Sardinia                            M
                                                                                Probably from Cyprus (acc/to ref 214) or
                                                                                from Hermus region of AM E of Chios Is.
                                                                                not from Sardinia (acc/to (225-8)).

 26  14 -1000 -500  A Sicani          U W Sicily (except for province of    L
                                        Trapani), map p. 359
                                                                                End date acc/to (320-17). Probably pre-IE
                                                                                people.

168  13 -1250 #     A Siculi          I E Sicily                            M
                                                                                Not clear from where. They may have come
                                                                                from Italian peninsula.

900 995 -1250 -500  A Siculi          I {E Sicily} *{168-13}*               L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (168-13). End
                                                                                date from (320-16). May have assumed the
                                                                                name of Pre-IndoEuropean inhabitants (26-
                                                                                10).

368   1   -50 100   N Sidones         G Dnestr R area, betw Stry R &        L
                                        Beskid Mtns, & S of Lvov, W SU.
                                                                                Subgroup of Bastarnae acc. to Much.

900 601   100 #     A Sidones         G {Betw Pilica & Odra RR, Katowice,   M
                                        N of Upper Vistula R, S PL.} *{369-
                                        1}*
                                                                                For consistency with (368-1) & (369-1).
                                                                                From Dnestr R area, betw Stry R & Beskid
                                                                                Mtns, & S of Lvov, W SU. *{368-1}*

369   1   100 300   A Sidones         G Betw Pilica & Odra RR, Katowice, N  L
                                        of Upper Vistula R, S PL.
                                                                                At time of Roman Empire at greatest
                                                                                extent; subgroup of Bastarnae.

132   2  -750 -300  A Sigynni         R Alfoeld plain (E H)                 L
                                                                                Steppe-culture. Former Cimmerians later
                                                                                under Scythian influence, incl. aboriginal
                                                                                population.

304   2 -1300 -400  A Siles. Urnfield U Area N and E of Prague, and areas   L
                                        along Morava and Becva RR, and
                                        Holasovice and Katerinky, CS.
                                                                                Full name: Silesian Phase Urnfield
                                                                                Culture, but called Lausitz & recent
                                                                                Urnfield cultures in Slovakia.

900 546   150 450   A Silingi         G Silesia (largest part; see (6-3)).  L
                                                                                For consistency with (900-545). End date
                                                                                is based on map 34, Putzger and (13-26).
                                                                                Branch of Vandals, called Silingi after
                                                                                this date.

900 549   277 #     N Silingi         G {Upper Main R} *{11-88}*            Q
                                                                                For consistency with (11-88). From Silesia
                                                                                (largest part; see (6-3)). *{900-546}*

 11  88   277 405   N Silingi         G Upper Main R                        L

900 550   405 409   A Silingi         G {Continental E} *{11-90}*           M
                                                                                From Upper Main R. *{11-88}* via Gaul (2-
                                                                                7). End date acc/to (6-9). Hasdingian
                                                                                Vandals suffered heavy losses. Will be
                                                                                called Vandals again hereafter. Total
                                                                                arrivals of all Germanic & Alan tribes
                                                                                hardly 100K (acc/to ref (53-35).

 44  19   -50 50    A Silures         U S Wales (see map 26 in Geipel)      L
                                                                                Became Celticized.

234  32  -500 -400  A Sindians        U SE of Sea of Azov centered on       L
                                        Kuban RV.
                                                                                Original pre-Indoeuropean inhabitants.

900 265  -800 -600  A Sintians        P Lower RV of Strumitsa (=            L
                                        Strumesnica R in BG)
                                                                                Acc/to (39-9) & (47-85).

900 266  -750 #     A Sintians        P SE Thrace                           S
                                                                                Acc/to (39-10) & (119-14). From lower RV
                                                                                of Strumitsa (= Strumesnica R in BG).
                                                                                *{900-265}*

900 267  -750 -700  A Sintians        P SE Thrace                           L
                                                                                Acc/to (119-14).

900 268  -700 #     A Sintians        P Lemnos Is                           M
                                                                                Acc/to (119-14). From SE Thrace.

900 269  -700 -600  A Sintians        P {Lemnos Is} *{900-268}*             L
                                                                                Termination date is a guess. Provisional
                                                                                only. To conform to (900-268).

234  31  -200 #     A Siracae         R SE of Sea of Azov centered on       M
                                        Kuban RV.
                                                                                A Sarmatian tribe from the East.

900 250  -200 200   A Siracae         R {SE of Sea of Azov centered on      L
                                        Kuban RV.} *{234-31}*
                                                                                Dominated (ruled) and presumably absorbed
                                                                                by Alans (ref 234, p.88).

901  93     1 200   A Sirmiensi       U {Sirmium, Pannonia RP (mod. Srem    L
                                        Mitrovica, YU)} *{110-34}*
                                                                                Start date: ref 111, p. 141. End date to
                                                                                conform to (110-34).

110  34   200 250   A Sirmiensi       U Sirmium, Pannonia RP (mod. Srem     I
                                        Mitrovica, YU)
                                                                                End date: conservative guess. By Romans.

208   4 -2200 -2000 A Slate           U E Finnmark (N)                      L
                                                                                Culture. "First introduced from the East
                                                                                somewhere."

208   9 -2000 -1500 A Slate           U From E Finnmark to Mien (N of       L
                                        Alesund) (N)
                                                                                Culture. Apparent expansion over (208-4).
                                                                                End date is fictitious. No indication
                                                                                given in ref.

 33   8   500 550   A Slavs           S Left bank Danube R from Iron Gate   Q
                                        to its mouth.
                                                                                From Danube R delta. Confirmed by Vana:
                                                                                The World of Ancient Slavs, map on p.40.
                                                                                No evidence how long they stayed there.

