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Abbreviations References


REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS


385  24 -1400 -1300 A Abashevo        U Area nr & E of Moscow, betw Oka &   L
                                        Volga RR, & Kama R area, SU, see
                                        map 15a (20,20a); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."

900  42   300 568   A Acarag-Antes    R Middle Danube R                     L
                                                                                Acc/to (32-12). Alanic tribe, masters over
                                                                                the Limig-Antes.

 32  19   475 #     A Acarag-Antes    R Illyricum (Roman Region)            S
                                                                                From Middle Danube R. *{32-12}*

900  43   475 568   A Acarag-Antes    R {Illyricum (Roman Region)} *{32-    L
                                        19}*

 32  28   568 #     N Acarag-Antes    R I                                   M
                                                                                Accompanying Lombards. From Middle Danube
                                                                                R + Illyricum (Roman Region). *{32-12} +
                                                                                {32-19}*

 23   2 -1950 #     A Achaeans        H Macedonia                           Q
                                                                                But not necessarily displacing the
                                                                                Thracians. Coming from the NE.

900 137 -1580 #     A Achaeans        H Greek mainland                      M
                                                                                To replace (21-4) with more conservative
                                                                                data. From NE.

900 140 -1580 -700  N Achaeans        H Arcadia (in Peloponnese)            L
                                                                                Implied by (900-137); also (22-15), (160-
                                                                                13). Also called Arcadians. Only remaining
                                                                                Achaeans (original Greeks) in face of
                                                                                Doric Invasion. Did not leave at 700 BC
                                                                                but became part of general Greek
                                                                                population.

900 184 -1580 -1100 N Achaeans        H Peloponnese less Arcadia            L
                                                                                Replaced by Dorians and NW. Greeks (see
                                                                                (22-15)).

 21   2 -1550 #     A Achaeans        H Crete                               A
                                                                                From Greek mainland.

 21   6 -1450 #     A Achaeans        H Rhodos, Milet, Cos & Colophon,      C
                                        Melos, Samos.
                                                                                From Greek mainland.

222   7 -1200 -1050 A Achaeans        H Cyprus                              S
                                                                                From Greek mainland. Refugees from
                                                                                Mycaenean disasters. Acc/to (214-2), these
                                                                                are the first Greek settlers on island.

 25  20  -720 -700  A Achaeans        H S I coast Sybaris, Taras            S
                                        (Tarento), Metapontion, Croton,
                                        Lokroi.
                                                                                From N Peloponnese.

 25  27  -650 #     A Achaeans        H Paestum (Poseidonia)                S
                                                                                From Sybaris. May have Doric population
                                                                                components.

 22  30  -600 #     A Achaeans        H Campagna, I                         C
                                                                                From Paestum (Poseidonia). *{25-27}*

383  18 -1800 -1675 A Adlerberg       U Rhine R area, W C D, see map 13a    L
                                        (16); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."

384  20 -1675 -1550 A Adlerberg       U Rhine R, D, see map 14a (14);       L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

 12  81   -60 -50   N Aduatici        G Maas R                              L
                                                                                These are the remnant of the Cimbre,
                                                                                Teutones & Ambrones left behind to watch
                                                                                booty in Gaul. They escaped destruction of
                                                                                tribe, eventually settled nr Maas R and
                                                                                amalgamated with surrounding Celts to form
                                                                                Aduatuci tribe. Mixed with some
                                                                                Celtic pop.

 21   5 -1800 #     A Aegaeans        U Greek mainland                      I
                                                                                By Achaeans.

107   6 -1300 -900  A Aegaeans        U NW Balkans                          M
                                                                                From Aegean region in 3 waves.

 47  19 -1900 -1550 A Aeolians        H C & S Albania                       L

900 138 -1550 #     A Aeolians        H Corinthia + Thessaly, Phocis,       M
                                        Locris & Boeotia.
                                                                                From north (possibly C & S Albania, see
                                                                                (47-19).) *(Place description constructed
                                                                                by adding * *(160-10) + (47-27).)*

900 139 -1550 -1200 A Aeolians        H {Corinthia + Thessaly, Phocis,      L
                                        Locris & Boeotia.} *{900-138}*
                                                                                Implied by (900-138). Termination date
                                                                                acc/to (47-27) which says they left from
                                                                                Thessaly, etc.

224  32 -1200 -1000 A Aeolians        H N of Hermus (Gediz) R up to         S
                                        Pitane, incl Cyme. (All in AM).
                                                                                From Boeotia & Thessaly. (Displaced by
                                                                                Dorian invasion).

 22  11 -1000 #     A Aeolians        H Lesbos, Anatolian coast             M
                                                                                Acc/to (22-8), from Thessaly and Boeotia.
                                                                                Displaced by Dorian invasion.

901 207 -1000 -500  A Aeolians        H {Lesbos, Anatolian coast} *{22-11}* L

224  35  -800 -775  A Aeolians        H Troas (Troy) region                 S
                                                                                From Mytilene.

900 186  -800 -700  A Aeolians        H Side (S coast of AM)                S
                                                                                Origin not given. Based on (224-38) and
                                                                                Levi: Atlas of the Greek World.

900 141  -657 -550  A Aeolians        H Sestos (also Madytos,               S
                                        Alopekonnesos) (Thrac. Chersones)
                                        & Ainos at mouth of Hebros R.
                                                                                Acc/to (40-29), (39-24). From Lesbos. Date
                                                                                comes from ref 39, chapter 2.