123  26   500 600   A Slavs           S Dacia (former RP) (up to Danube R). Q
                                                                                From area betw Oder, Dnepr & Vistula RR
                                                                                and Carpathian Mts.

174   1   500 650   A Slavs           S {W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E    Q
                                        to Upper Pruth R on E side of
                                        Carpathian Mts; along Pruth
                                        downstream to Leovo, E across
                                        Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream
                                        along Dnestr to Black Sea. S
                                        border not stated by author but
                                        probably not quite
                                        up to modern S border of BG.            From area betw Lower Danube & Dnestr RR.
                                        (Included Pliska, Preslav,              Start date by inference and also from
                                        Adrianople). - Sofia, Adrianople}       Vana: The World of Ancient Slavs, p.43.
                                        *{900-657}*                             End date is guess based on Vana: The World
                                                                                of Ancient Slavs, map on p. 40, and
                                                                                supposition that Slavs were in place
                                                                                when the Bulgars arrived in 680 AD.

900 778   500 805   A Slavs           S {W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E    L
                                        to Upper Pruth R on E side of
                                        Carpathian Mts; along Pruth
                                        downstream to Leovo, E across
                                        Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream
                                        along Dnestr to Black Sea. S
                                        border not stated by author but
                                        probably not quite
                                        up to modern S border of BG.            Start date to conform to (174-1), end date
                                        (Included Pliska, Preslav,              to conform to (900-657).
                                        Adrianople). - Sofia, Adrianople}
                                        *{900-657}*

124  20   548 #     N Slavs           S Durrachium (Durazzo)                A
                                                                                From area between Lower Danube and Dnestr
                                                                                RR. Confirmed by Vana: The World of
                                                                                Ancient Slavs, p.38.

  4   3   550 #     A Slavs           S Lower A probably up to Enns R.      Q
                                                                                From H.

  4   7   550 1000  A Slavs           S {Lower A probably up to Enns R.}    L
                                        *{4-3}*
                                                                                Location confirmed by Vana: The World of
                                                                                Ancient Slavs, p.69. Acc/to (133-56),
                                                                                assimilated to Avars. Upper classes
                                                                                assumed Avar way, serfs were Slavic in
                                                                                culture. Eventually Avars were more Slavic
                                                                                than any other ethnic component.

234  65   558 559   N Slavs           S Thrace & Macedonia                  A
                                                                                With Bulgars (234-64). Probably from
                                                                                Dobrugea.

  7  18   575 700   A Slavs           S Carantania which is the valley of   Q
                                        the Drau (Drave) R in A up to
                                        Lienz, and up to the Traungau.
                                                                                From Pannonia.

 51  58   575 625   A Slavs           S Vojvodina in YU                     L
                                                                                8K Slav prisoners from there were reported
                                                                                by Byzantines. Dates are conservative
                                                                                brackets around the event.

 32  30   600 625   A Slavs           S GR, Aegaean, Crete                  A
                                                                                From Balkans.

 13  44   600 700   A Slavs           S GR, including Peloponnese           Q
                                                                                From Balkans. Only W Peloponnese acc/to
                                                                                (327-1). Author states there must have
                                                                                been many of original population
                                                                                (Hellenes) left to result in the re-
                                                                                Hellenization of the country.

 32  37   600 1000  A Slavs           S Khazar empire betw Sea of Azov &    L
                                        Chorezm.
                                                                                Author refers to them as E. Slavs. Dates
                                                                                bracket events described in ref. End date
                                                                                is approximate end of Khazar Empire. Not
                                                                                clear whether they are a continuation of
                                                                                Croats located there betw 200-550 AD by
                                                                                (32-31) or whether these came
                                                                                de novo.

 31  25   630 803   N Slavs           S BG                                  L
                                                                                Start date provisional until we know when
                                                                                Slavs moved to BG. End date to conform to
                                                                                (234-144). Still need record to move Slavs
                                                                                to BG.

234 110   665 #     N Slavs           S Syria                               R
                                                                                5K. These were Slavs from Vardar R
                                                                                (Stryman R) area.

234 113   686 #     N Slavs           S Bithynia, AM                        R
                                                                                30K families, from Macedonia by Byzantine
                                                                                emperor Justinian II.

234 114   692 #     N Slavs           S Antiochia, Kyrrhos                  R
                                                                                7K. By Arabs. From Bithynia.

 13  30   700 800   A Slavs           S W Thuringia W & S of Saale R, & NE  Q
                                        Bavaria.
                                                                                Probably from PL. Developed into
                                                                                ethnically mixed culture.

900 779   700 1150  A Slavs           S {W Thuringia W & S of Saale R, &    L
                                        NE Bavaria.} *{13-30}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (13-30). End date
                                                                                acc/to (35-1).

234 123   737 #     N Slavs           S Syria along Byzantine frontier      R
                                                                                20K. By Arabs. These were As or Rus from
                                                                                Lower Don R area.

234 141   762 #     N Slavs           S S Thrace                            A
                                                                                From N & C Thrace. The largely Bulgar army
                                                                                was accompanied by a levy of 20K Slavic
                                                                                troops.

234 140   762 #     N Slavs           S Bithynia                            R
                                                                                By Byzantines (200K) from S Thrace &
                                                                                Macedonia.

106   2   800 900   A Slavs           S Istria                              Q
                                                                                Probably from N YU.

133  57   800 850   A Slavs           S Lower A                             Q
                                                                                From E, probably H. This is a 2nd wave.

120  13   800 900   A Slavs           S ROM                                 I
                                                                                Romanized. Dates not too clear.

234 147   813 #     N Slavs           S Adrianople district                 R
                                                                                Probably Bulgarians (not stated how many
                                                                                and from where).