 39  23  -650 #     A Aeolians        H Coastal areas of AM traversed by    S
                                        Skamander (Minderez), Kaikos
                                        (Bakarcai) and Hermos (Gediscai)
                                        RR.
                                                                                From Lesbos. Start date should be -650?.

 26  38  -750 -448  A Aequi           I Palestrina                          L
                                                                                Acc/to ref 164 they are part of Umbri, but
                                                                                acc/to Nack-Waegner: Rom they are Sabelli.

129   1 -2500 -1600 A Afanasjevo      U Altai & Minussinsk areas            L
                                                                                First Kurgan graves.

 53  33   161 180   N Africans        O Malaga                              N
                                                                                From N Africa.

126   7  1550 1750  A Africans        O P                                   M
                                                                                From W & E African colonies.

367   2  -200 -100  A Agathyrsi       P Carpathian Basin, Transylvania      L
                                                                                Language code via Geipel.

311   7 -3000 -2600 A Akkadians       E S Mesopotamia                       L
                                                                                Semitic speakers.

358  11   100 200   A Alamanni        G Area betw Elbe & Rhine RR, N of     W
                                        Main R, E D & W DDR.
                                                                                From the Elbe R area around Magdeburg, W
                                                                                DDR. (See (358-9).)

178   9   200 400   N Alamanni        G N, C, & E CH                        Q
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

189   8   200 259   N Alamanni        G Betw Main & Danube RR (Abb 1)       L
                                                                                Formed with Elbe-Germanic tribal
                                                                                fragments, mainly Semnones, others not
                                                                                well known betw Elbe & Oder, late 3rd C.
                                                                                Also Euthungi, possibly some Burgundians;
                                                                                S Hermunduri.

358  13   200 260   A Alamanni        G S across Main R & into Schwarzwald  W
                                        (Black Forest) area & area around
                                        Worms, D.
                                                                                From the area around Fulda.

191   1   210 #     N Alamanni        G Main R area                         A
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

 12 165   213 #     N Alamanni        G Agri Decumates between Upper        A
                                        Danube & Middle Rhine R Area of
                                        modern Province of Baden.
                                                                                Former Semnones. From the area betw Main &
                                                                                Danube RR (Abb 1). *{189-8}*

180  13   230 389   N Alamanni        G B                                   A
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

190   5   231 233   N Alamanni        G Germania sup, Raetia RPP            A
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

190  18   259 261   N Alamanni        G Raetia, W CH, Po RV Noricum,        A
                                        Pannonia, NE Upper I nr Rome.
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

196   2   259 280   A Alamanni        G Raetia RP                           A
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

191  14   259 #     N Alamanni        G Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L       E
                                        Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                        N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                        Wetterau.
                                                                                From the area betw Main & Danube RR (Abb
                                                                                1). *{189-8}*

900   1   259 305   N Alamanni        G {Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L      L
                                        Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                        N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                        Wetterau.} + {Betw Main & Danube
                                        RR (B 1)} *{191-14} + {189-8}*

 11  19   260 270   N Alamanni        G I                                   A
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

358  14   260 400   A Alamanni        G W across Rhine R to area W of &     W
                                        incl. Strasbourg.
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

190  19   268 271   N Alamanni        G L Garda, Umbria                     A
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

190  21   275 276   N Alamanni        G Rhein-Mosel RR area (Trier)         A
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

190  22   279 281   N Alamanni        G Rhone R area                        A
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-1}*

362   2   305 #     N Alamanni        G Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,    C
                                        around Foug, E F.
                                                                                From area with defined borders: W is Rhine
                                                                                R, S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube
                                                                                RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-2}*

900   3   305 356   N Alamanni        G {Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,   L
                                        around Foug, E F.} + {Borders: W
                                        is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is
                                        Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R,
                                        the Rheingau and Wetterau.} *{362-
                                        2} + {900-2}*
                                                                                For consistency with (362-2) and (900-2).

191   3   351 #     N Alamanni        G Rhine R area                        A
                                                                                35K warriors. From Meuse R area, just W of
                                                                                Mosel R, around Foug, E F.+ Borders: W is
                                                                                Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is Iller &
                                                                                Danube RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. *{900-3}*

362   1   356 #     N Alamanni        G Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr   C
                                        Seille R, Moselle Region, E F.
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau.
                                                                                *{900-3}*

362   4   356 #     N Alamanni        G Troyes, on Seine R, F               C
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau.
                                                                                *{900-3}*

362   5   356 #     N Alamanni        G Auxerre, E F                        C
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau.
                                                                                *{900-3}*

362   6   356 #     N Alamanni        G Autun, E F                          C
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau.
                                                                                *{900-3}*

900   4   356 365   N Alamanni        G {Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,   L
                                        around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is
                                        Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is
                                        Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R,
                                        the Rheingau and Wetterau.} +
                                        {Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr
                                        Seille R, Moselle Region, E F.} +
                                        {Troyes,
                                        on Seine R, F.} + {Auxerre, E F.}
                                        + {Autun, E F.} *{900-3} + {362-1}
                                        + {362-4}* * + {362-5} + {362-6}*

 12 167   357 370   N Alamanni        G I                                   R
                                                                                Numerous Alamanni prisoners resettled in
                                                                                I. From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                                                                + Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel
                                                                                RR, nr Seille R, Moselle Region, E F. +
                                                                                Troyes, on Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +
                                                                                Autun, E F. *{900-4}*

191   5   365 368   N Alamanni        G W Rhine area, Mainz                 A
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                                                                + Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. +
                                                                                Troyes, on Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +
                                                                                Autun, E F. *{900-4}*

362   3   365 #     N Alamanni        G Marne R area of Champagne Region,   C
                                        F.
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                                                                + Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. +
                                                                                Troyes, on Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +
                                                                                Autun, E F. *{900-4}*

900   5   365 400   N Alamanni        G {Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,   L
                                        around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is
                                        Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is
                                        Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R,
                                        the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                        Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr
                                        Seille R, Moselle Region, E F. +
                                        Troyes,
                                        on Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +
                                        Autun, E F.} + {Marne R area of
                                        Champagne Region, F.} *{900-4} +
                                        {362-3}*

191   6   378 #     N Alamanni        G Raetia I RP                         A
                                                                                40-70K attackers. From Meuse R area, just
                                                                                W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. + Borders:
                                                                                W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is Iller
                                                                                & Danube RR. N of Main R, the Rheingau and
                                                                                Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel
                                                                                RR, nr Seille R, Moselle
                                                                                Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine R, F. +
                                                                                Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. + Marne R area
                                                                                of Champagne Region, F. *{900-5}*

358  16   400 600   A Alamanni        G Basel, CH + {N, C, & E CH} *        Q
                                        Basel, CH + {178-9}*
                                                                                From Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                                                                around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine R,
                                                                                S is L Constance, E is Iller & Danube RR.
                                                                                N of Main R, the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                                                                Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle
                                                                                Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine R, F. +
                                                                                Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. + Marne R area
                                                                                of Champagne Region, F. *{900-5}*

 12 168   400 #     A Alamanni        G N part of territory                 T
                                                                                To Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R
                                                                                area, just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F.
                                                                                + Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance,
                                                                                E is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-6}*
                                                                                Land to right of Main R lost to Franks,
                                                                                area between Lower Main R and Neckar R to
                                                                                Burgundians.

900   6   400 454   A Alamanni        G {Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH} +       L
                                        {Meuse R area, just W of Mosel R,
                                        around Foug, E F. + Borders: W is
                                        Rhine R, S is L Constance, E is
                                        Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R,
                                        the Rheingau and Wetterau. +
                                        Dieuze, betw Rhine & Mosel RR, nr
                                        Seille R,
                                        Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on       Location information for N part of
                                        Seine R, F. + Auxerre, E F. +           territory comes from (12-168).
                                        Autun, E F. + Marne R area of
                                        Champagne Region, F.} - {N part of
                                        territory.} *{358-16} + {900-5} *
                                        * - N part of territory.}*

191   9   454 #     N Alamanni        G Raetia II, Noricum RPP Besancon &   A
                                        Langres.
                                                                                From Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R
                                                                                area, just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F.
                                                                                + Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance,
                                                                                E is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-6}*

191   8   454 470   N Alamanni        G Alsace, Palatinate, Worms           E
                                        Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                        Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R
                                                                                From Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R
                                                                                area, just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F.
                                                                                + Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance,
                                                                                E is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-6}*

900   7   454 496   N Alamanni        G {Alsace, Palatinate, Worms          L
                                        Rheingau, Aschaffenburg,
                                        Wuerzburg, Raetia W of Iller R} +
                                        {Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse
                                        R area, just W of Mosel R, around
                                        Foug, E F. + Borders: W is Rhine
                                        R, S is L Constance, E is Iller &
                                        Danube RR. N
                                        of Main R, the Rheingau and             Conquered by Franks.
                                        Wetterau. + Dieuze, betw Rhine &
                                        Mosel RR, nr Seille R, Moselle
                                        Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine R,
                                        F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                        Marne R area of Champagne Region,
                                        F. - N part of territory.} *{191-
                                        8} +
                                        {900-6}*

 11 118   457 490   N Alamanni        G N I & CH                            Q
                                                                                From Alsace, Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R +
                                                                                Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R area,
                                                                                just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                                                                Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E
                                                                                is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-7}*

 11 120   457 712   N Alamanni        G N I & CH                            L

 12 169   470 #     N Alamanni        G W RP Raetia II                      C
                                                                                Ref also mentions 'much of CH' but that
                                                                                has already been taken care of by (11-118).
                                                                                From Alsace, Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R +
                                                                                Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R area,
                                                                                just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                                                                Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E
                                                                                is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-7}*
  2  25   496 #     A Alamanni        G Alpine Raetia area S of Bodensee    S
                                        (L. Constance) and nr Upper Rhine
                                        R.
                                                                                Part of tribe. Refugees from Franks.
                                                                                From Alsace, Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R +
                                                                                Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R area,
                                                                                just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                                                                Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E
                                                                                is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-7}*
  2  26   496 #     A Alamanni        G Noricum                             S
                                                                                Part of tribe. Refugees from Franks. Also
                                                                                some Alan refugees.
                                                                                From Alsace, Palatinate, Worms, Rheingau,
                                                                                Aschaffenburg, Wuerzburg, Raetia W of
                                                                                Iller R +
                                                                                Basel, CH, + N, C, & E CH + Meuse R area,
                                                                                just W of Mosel R, around Foug, E F. +
                                                                                Borders: W is Rhine R, S is L Constance, E
                                                                                is Iller & Danube RR. N of Main R, the
                                                                                Rheingau and Wetterau. + + Dieuze, betw
                                                                                Rhine & Mosel RR, nr Seille
                                                                                R, Moselle Region, E F. + Troyes, on Seine
                                                                                R, F. + Auxerre, E F. + Autun, E F. +
                                                                                Marne R area of Champagne Region, F. - N
                                                                                part of territory. *{900-7}*
900   8   496 746   N Alamanni        G {Alpine Raetia area S of Bodensee   L
                                        (L. Constance) and nr Upper Rhine
                                        R.} + {Noricum.} *{2-25} + {2-26}*
                                                                                Assimilated by Franks.