 51 137  1100 1200  A Slavs           S GR                                  I
                                                                                By Hellenes. Facts established, but date
                                                                                is questionable.

210   4  1106 #     N Slavs           S Latvia                              A
                                                                                From Polock, Byelorussia.

179  26  1150 1450  A Slavs           S Mecklenburg, Pommerania Saxony,     I
                                        Thuringia, Lower & Middle Silesia.
                                                                                By Germans.

210   6  1200 1300  A Slavs           S Latvia area where Yatvings were     C
                                        located.
                                                                                From PL and Russia.

900 720   600 1000  N Slenzane        S Upper Oder R around Wroclaw, PL     L
                                        (see map ref 302).
                                                                                Start date from (301-24), end date from
                                                                                (371-3) (but note that (147-16) lists them
                                                                                as Slenzane until 1200 AD). Will become
                                                                                part of Poles. (Syn.Slezane, Slazane).

900 749   500 600   A Slovaks         S Slovakia, S of Carpathian Mts (see  M
                                        map 302).
                                                                                Location acc/to (302-41). Vana: The World
                                                                                of Ancient Slavs p.35 suggests they might
                                                                                have reached E Slovakia as early as first
                                                                                half of 5th C. From N in E PL (acc/to (19-
                                                                                22)). Implied since (19-22) talks about W.
                                                                                Slavs only. These are
                                                                                a Czech tribe.

900 750   500 1050  A Slovaks         S {Slovakia, S of Carpathian Mts      L
                                        (see map 302).} *{900-749}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-749). End
                                                                                date is last date given on Czech Atlas map
                                                                                52.

900 751  1050 1970  A Slovaks         S Slovakia                            L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-750). End
                                                                                date still present. We use a wider
                                                                                geographic area than (900-750) but have at
                                                                                the moment no specfic record of when
                                                                                Slovaks expanded in mountain regions.

901 206  1946 1947  N Slovaks         S {Former Sudetenland, CS (see map    Q
                                        p. 110 in Putzger)} *{150-11}*
                                                                                From Slovakia. *{900-751}*

 51  82   600 700   A Slovenes        S Upper courses Save R & Danube R in  M
                                        W, incl. E Alps, Adriatic coast up
                                        to plain of Friaul, almost to
                                        Venice.
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (900-671).
                                                                                They were earlier called Sclavini. On the
                                                                                Pannonian plain, they allied themselves
                                                                                with the Czech & Slovak tribes. Probably
                                                                                stayed S & W of Danube R. This area does
                                                                                not fully coincide with (51-84)
                                                                                and may need stitching together. Ref also
                                                                                states 'also substantial part of Pannonian
                                                                                plain', but this is more correctly taken
                                                                                care of by (31-12). From Lower Danube R (E
                                                                                Valachia, coastal Moldavia, ROM). *{900-
                                                                                670}*

 51  84   600 700   A Slovenes        S Area from Trieste over Trzic (YU)   L
                                        & Kormink Cedad (Cividale, I?), to
                                        Potreba (Pontebba, I?), St. Mohor,
                                        Villach on Drau R (A), betw
                                        Ossiacher & Woerther LL (A), to
                                        Radkersburg a. d. Mur (A), St.
                                        Gothard (Szentgotthard) on the
                                        Raab R (H),
                                        Varazdin on the Drau (Drave) R          Start date for consistency with (900-671).
                                        (Croatia, YU), to Sotla, Kupa, (in      Includes the following tribes: Ziljani (51-
                                        Slovenia, YU) Sneznik & Buzct           96), Gorenjci (51-97), Vipavci (51-98),
                                        (Piquenta) (YU) RVs, back to            Krasani (51-99), Pivcani (51-100),
                                        Trieste.                                Dolenjci (51-101), Stodorani (51-88).

900 667   700 #     A Slovenes        S {W boundary along line from Istria  E
                                        (YU) to Cevidad (Cedad; Cividale,
                                        I?) & Pontebba (I). Some complexes
                                        of Slovenic settlements S of
                                        Cividale toward W across
                                        Palmanovo, Kodrajno & the
                                        Tagliamento R up to Pordenone (all
                                        I). From Pontebba
                                        Slovenic border reached to W            From area from Trieste over Trzic (YU) &
                                        slopes Carinthian Alps, up to           Kormink Cedad (Cividale, I?), to Potreba
                                        source of Drave (Drau) R, at Arnas      (Pontebba, I?), St. Mohor, Villach on Drau
                                        on Muehlbach R (between Innichberg      R (A), betw Ossiacher & Woerther LL (A),
                                        & Linz) N border around Isel RV,        to Radkersburg a. d. Mur (A), St. Gothard
                                        Deferchen & Kalzer (RR or Mts).         (Szentgotthard) on the Raab
                                        Border from Arnas over crest of
                                        Defereggener
                                        Alps to Dreiherrspitz Mts to            R (H), Varazdin on the Drau (Drave) R
                                        Venediger Mt to Grossglockner Mt        (Croatia, YU), to Sotla, Kupa, (in
                                        over crests of Hohe Tauern and          Slovenia, YU) Sneznik & Buzct (Piquenta)
                                        Radstaedter Tauern, including           (YU) RVs, back to Trieste. *{51-84}*
                                        Salzburgian Lungau (all in A).          Necessary to connect (51-84) to (900-668).
                                        Never crossed Danube R. Middle          Start date for consistency with (900-671).
                                        Danube up to Drave R was E
                                        border.} - {Area from
                                        Trieste over Trzic (YU) & Kormink
                                        Cedad (Cividale, I?), to Potreba
                                        (Pontebba, I?), St. Mohor, Villach
                                        on Drau R (A), betw Ossiacher &
                                        Woerther LL (A), + other areas.}
                                        See long record. *{51-85} -
                                        {51-84}*