900   9  -200 #     A Alans           R Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea   M
                                        of Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of
                                        Black Sea).
                                                                                Acc/to (211-4), described as a tribe of
                                                                                the Sarmatians. Not clear from where.
                                                                                *{Location info acc/to (32-9).}*


900  10  -200 250   A Alans           R {Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea  L
                                        of Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of
                                        Black Sea).} *{900-9}*

 40  93   225 #     A Alans           R Dacia RP                            A
                                                                                From Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea of
                                                                                Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of Black
                                                                                Sea). *{900-10}*

234  34   250 375   A Alans           R Upper Don & Donets RR               E
                                                                                A Sarmatian tribe. Acquired numerous other
                                                                                tribal elements, incl Antes (Slavs),
                                                                                Ossetians (Caucasians), etc. From Lower
                                                                                Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea of Azov, & in
                                                                                Pontic Steppes (N of Black Sea). *{900-10}*

901 208   250 375   A Alans           R {Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea  L
                                        of Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of
                                        Black Sea).}  + {Upper Don &
                                        Donets RR} *{900-9} + {234-34}*

 40  98   271 #     N Alans           R Thracia RP                          A
                                                                                From Lower Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea of
                                                                                Azov, & in Pontic Steppes (N of Black
                                                                                Sea). *{900-10}*

900  12   375 #     N Alans           R H                                   Q
                                                                                Acc/to (127-2), belonging to tribal
                                                                                association of Huns. From Upper Don &
                                                                                Donets RR. *{234-34}* Some of this people
                                                                                only acc/to (110-66).

900  11   375 1200  N Alans           R Kuban & Terek area                  L
                                                                                Modern Ossetes. Displaced from other
                                                                                areas, (Upper Don & Donets RR + Lower
                                                                                Volga R betw Caucasus & Sea of Azov, & in
                                                                                Pontic Steppes (N of Black Sea)), by Huns.
                                                                                *{Location info acc/to (129-25).}*

900  77   375 406   N Alans           R Hungarian Plain                     L
                                                                                Acc/to (8-9). Allied with Huns. This
                                                                                alliance dissolved around 406 when Alans
                                                                                joined Vandals and Suebi to cross Rhine.

  2   8   406 #     N Alans           R Gaul                                Q
                                                                                From Hungarian Plain. *{900-77}* Some of
                                                                                this people only acc/to (110-66).

192   9   406 443   N Alans           R Worms, Speyer, Strasbourg, Mainz    L

231  23   409 #     N Alans           R Galicia, Lusitania, Carthaginense   C
                                        & Baetica RPP.
                                                                                From Worms, Speyer, Strasbourg, Mainz.
                                                                                *{192-9}*

900  13   409 418   N Alans           R {Galicia, Lusitania, Carthaginense  L
                                        & Baetica RPP.} *{231-23}*
                                                                                Little ethnogenic contribution to P acc/to
                                                                                (126-4). Defeated and dispersed by
                                                                                Visigoths in 418.

232  22   416 #     N Alans           R Furthest part of Galicia            M
                                                                                Rests after their defeat by Visigoths.
                                                                                From Galicia, Lusitania, Carthaginense &
                                                                                Baetica RPP. *{900-13}*

900  14   416 500   N Alans           R {Furthest part of Galicia} *{232-   L
                                        22}*

900  84   418 429   N Alans           R Iberian peninsula                   W
                                                                                After being located in Galicia, Lusitania,
                                                                                Carthaginense & Baetica RPP; part of group
                                                                                after defeat by Visigoth. *{900-13}*

 11  52   429 #     N Alans           R N Africa                            M
                                                                                Joined Vandals, amalgamated with them
                                                                                rapidly. From Iberian peninsula. *{900-84}*

 32  18   475 #     A Alans           R Dobrugea                            M
                                                                                From Kuban & Terek area. *{900-11}*

232  24   500 550   A Alans           R Furthest part of Galicia            I
                                                                                By Suebi.

349   6  -100 1     A Alauni          K Area N of Salzburg, A including SE  L
                                        corner D.

234  11  -600 -200  A Alazones        U N Bug R basin                       L
                                                                                Not clear whether also Scythians.

367   3  -200 -100  A Alazones        U Betw Dnestr & Juznyi Bug RR due W   L
                                        of Pervomajsk, SU.
                                                                                Language code is uncertain; may be "R."

388  13  -700 -600  A Alb-Hegau       U Upper Rhine R area, SW D, see map   L
                                        18a (13); Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."

900 348   200 1000  A Albani          Y C Albania (in mountainous           L
                                        area)(See map 1 in ref 165.)
                                                                                Acc/to N. Hammond: Migrations and
                                                                                invasions in Greece & adjacent areas,
                                                                                p.57. For consistency with (149-38).

900 349  1000 1200  N Albanians       Y Albania- {C Albania (in             E
                                        mountainous area)(See map 1 in ref
                                        165.)} *(Albania) - {900-348}*
                                                                                Acc/to ref 149, p.70. From C Albania (in
                                                                                mountainous area.) (See map 1 in ref 165.)
                                                                                *{900-348}*

900 350  1000 1300  N Albanians       Y Albania                             L
                                                                                For consistency with (900-349) and (123-
                                                                                33). After 1300 AD split into Ghegs and
                                                                                Tosks.

118  21  1400 1800  A Albanians       Y YU Macedonia                        Q
                                                                                Mass immigration. From Albania. Reference
                                                                                does not distinguish between Ghegs and
                                                                                Tosks.

 50  18  1600 1700  A Albanians       Y Constantinople                      Q
                                                                                From Albania. 'Large numbers' to serve as
                                                                                trusted assistants to the Turkish.
                                                                                Reference does not distinguish between
                                                                                Ghegs and Tosks.

149  57  1600 #     N Albanians       Y Cosenza, I                          Q
                                                                                Date is guess. Need to check in other
                                                                                refs. Try La Grotta et al 1965 Arch.
                                                                                Antrop. Etnol. 95: 111-126. Reference does
                                                                                not distinguish between Ghegs and Tosks.

900  15  1600 1800  A Albanians       Y {Old Serbia} *{175-9}*              Q
                                                                                Dates & part of location acc/to (175-9).
                                                                                From Albania. Reference does not
                                                                                distinguish between Ghegs and Tosks.

900  17  -750 -58   A Allobrogi       K Area betw Lower Rhone R and L       L
                                        Geneva, Haute-Savoie & Isere
                                        regions, E F.
                                                                                Acc/to (356-11). Possibly Celticized
                                                                                Aboriginal population. (Syn. Allobrigi)
                                                                                (27-22).

232  51  1147 1195  N Almohads        E Andalusia                           C
                                                                                From sedentary tribes in Morocco.

232  48  1086 1089  N Almoravids      E Nr Badajoz, Aledo                   A
                                                                                From Morocco. Including many Negrid
                                                                                soldiers from Nigeria.

232  49  1091 1099  N Almoravids      E Seville, Granada, Badajoz Valencia  C
                                        (Moorish kingdoms of...).
                                                                                From Morocco. Including many Negrid
                                                                                soldiers from Nigeria.

122   2  -700 -600  A Altai Nomads    R Pazirik area                        L

900  20  -100 -25   A Amantini        Y Sirmian Save RV * (Note to          L
                                        digitizers: For this * * tribe and
                                        other Illyrian * * tribes, consult
                                        map 1 in * * ref 165 for
                                        locations.) *
                                                                                Acc/to (46-35).

900  21   -25 200   A Amantini        Y Pannonia RP + {Sirmian Save RV}     L
                                        *{900-20}*
                                                                                Acc/to (46-35), (110-14).

110  33   200 #     A Amantini        Y Pannonia RP                         I
                                                                                By Romans.

356   9   -58 #     N Ambarri         K Rhone & Saone RR area, due W of L   L
                                        Geneva, S Franche-Comte &
                                        Bourgogne region.
                                                                                Language code not certain.

 27 115  -650 -600  A Ambiani         K Picardie                            L

900  22  -750 -100  A Ambidravi       K Carinthia up to upper course of     L
                                        Drave R.
                                                                                Acc/to (27-31).

353   4     1 100   N Ambivarii       K N B & S NL, W of Maas R             L

900  23  -250 113   A Ambrones        G N Frisian Isl. & Dithmarschen +     L
                                        Jutland (DK).
                                                                                Acc/to (12-63), (182-22). End date acc/to
                                                                                (12-66).

 12  66  -120 #     A Ambrones        G Bohemia up Elbe R to Saxony,        A
                                        crossed Ore Mts. into Bohemia.
                                                                                Cimbri, Teutones, Ambrones travelled in
                                                                                concert for a long time. They left from N
                                                                                Frisian Isl. & Dithmarschen + Jutland (DK)
                                                                                (and surrounding areas) because of
                                                                                presumed catastrophic tidal floods in the
                                                                                2nd C BC. *{900-23}* They are repulsed
                                                                                by Boii in Bohemia.

 12  70  -114 #     A Ambrones        G Bosnia & Serbia along lower Sava R  A
                                        up to Morava R.
                                                                                From N. Frisian Isl. & Dithmarschen +
                                                                                Jutland (DK). *{900-23}*

900 470  -113 -109  A Ambrones        G Miltenberg (S of Main R in D) (see  Q
                                        ref 182, Abb 51).
                                                                                Acc/to (12-63), (182-22). End date acc/to
                                                                                (12-66).

900 469  -113 -102  N Ambrones        G S.W.D., land of the Helvetii, +     W
                                        Noricum, Gaul. (See ref 182, Abb
                                        51.)
                                                                                From N Frisian Isl. & Dithmarschen +
                                                                                Jutland (DK) (via Bohemia & Save-Drave
                                                                                area). *{900-23}*

182  23  -105 -102  N Ambrones        G RP Belgica                          A
                                                                                From Noreia, Roman fortress in Carinthia,
                                                                                A. + S.W.D., land of the Helvetii. (See
                                                                                records (11-10) and (12-73).) They didn't
                                                                                settle here. Next found in RP Narbonensis
                                                                                (182-24). (See pg.202.)

182  24  -102 #     N Ambrones        G RP Narbonensis                      A
                                                                                From RP Belgica *{182-23}*. (See pg. 202.)
                                                                                Defeated and destroyed by Romans.

 46  34     1 200   A Amizetes        Y Lower Drave R                       L

311   4 -2200 -2000 A Amorites        E C & S Mesopotamia                   S
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   5 -2200 -2100 A Amorites        E Along Lebanon Mtns Lebanon &        S
                                        Israel.
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   6 -2200 -1900 A Amorites        E NW Syria                            S
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   3 -2200 -1900 A Amorites        E Area betw Euphrates and Orontes     L
                                        RR, Syria.

218   5 -1940 -1780 A Amorites        E AM (that part called Cappadocia in  L
                                        Hellenistic times).
                                                                                Western Semites. Came with Assyrians. May
                                                                                have been in AM earlier. Perhaps came from
                                                                                NW Syria. *{311-6}*

900  24   -27 58    A Amsivarii       G Betw Lower Weser & Lower Ems RR     L
                                        (Abb 4).
                                                                                Location acc/to (183-20).