900 668   700 1250  N Slovenes        S {W boundary along line from Istria  L
                                        (YU) to Cevidad (Cedad; Cividale,
                                        I?) & Pontebba (I). Some complexes
                                        of Slovenic settlements S of
                                        Cividale toward W across
                                        Palmanovo, Kodrajno & the
                                        Tagliamento R up to Pordenone (all
                                        I). From Pontebba
                                        Slovenic border reached to W            Acc/to (51-85). Start date acc/to (51-85).
                                        slopes Carinthian Alps, up to           End date acc/to (51-89). Slovenes in E
                                        source of Drave (Drau) R, at Arnas      Alpine areas after 700 AD are often called
                                        on Muehlbach R (between Innichberg      Carantanians or Carinthian Slavs (see (51-
                                        & Linz) N border around Isel RV,        93), (302-54)).
                                        Deferchen & Kalzer (RR or Mts).
                                        Border from Arnas over crest of
                                        Defereggener
                                        Alps to Dreiherrspitz Mts to
                                        Venediger Mt to Grossglockner Mt
                                        over crests of Hohe Tauern and
                                        Radstaedter Tauern, including
                                        Salzburgian Lungau (all in A).
                                        Never crossed Danube R. Middle
                                        Danube up to Drave R was E
                                        border.} *{51-85}*

 51  89  1250 1300  A Slovenes        S A                                   I
                                                                                By Germans. From those parts of A where
                                                                                they were located. (See (900-668).)

900 669  1250 1970  A Slovenes        S {W boundary along line from Istria  L
                                        (YU) to Cevidad (Cedad; Cividale,
                                        I?) & Pontebba (I). Some complexes
                                        of Slovenic settlements S of
                                        Cividale toward W across
                                        Palmanovo, Kodrajno & the
                                        Tagliamento R up to Pordenone (all
                                        I). From Pontebba
                                        Slovenic border reached to W            For consistency with (900-668) and current
                                        slopes Carinthian Alps, up to           location of Slovenes.
                                        source of Drave (Drau) R, at Arnas
                                        on Muehlbach R (between Innichberg
                                        & Linz) N border around Isel RV,
                                        Deferchen & Kalzer (RR or Mts).
                                        Border from Arnas over crest of
                                        Defereggener
                                        Alps to Dreiherrspitz Mts to
                                        Venediger Mt to Grossglockner Mt
                                        over crests of Hohe Tauern and
                                        Radstaedter Tauern, including
                                        Salzburgian Lungau (all in A).
                                        Never crossed Danube R. Middle
                                        Danube up to Drave R was E
                                        border.} - {A} *{900-668}
                                        - {51-89}*

 51 124   575 625   A Smoljani        S Mesta R area in Rodope Mts (BG & N  M
                                        GR).
                                                                                From Lower Danube R (E branch of S. Slavs)
                                                                                (ref (51-63) to ref (51-64)).

900 708   575 978   A Smoljani        S {Mesta R area in Rodope Mts (BG &   L
                                        N GR).} *{51-124}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-124). End date
                                                                                forming of Macedonian state (51-138).
                                                                                Eventually formed Macedonian Slavs.

148   9   500 #     A Sorbs           S Saale R area                        M
                                                                                From Labe (Elbe) R in Bohemia. Date
                                                                                approximate confirmed by (32-21). Into the
                                                                                area vacated by Germanic tribes.

900 677   500 850   A Sorbs           S {Saale R area} *{148-9}*            L
                                                                                To conform to (148-9) and (14-30). See
                                                                                also under Serbs (51-112). May include
                                                                                Sorbs from Bohemia as well as Lausitz
                                                                                Sorbs from Nieder-Lausitz. Date when
                                                                                assimilated by Germanic speakers not
                                                                                found, but no Slavic speakers located there
                                                                                today.

900 680  1200 1970  N Sorbs           S {Oberlausitz (DDR)} +               L
                                        {Niederlausitz (DDR; Westermann's
                                        Atlas p.6-8).} *{33-34} + {148-6}*
                                                                                (Syn. Wends (Wenden)). These (acc/to
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 1976,
                                                                                vol.IX, p.357) split into Upper (High),
                                                                                Lower, and E. Sorbian speakers by the 13th
                                                                                C, centered at Bautzen, Cottbus, and
                                                                                Muskau, respectively. They are the
                                                                                putative descendants of the Milziane and
                                                                                Lusizi in Oberlausitz & Niederlausitz,
                                                                                respectively. Start date to conform to (33-
                                                                                34) & (148-6). End date present today.
                                                                                (200K people, ref E).

 51 103   700 800   A Sorecani        U Seoska Dolina shore S of Bohinska   L
                                        Bistrica R (Slovenia, YU)
                                                                                Non-Slavonic ethnic group.

384  28 -1650 -1300 N Sosnick         U Between Beresina & Desna RR N of    L
                                        Kiev, SU, see map 14a (20d);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This culture is part of "Trzciniec Culture
                                                                                Complex." End date acc/to (385-19).

901  61   476 1970  N Spaniards       I Spain incl. Balearics               L
                                                                                Start date: end of Roman Empire; end date:
                                                                                still there. For population estimates in
                                                                                1500 AD for various parts of Spain, see
                                                                                (53-91) to (53-96).

 53  53   700 900   A Spaniards       I Douro RV & Pyrenees                 Q
                                                                                Christians (monks & freeholders). From NW
                                                                                Spain.

 53  72   800 850   N Spaniards       I Lerida (E)                          Q
                                                                                Moslems. From Moorish areas in E.