 12 114    58 #     N Amsivarii       G Upper Wupper R                      M
                                                                                From area betw Lower Weser & Lower Ems RR
                                                                                (Abb 4). *{900-24}*

900  25    58 400   A Amsivarii       G {Upper Wupper R} *{12-114}*         L
                                                                                Become Franks.

132  11  -100 #     A Anartii         K NE tip of N H, see map              M
                                                                                From area around L. Balaton, H.

900  26 -3000 -2000 A Anatolians      U C TR                                L
                                                                                Acc/to (315-3).

215   7 -2300 #     N Anatolians      O C & Pontic Anatolia AM              L
                                                                                Hattian speakers.

131   3 -2000 #     A Anatolians      U BG, ROM, Vardar-Morava-Danube R     M
                                        areas.
                                                                                From Anatolia (C TR). *{900-26}*

900  27  -400 200   A Andizetes       Y Turopolje area S of Zagreb (Rand    L
                                        McNally Atlas)
                                                                                Strongly Celticized since ca yr -250.
                                                                                *(Place description can be attributed to
                                                                                (165-12).)*

110  41   200 401   A Andizetes       Y Pannonia RP                         I
                                                                                By Romans. (Probably limited to Turopolje
                                                                                area S of Zagreb). *{900-27}*

230   2  -800 -500  A Andosini        U Pyrenean RVV of Catalonia           L
                                                                                These are Iberians.

900  28 -1800 -1300 A Andronovo       U Ural & Kama RR area, N of Caspian   L
                                        Sea, SU, see map 13a (34);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (383-38), same as (384-37) or (385-
                                                                                26).

129   2 -1600 -800  A Andronovo       U Altai & Minussinsk areas &          L
                                        Kazakhstan (in Asian SU).

900  29    50 500   A Angles          G Angeln area in Schleswig            L
                                                                                Location acc/to (12-84).

 12  95   250 #     A Angles          G Unstrut R area (nr. Leipzig)        S
                                                                                Dates unclear, used Krueger (Die
                                                                                Germanen). From Angeln area in Schleswig.
                                                                                *{900-29}*

900  32   250 #     A Angles          G Dutch coast                         S
                                                                                From Angeln area in Schleswig. *{900-29}*
                                                                                *Location information acc/to (12-88).*

900  33   250 450   A Angles          G {Dutch coast} *{900-32}*            L
                                                                                For consistency with (900-32).

900  30   450 #     A Angles          G GB: Norfolk & Suffolk + Along       S
                                        Thames R, nr Dorchester, Croydon,
                                        Mucking (Essex), Milton Regis
                                        (Kent), E coast: Rickborough,
                                        Caistor by Norwich.
                                                                                From Dutch coast. *{12-88}* *Location
                                                                                information acc/to (12-91) & (194-32).*

900  31   450 600   A Angles          G {GB: Norfolk & Suffolk + Along      L
                                        Thames R, nr Dorchester, Croydon,
                                        Mucking (Essex), Milton Regis
                                        (Kent), E coast: Rickborough,
                                        Caistor by Norwich.} *{900-30}*

900  34   500 600   A Angles          G {GB: Norfolk & Suffolk + Along      M
                                        Thames R, nr Dorchester, Croydon,
                                        Mucking (Essex), Milton Regis
                                        (Kent), E coast: Rickborough,
                                        Caistor by Norwich.} *{900-30}*
                                                                                From Angeln area in Schleswig. *{900-29}*

 11 145   600 #     A Angles          G Wessex, Mercia, Deira               E
                                                                                From GB: Norfolk & Suffolk + Along Thames
                                                                                R, nr Dorchester, Croydon, Mucking
                                                                                (Essex), Milton Regis (Kent), E coast:
                                                                                Rickborough, Caistor by Norwich *{900-31}*.

900  35   600 650   A Angles          G {Wessex, Mercia, Deira} + {GB:      L
                                        Norfolk & Suffolk + Along Thames
                                        R, nr Dorchester, Croydon, Mucking
                                        (Essex), Milton Regis (Kent), E
                                        coast: Rickborough, Caistor by
                                        Norwich.} *{11-145} + {900-30}*
                                                                                For consistency with (11-145) + (900-30).

 11 146   650 #     A Angles          G Most of England                     E
                                                                                From Wessex, Mercia, Deira + GB: Norfolk &
                                                                                Suffolk + Along Thames R, nr Dorchester,
                                                                                Croydon, Mucking (Essex), Milton Regis
                                                                                (Kent), E coast: Rickborough, Caistor by
                                                                                Norwich *{900-35}*.

900  36   650 815   A Angles          G {Most of England} *{11-146}*        L
                                                                                For consistency with (11-146).

 11 151   815 #     N Angles          G Cornwall                            C
                                                                                From Most of England. *{900-36}*

900  37   815 1100  N Angles          G {Most of England} + {Cornwall}      L
                                        *{11-146} + {11-151}*

900  38   375 500   A Anglo-Saxons    G Betw Elbe & Ems RR, E Holstein, &   L
                                        W Mecklenburg.
                                                                                Acc/to (194-31). (Syn. Angles). (These are
                                                                                probably Saxons, for whom we have separate
                                                                                records. Likely can drop this record.)

170  21   700 1200  A Anglo-Saxons    G N                                   R
                                                                                Slaves from W, brought in by Vikings.

  9  20  1100 #     A Anglo-Saxons    G GB (excluding Scotland and Wales)   L
                                                                                Fused with Danes. Must exclude areas
                                                                                settled by Celts.

 40  44  -550 -450  A Angriani        P In Pangaion Mts aka Pangaeum        L
                                        (Pernigaeus Mts). (See Pangeon
                                        Mts, ca 30 km W of Kavala, GR on
                                        Rumaenien-Bulgarien Road-Map
                                        (Kummerly & Frey).)

900  39   -27 75    A Angrivarii      G Nr Weser-Aller R junction N of      L
                                        Cherusci, S of Lueneburger Heide.
                                                                                Location acc/to (187-15).

900  40    75 #     A Angrivarii      G W of Weser R betw Wiehen & Egge     M
                                        Mts in area called Engern; also in
                                        Muensterland in Gau Angeron.
                                                                                Location information acc/to (187-16). Left
                                                                                their earlier home (nr Weser-Aller R
                                                                                junction N of Cherusci, S of Lueneburger
                                                                                Heide) under pressure from Chauci (acc/to
                                                                                (187-16)). Left Middle Weser R and moved
                                                                                here, having defeated the Bructeri
                                                                                (acc/to (12-117)).

900  41    75 300   A Angrivarii      G {W of Weser R betw Wiehen & Egge    L
                                        Mts in area called Engern; also in
                                        Muensterland in Gau Angeron.}
                                        *{900-40}*

 12 118   300 350   N Angrivarii      G Muensterland                        I
                                                                                Among the Saxons. (Note by RRS:
                                                                                Assimilated over all the area W of Weser R
                                                                                betw Wiehen & Egge Mts in area called
                                                                                Engern; also in Muensterland in Gau
                                                                                Angeron. This is the area described by
                                                                                (187-16).)

900  45   300 550   A Antes           S Lower Bug R (the one emptying into  L
                                        Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth &
                                        upper Donets R to upper Sluc &
                                        Goryn RR (near Rovno) & middle
                                        Dnestr R centered on middle Dnepr
                                        R. + W bank Dnestr R.
                                                                                Start date acc/to (32-14). End date to
                                                                                conform to (32-25).

234  80   500 600   A Antes           S Taman region                        S
                                                                                From the Lower Bug R (the one emptying
                                                                                into Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth &
                                                                                upper Donets R to upper Sluc & Goryn RR
                                                                                (near Rovno) & middle Dnestr R centered on
                                                                                middle Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R. *{900-
                                                                                45}*

 40 114   525 602   N Antes           S Thracia & Moesia inf RP (The newly  A
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.).
                                                                                From the Lower Bug R (the one emptying
                                                                                into Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth &
                                                                                upper Donets R to upper Sluc & Goryn RR
                                                                                (near Rovno) & middle Dnestr R centered on
                                                                                middle Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R. *{900-
                                                                                45}*

 32  25   550 #     A Antes           S Moldavia, Bessarabia                E
                                                                                From the W bank Dnestr R.

142   1   550 #     A Antes           S Betw Dnepr & Don RR                 E
                                                                                From the Lower Bug R (the one emptying
                                                                                into Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth &
                                                                                upper Donets R to upper Sluc & Goryn RR
                                                                                (near Rovno) & middle Dnestr R centered on
                                                                                middle Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R. *{900-
                                                                                45}*

 31  11   550 568   N Antes           S Pannonia                            Q
                                                                                Pulled along by Avars from Romania. From
                                                                                the Lower Bug R (the one emptying into
                                                                                Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth & upper
                                                                                Donets R to upper Sluc & Goryn RR (near
                                                                                Rovno) & middle Dnestr R centered on
                                                                                middle Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R.
                                                                                *{900-45}*

900  46   550 800   A Antes           S {Lower Bug R (the one emptying      L
                                        into Black Sea). + From Desna R
                                        mouth & upper Donets R to upper
                                        Sluc & Goryn RR (near Rovno) &
                                        middle Dnestr R centered on middle
                                        Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R.} +
                                        {Moldavia, Bessarabia} + {Betw
                                        Dnepr & Don
                                        RR} + {Pannonia} *{900-45} + {32-
                                        25} + {142-1}* * + {31-11}*

 32  29   568 #     N Antes           S I                                   Q
                                                                                From Pannonia. Accompanying Lombards (that
                                                                                part of Antes subject to Lombards, called
                                                                                Limig-Antes).

 31  15   568 796   N Antes           S Pannonia                            I
                                                                                Amalgamated with Avars.

 13  39   650 #     A Antes           S BG                                  M
                                                                                From the Lower Bug R (the one emptying
                                                                                into Black Sea). + From Desna R mouth &
                                                                                upper Donets R to upper Sluc & Goryn RR
                                                                                (near Rovno) & middle Dnestr R centered on
                                                                                middle Dnepr R. + W bank Dnestr R. +
                                                                                Moldavia, Bessarabia. + Lower Dnepr
                                                                                & Upper Donetz. + Betw Dnepr & Don RR. +
                                                                                Pannonia. *{900-46}*

234  30  -200 #     A Aorsi           R E of steppes betw Dnepr & Don RR    M
                                        on lower Don R.
                                                                                A Sarmatian tribe from the east.

900 249  -200 200   A Aorsi           R {E of steppes betw Dnepr & Don RR   L
                                        on lower Don R.} *{234-30}*
                                                                                A Sarmatian tribe from the east. Dominated
                                                                                (ruled) and presumably absorbed by Alans
                                                                                (ref 234, p.88).

384  48 -1650 -1475 A Appenine        U I, see map 14a (40);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

385  38 -1475 -1300 A Appenine        U I, see map 15a (33);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Ref (168-11) gives later time: end of 2nd
                                                                                millenium.