 53  56  1045 1149  N Spaniards       I Ebro & Tejo RVV: Calahorra,         C
                                        Tortosa & Lerida. In W: Coria.
                                                                                From N Christian area (Calahorra conquered
                                                                                by Christians from Pamplona).

 53  54  1050 1150  A Spaniards       I Betw Douro & Tejo RR                Q
                                        (councils=districts of Salamanca,
                                        Avila, Segovia, Cuellar,etc) & in
                                        Ebro RV(councils of Zaragoza,
                                        Daroca, Alcaniz, Calatayud, etc.)
                                                                                Christians. From Christian north.

232  47  1085 #     N Spaniards       I Toledo (E)                          C
                                                                                From Kingdom of Leon.

232  50  1142 1147  N Spaniards       I Coria, Almeria                      C
                                                                                From Leon.

 53  58  1158 1230  N Spaniards       I Mid Guadiana R basin: Badajoz. In   C
                                        Aragon: upper R basin of Turia R
                                        with Albarracin & Teruel,
                                        Maestrazgo, Guadaloupe (tributary
                                        of Ebro), Guadalaviar R basin.
                                                                                By Christians (military orders) from N
                                                                                region.

232  52  1229 1235  N Spaniards       I Balearic Is, Valencia               C
                                                                                From Aragon (900-50). (See pg.126, ref232.)

 53  61  1233 1263  N Spaniards       I Andujar, Vejer de la Frontera       C
                                                                                From Castille & Leon.

232  53  1236 1243  N Spaniards       I Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen               C
                                                                                From Castille.

 53  63  1238 1253  N Spaniards       I Turia & Jucar RR area; (Valencia,   C
                                        Alcira, Biar)
                                                                                Includes Catalans. From Aragon (900-50).

 53  62  1243 #     N Spaniards       I Segura R (Murcia)                   C
                                                                                From Catalonia.

232  56  1248 #     N Spaniards       I Seville                             C
                                                                                From Castille.

232  58  1250 1300  N Spaniards       I Andalusia                           Q
                                                                                From Castile, Galicia (largest
                                                                                contributor), Leon, Aragon, the Basque
                                                                                country & P.

232  61  1257 #     N Spaniards       I Algarve, P                          C
                                                                                From Castille. Gave it later to P as dowry.

 53  85  1282 1324  N Spaniards       I Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica           C
                                                                                From Aragon (900-50).

232  66  1303 1307  N Spaniards       I Constantinople                      A
                                                                                6500 Catalans camped outside city. From
                                                                                Aragon (see (900-50)).

232  67  1307 1309  N Spaniards       I Athens (Duchy of) GR                S
                                                                                From Constantinople. In 1370 ca 1/3 of pop
                                                                                was of Catalan origin.

 53  88  1344 1492  N Spaniards       I Granada (Kingdom of) (see map, p.   C
                                        134)
                                                                                From Castille.

 53  90  1363 #     N Spaniards       I Aragon                              A
                                                                                From Castille.

232  71  1377 1379  N Spaniards       I S coast of England(Cornwall to      N
                                        Thames).
                                                                                From Seville, E.

 53  87  1385 #     N Spaniards       I Estremadura Province, P             A
                                                                                From Castille. Battle of Albujarotta.

232  76  1442 #     N Spaniards       I Kingdom of Naples (see Putzger,     C
                                        map p. 59)
                                                                                From Aragon (see (900-50)). (See pg.178,
                                                                                ref232.)

901 133  1580 #     N Spaniards       I County Kerry, Ireland               
                                                                                from Spain. with Italians. intervention in
                                                                                support of Catholic rebels against
                                                                                English. massacred by English. acc/to E.

901 134  1601 #     N Spaniards       I Kinsale, Ireland                    
                                                                                from Spain. intervention in support of
                                                                                Catholic rebels against English. massacred
                                                                                by English. acc/to E.

343   1  1618 1621  N Spaniards       I Bohemia & Moravia                   A
                                                                                From E. Spanish troops sent to aid Emperor
                                                                                Ferdinand II & German Catholics against
                                                                                Bohemian protestants.

343   7  1634 1634  N Spaniards       I W D & Low Countries                 A
                                                                                Spanish army, sent to aid Emperor
                                                                                Ferdinand.

347  46  1936 1939  A Spaniards       I F                                   Q
                                                                                160 K refugees from Spanish Civil War.

151   5  1945 1970  N Spaniards       I CH                                  Q
                                                                                From E. 1.63 percent of population. Guest
                                                                                workers.

151  10  1945 1970  N Spaniards       I W D                                 Q
                                                                                From E. 0.40 percent of population. Guest
                                                                                workers.

900 171  -431 -425  N Spartans        H Attica, GR                          
                                                                                From Sparta. Record replaces (318-11),
                                                                                (318-16), (318-18). During Peloponnese
                                                                                war. Dates acc/to Ploetz.

318  17  -424 #     N Spartans        H Delium or Delion (area due E of     A
                                        Thebes, GR.)
                                                                                From Sparta. Defeated Athenians & members
                                                                                of Delian League.

900 172  -424 #     N Spartans        H Chalcidice, GR                      
                                                                                Record replaces (318-20). Information
                                                                                acc/to Ploetz & Putzger-Lendl-Wagner.
                                                                                During Peloponnese war. From area nr
                                                                                Thebes.

318  21  -422 #     N Spartans        H Amphipolis, GR                      A
                                                                                From Sparta. Defeated Athenians & members
                                                                                of Delian League.

318  13  -418 #     N Spartans        H Mantinea, due W of Argos            A
                                                                                From Sparta. They defeated Athenians and
                                                                                their allies.

318  25  -411 #     N Spartans        H N, via Aegean Sea to Canakkale      N
                                        (Cynossema), nr Abydos AM.
                                                                                From Sparta. Were defeated by Athenians &
                                                                                members of Delian League.

900 173  -410 #     N Spartans        H Cyzicus (Kyzikos) along Sea of      N
                                        Marmara, AM side.
                                                                                From Sparta. Source ref 318, also Putzger-
                                                                                Lendl-Wagner. Lose to Athenians.

318  26  -405 #     N Spartans        H Aegospotami, N of Abydos, AM        N
                                                                                From Sparta. Defeated Athenians & members
                                                                                of Delian League.

169  42 -1650 -800  A Srub            U S Russia (See Maps 14a-16a, CS      L
                                        atlas)
                                                                                End date extended beyond maps to conform
                                                                                to (169-45). Tribes forming the Srub
                                                                                culture.

169  45  -800 -400  A Srub            U {S Russia (see Maps 14a-16a, CS     I
                                        atlas)} *{169-42}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (387-29). By Scythians
                                                                                and Sauromatians.

383  17 -1800 -1675 N Straubing       U Area S of Upper Danube R, Bavaria,  L
                                        D, see map 13a(15); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (384-18).

384  18 -1675 -1550 N Straubing       U Upper Danube R area, Bavaria, D,    L
                                        see map 14a (12c); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-17). Apparent
                                                                                expansion of (383-17).

 51 123   575 625   A Strumljani      S Struma R area (BG & N GR).          M
                                                                                From Lower Danube R (E branch of S. Slavs)
                                                                                (ref (51-63) to ref (51-64)).

900 709   575 978   A Strumljani      S {Struma R area (BG & N GR).} *{51-  L
                                        123}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-123). End date
                                                                                forming of Macedonian state (51-138).
                                                                                Eventually formed Macedonian Slavs.

194  17    80 150   A Suarini         G N of Elbe R, Dithmarschen,          L
                                        Stormarn, & Holstein (map 9-I,
                                        Westermann).
                                                                                Part of Saxons.

 48  24 -1300 -1150 A Suciu de Sus    U W Transilvania & Maramures          L
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to Fig. 51, ref 48.

 12 125  -120 -100  A Suebi           G Hesse District so far settled by    M
                                        Celtic Boii and Helvetii, also
                                        facing Celtic Vindelici.
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-123). From N D, W
                                                                                half of Niederlausitz, province of Saxony
                                                                                near Halle, Thuringia, Kingdom of Saxony.
                                                                                *{12-122}*

900 532  -120 -72   A Suebi           G {Hesse District so far settled by   L
                                        Celtic Boii and Helvetii, also
                                        facing Celtic Vindelici.} *{12-
                                        125}*
                                                                                To conform to (12-125) & (183-2).

182  26   -72 #     A Suebi           G Rhine R (Alsace & W CH)             M
                                                                                From Hesse. District so far settled by
                                                                                Celtic Boii and Helvetii, also facing
                                                                                Celtic Vindelici. *{12-125}*

900 533   -72 -58   A Suebi           G {Rhine R (Alsace & W CH)} *{182-    L
                                        26}*
                                                                                To conform to (182-26) & (182-27).

182  27   -58 #     N Suebi           G Neckar R area, E of Rhine           M
                                                                                From Rhine R (Alsace & W CH). *{182-26}*
                                                                                After defeat at Muehlhausen (Alsace) by
                                                                                Romans. Known as Suebi Nicretes (the
                                                                                Neckar Suebi).

900 538   180 568   A Suebi           G {Elbe-Havel RR area bounded by      L
                                        Elbe R in W and in S by Hermunduri
                                        tribal area (Middle Oder R area).
                                        E border Burgundians, separated by
                                        Spree or Havel RR.} *{185-8}*
                                                                                These are the North Suebi, descended from
                                                                                Semnones. Their presence is inferred, not
                                                                                explicity described (see also R. Much, p.
                                                                                105, who says they were ultimately
                                                                                assimilated Saxons). Start date acc/to
                                                                                (185-9). End date acc/to (33-10).

 53  36   407 411   N Suebi           G {N Spain} *{133-21}*                W
                                                                                Start date to conform to (133-21). Coming
                                                                                from N of Pyrenees. (Total arrivals of all
                                                                                Germanic & Alan tribes hardly 100K).

900 534   411 #     N Suebi           G {Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line}     M
                                        *{53-40}*
                                                                                From N Spain. *{53-36}*

 53  40   411 419   N Suebi           G Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line       L

 11 100   419 #     N Suebi           G N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line)     E
                                                                                From area betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line.
                                                                                *{53-40}*

900 535   419 458   A Suebi           G {N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line)}   L
                                        + {Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line}
                                        *{11-100} + {53-40}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (11-100). End date
                                                                                acc/to (12-161).

 12 160   446 #     N Suebi           G Seville and part of RP Baetica &    C
                                        Carthaginiensis.
                                                                                From N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line) +
                                                                                Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line. *{900-535}*

900 536   446 456   N Suebi           G {Seville and part of RP Baetica &   L
                                        Carthaginiensis.} *{12-160}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-160). Pushed out
                                                                                again by Visigoths acc/to ref 12.

 12 161   458 468   N Suebi           G Lisbon & Coimbra                    E
                                                                                From N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line) +
                                                                                Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line. *{900-535}*

900 537   458 585   A Suebi           G {N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line) +  L
                                        Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line} +
                                        {Lisbon & Coimbra} *{900-535} +
                                        {12-161}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (12-161). End date
                                                                                acc/to (11-102).

 33  10   568 #     N Suebi           G Left bank of Elbe R (W of {Elbe-    Q
                                        Havel RR area bounded by Elbe R in
                                        W and in S by Hermunduri tribal
                                        area (Middle Oder R area). E
                                        border Burgundians, separated by
                                        Spree or Havel RR. (900-538)} )
                                                                                From Elbe-Havel RR area bounded by Elbe R
                                                                                in W and in S by Hermunduri tribal area
                                                                                (Middle Oder R area). E border
                                                                                Burgundians, separated by Spree or Havel
                                                                                RR. *{900-538}*

 11 102   585 650   A Suebi           G {N Galicia (N of Minho-Sil line) +  I
                                        Betw Douro R & Minho-Sil line} +
                                        Lisbon & Coimbra} *{900-537}*
                                                                                By Visigoths. End date is guess.

 27 117  -650 -600  A Suessoni        K Soissonais area (around Soissons,   L
                                        F)

 12 187  -100 -55   A Sugambri        G Rt bank of Rhine R Across from      L
                                        them were the Eburoni, on both
                                        sides of the Maas R, W of Cologne.
                                        They were bounded on the S by the
                                        Ubii between the Main R & the
                                        Westerwald plus a region N of
                                        Lippe R. (See Abb 52 following
                                        p.192, ref 182.)
                                                                                25-30K people. End date to conform to (12-
                                                                                188).

900 511   -55 #     N Sugambri        G Region N of Lippe R                 T
                                                                                Acc/to (12-188). To rt bank of Rhine R.
                                                                                Across from them were the Eburoni, on both
                                                                                sides of the Maas R, W of Cologne. They
                                                                                were bounded on the S by the Ubii between
                                                                                the Main R & the Westerwald plus a region
                                                                                N of Lippe R. (See Abb 52
                                                                                following p.192, ref 182.) - region N of
                                                                                Lippe R. *{12-190}*

 12 190   -55 14    N Sugambri        G {Rt bank of Rhine R Across from     L
                                        them were the Eburoni, on both
                                        sides of the Maas R, W of Cologne.
                                        They were bounded on the S by the
                                        Ubii between the Main R & the
                                        Westerwald plus a region N of
                                        Lippe R. (See Abb 52 following
                                        p.192, ref
                                        182.)} - region N of Lippe R. *{12-     Start date acc/to (12-188), end date
                                        187} - region N of Lippe R.*            inferred acc/to Abb 62, ref 184. Defeated
                                                                                by Romans in 8 BC and part resettled
                                                                                across Rhine River (900-512) where they
                                                                                were called Cuberni or Cugerni. Another
                                                                                fragment of of the Sugambri were the
                                                                                Marsi (acc/to (12-191)).

900 512    -8 #     N Sugambri        G {Betw Rhine & Maas RR, N of         Q
                                        Geldern, W D.} *{353-3}*
                                                                                From rt bank of Rhine R less area N of
                                                                                Lippe R. Across from them were the
                                                                                Eburoni, on both sides of the Maas R, W of
                                                                                Cologne. They were bounded on the S by the
                                                                                Ubii between the Main R & the Westerwald.
                                                                                *{12-190}* Were resettled by Romans.
                                                                                Called Cuberni thereafter.

900 222   500 600   A Sukow-Szeligi   G C Pommerania, Lower & C Vistula     L
                                        area. + Elbe R, Gulf of Luebeck &
                                        E Holstein. (See map 7 in ref 148
                                        (circles).)
                                                                                Acc/to (148-3), (148-4). These are
                                                                                Germanic rest populations together with
                                                                                immigrant Slavs.

169  48   700 900   A Suvars          T {Area of modern Chuvash ASSR}       L
                                        (Acc/to author at Middle Volga R.)
                                        *{229-8}*
                                                                                End date to link with (169-37) and to
                                                                                conform to (229-8). Ancestors of Chuvash.

900 617     1 300   A Svear           G Shores & islands of L Maelar (C S). L
                                                                                Both start & end dates are guesses. Start
                                                                                date acc/to Tacitus (205-1), end date for
                                                                                consistency with (900-618).

900 618   300 #     A Svear           G Additional areas of C S, adjacent   E
                                        part of N S.
                                                                                From shores & islands of L Maelar (C S).
                                                                                *{900-617}* Date is a guess for
                                                                                consistency with (30-5). Record also
                                                                                mentions possible expansion to W SF.

900 619   300 800   A Svear           G {Shores & islands of L Maelar (C    L
                                        S).} + {Additional areas of C S,
                                        adjacent part of N S.} *{900-617}
                                        + {900-618}*
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (900-618).
                                                                                End date is end of Vendel period (ref 30).

900 621   540 #     A Svear           G Vaestergoetland, Oestergoetland, &  
                                        Goetland.
                                                                                Date acc/to (30-7), (30-8). Attack implied
                                                                                by (205-7). From Shores & islands of L
                                                                                Maelar (C S). + Additional areas of C S,
                                                                                adjacent part of N S. *{900-619}*

234 126   400 600   A Swedes          G S & E shore of Baltic Sea           N
                                                                                From Sweden. (Swedish Vikings)

900 639   500 600   A Swedes          G Mouth of Western Dvina (Daugava)    S
                                        R, Latvia (SU).
                                                                                Additional info acc/to (234-126). From S.

202   8   550 #     A Swedes          G Aland Is                            S
                                                                                From S. Presumably been there ever since.
                                                                                Still G speaking today.

901 204   550 1970  A Swedes          G {Aland Is} *{202-8}*                L

900 646   600 700   A Swedes          G {W Dvina, Upper Volga, Oka RR}      Q
                                        *{234-124}* + Upper Dnepr R +
                                        Rostov area
                                                                                From S. Pobably small numbers only. Acc/to
                                                                                (234-124), (234-127), (234-128). (Swedish
                                                                                Vikings, Varyagi after arrival in Russia.)

 30  22   650 #     A Swedes          G Kurland (= Kurzeme or Courland), S  S
                                        part of Latvia
                                                                                From S.

 38  22   650 850   A Swedes          G Grobin (Grobina) nr Liepaja in W    S
                                        Latvia; Apuole (Apulia) in NW
                                        Lithuania (25 mi SE of Grobina on
                                        Barta R); Elbing (old mart of
                                        Truso; = Elblag PL)
                                                                                From S (incl Goetland). Called 'Vikings'
                                                                                in ref. They are Swedish Vikings Vendel
                                                                                culture acc/to (15-2).

234 125   737 #     A Swedes          G Upper Donets R                      C
                                                                                (Swedish Vikings) from Sweden.

205   9   800 900   A Swedes          G Courland                            A
                                                                                From S.

 30  23   800 #     A Swedes          G Kurisches Haff (Kurskij Zaliv, N    S
                                        of Kaliningrad, SU; SW tip of by)
                                                                                From S.

900 640   839 #     N Swedes          G {Upper Volga R (before it flows     Q
                                        into Rybinskij Lake)} *{43-26}*
                                                                                From S. For consistency with (43-26).

 43  26   839 1000  A Swedes          G Upper Volga R (before it flows      L
                                        into Rybinskij Lake)
                                                                                End date to conform to (154-9).

 30  24   860 #     A Swedes          G SW SF, Karelia, Estonia & Kurland   C
                                        (= Kurzeme or Courland, S part of
                                        Latvia)
                                                                                From S.

 15  25   862 879   A Swedes          G Old Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga at or    S
                                        nr Novaja Ladoga at S end of L.
                                        Ladoga), Novgorod & Gnezdovo nr
                                        Smolensk, Kiev (SU)
                                                                                From S. Dates and inclusion of Kiev acc/to
                                                                                (211-21). After settlement in Russia the
                                                                                people known as Varyagi (Varangians) or
                                                                                Rus.

900 641   862 1000  A Swedes          G {Old Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga at or   L
                                        nr Novaja Ladoga at S end of L.
                                        Ladoga), Novgorod & Gnezdovo nr
                                        Smolensk, Kiev (SU)} *{15-25}*
                                                                                For consistency with (15-25) & (154-9).

 30  26   900 #     A Swedes          G S Jutland (center at Hedeby; see    C
                                        Times Atlas p. 110, map 3)
                                                                                From S.

900 642   900 940   N Swedes          G {S Jutland (center at Hedeby; see   L
                                        Times Atlas p. 110, map 3)} *{30-
                                        26}*
                                                                                For consistency with (30-26) & (30-27).

205  12   907 #     N Swedes          G Constantinople                      A
                                                                                From S via Russia.

205   8   990 1016  N Swedes          G England                             A
                                                                                From S. As members of Danish & Norwegian
                                                                                Viking armies. Dates to conform to (15-17).

900 643  1000 1100  A Swedes          G {Old Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga at or   I
                                        nr Novaja Ladoga at S end of L.
                                        Ladoga), Novgorod & Gnezdovo nr
                                        Smolensk, Kiev (SU)} *{15-25}*
                                                                                Acc/to (154-9) and other sources. By Slavs.

204   4  1155 1293  N Swedes          G Uusimaa, Finland proper (Varsinais  Q
                                        Suomi) (both regions in SF),
                                        Ostrobothnia (region in F, see map
                                        2 ref 202)
                                                                                From S.

211  30  1238 #     N Swedes          G Neva R (SU)                         A
                                                                                From S.

202  16  1300 #     N Swedes          G Modern Leningrad                    A
                                                                                From S.

202  17  1348 #     N Swedes          G Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From S.

900 644  1617 1648  N Swedes          G Estonia & Latvia                    C
                                                                                From S. Replacing (50-14) & (202-21).
                                                                                Details of place and date acc/to
                                                                                Barraclough: Times Atlas p. 188.

900 645  1631 1632  N Swedes          G D (specifically Breitenfeld,        
                                        Frankfurt-am-Main,Munich,
                                        Luetzen,in both FRG and GDR)
                                                                                From S. Swedish army in Protestant-
                                                                                Catholic wars (30 years war). Acc/to (343-
                                                                                4), (343-5), (343-6).

209   1  1814 #     N Swedes          G DK                                  A
                                                                                From S. Bernadette's army.

179  27  1650 1700  A Swiss           G Palatinate, Saar, Black Forest,     Q
                                        Odenwald, even Brandenburg & E
                                        Prussia.
                                                                                From German-speaking CH. Several ten-
                                                                                thousand.

110  55   161 180   A Syrians         E Intercisa in Pannonia RP also       S
                                        Ulcisia Castra (see map in
                                        endpapers of ref (109-111)).
                                                                                From Syria. Given citizenship by Marcus
                                                                                Aurelius whose reign we have used as dates.

118  11   700 800   A Syrians         E YU W Macedonia                      S
                                                                                From Syria.

234 137   755 #     N Syrians         E Thracian border with BG Empire      R
                                                                                By Byzantines (several K). Presumably from
                                                                                Syria.

 36   3   896 907   N Szeklers        T Transilvania                        M
                                                                                Location acc/to (172-45). From E
                                                                                supposedly. These probably had adopted
                                                                                Hungarian language at time of landtaking
                                                                                but had been either Eskil-Bulgarian or
                                                                                Khabar (Chabar) speakers. Another source
                                                                                says they spoke Turkish on arrival but
                                                                                adopted
                                                                                Hungarian later.

900 414   896 1200  N Szeklers        T {Transilvania} *{36-3}*             L
                                                                                For consistency with (36-3) & (172-45).

 50   2  1200 1970  A Szeklers        C Transilvania                        L
                                                                                Changed language to F no later than start
                                                                                date.

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