387  15  -800 -700  A Apulian         U SE I, see map 17a (15a);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

388  26  -700 -600  A Apulian         U S E I, see map 18a (25);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

 34   1   634 638   N Arabs           E Jerusalem, Damascus                 C
                                                                                From Arabia.

325   5   636 641   N Arabs           E Egypt & most of nr East             C
                                                                                A permanent territorial loss for Byzantine
                                                                                empire. From Arabia.

325   6   641 #     N Arabs           E NE coast Africa, Cyprus area        C
                                        around Tripoli, Lebanon.
                                                                                From Arabia.

 34   2   642 #     N Arabs           E Persia                              C
                                                                                From Arabia.

 32  38   650 750   A Arabs           E Khazar empire, Croatia              A
                                                                                From Mesopotamia and N. Africa.

234  93   651 652   N Arabs           E N Caucasian area                    A
                                                                                From Azerbaijan.

325  21   670 #     N Arabs           E NW coast Africa                     C
                                                                                Area called 'Exarchate of Africa'. From
                                                                                Egypt.

325  22   670 #     N Arabs           E Balearic Islands, Corsica           C
                                                                                Area called 'Exarchate of Africa'. From
                                                                                Egypt.

325   2   674 678   N Arabs           E Constantinople, TR                  A
                                                                                From N. Africa.

 34   6   703 #     N Arabs           E Carthage Area                       C
                                                                                From N. Africa.

 34   5   711 #     N Arabs           E Samarkand, Buchara Beluchistan,     C
                                        Indus RV.
                                                                                From Iran.

 34   8   711 #     N Arabs           E Cordoba, Toledo                     C
                                                                                From N. Africa.

 53  50   711 #     N Arabs           E E (landed at Algeciras)             C
                                                                                Less than 10K Arab men entered & took
                                                                                Spanish women. From N. Africa.

232  34   711 713   N Arabs           E Spain except Basques & N hill       C
                                        country.
                                                                                Less than 10K Arab men entered & took
                                                                                Spanish women (53-50). 25 K conquerors,
                                                                                incl Arabized Berbers (167-14). From
                                                                                Morocco.

900  48   711 900   N Arabs           E {Spain except Basques & N hill      L
                                        country.} *{232-34}*

325   3   717 718   N Arabs           E Constantinople, TR                  A
                                                                                Emperor Leo III forced Arabs to abandon
                                                                                this second siege. From Syria.

 53  67   718 #     N Arabs           E Kingdom of Pamplona                 A
                                                                                From C. Spain.

 34  10   720 #     N Arabs           E Narbonne                            C
                                                                                From Iberia.

234  96   722 #     N Arabs           E N Caucasian area                    A
                                                                                From Iran.

 34   4   725 #     A Arabs           E AM up to Taurus Mts                 C
                                                                                From Syria.

232  36   725 740   A Arabs           E S Spain                             M
                                                                                Minority of the Muslim immigrants to E
                                                                                (from Middle East e.g. Syria) 7K.

900  49   725 976   A Arabs           E {AM up to Taurus Mts} *{34-4}*      L

232  35   732 #     N Arabs           E Gascony & Poitou (F)                A
                                                                                From Iberia.

234  98   732 #     N Arabs           E Derbent (E Caucasus)                R
                                                                                14K from Syria, by Caliphate.

 53  66   794 795   N Arabs           E Asturias                            A
                                                                                From C. Spain.

324   4   800 975   A Arabs           E Balearic Islands, Sardinia,         N
                                        Corsica.
                                                                                From Spain? (Syn. Saracens).

 45   3   800 1100  A Arabs           E Coastal towns GR                    Q
                                                                                From N. Africa. (Syn. Saracens).

 53  68   800 900   N Arabs           E E                                   I
                                                                                By Hispano-Romans.

325  24   815 #     N Arabs           E Sardinia                            C
                                                                                From N. Africa?

 34  12   826 961   N Arabs           E Crete                               C
                                                                                From Spain. (Syn. Saracens).

 34  13   827 902   N Arabs           E Sicily                              C
                                                                                (Syn. Saracens). From Tunisia in N.
                                                                                Africa. End date acc/to (168-31).

324   3   827 840   A Arabs           E Coast of S I                        L
                                                                                Established bases here. (Syn. Saracens).

324  10   840 #     A Arabs           E C I, including Rome                 A
                                                                                Monasteries and towns attacked. From
                                                                                Sicily. (Syn. Saracens).

324   7   840 880   A Arabs           E Taranto, SE coast I                 N
                                                                                Monasteries and towns attacked. From
                                                                                Sicily. (Syn. Saracens).

324   8   840 886   A Arabs           E Santa Severina, S coast I           N
                                                                                Monasteries and towns attacked. From
                                                                                Sicily. (Syn. Saracens).

324   9   841 871   A Arabs           E Bari, SE coast I                    A
                                                                                Monasteries and towns attacked. From
                                                                                Sicily. (Syn. Saracens).

149  20   867 #     N Arabs           E Dubrovnik area                      A
                                                                                From N. Africa?

324   5   890 973   A Arabs           E SE coast F                          N
                                                                                Monasteries and towns attacked. From
                                                                                Sardinia and Corsica. (Syn. Saracens).

 34  15   900 #     A Arabs           E Bari, Tarento                       S
                                                                                From Sicily and Crete. (Syn. Saracens).

237   3   985 1000  N Arabs           E Barcelona, Astorgay Leon, Santiago  C
                                        de Compostela, Burgos.
                                                                                From E. C. Spain.

237   2   987 997   N Arabs           E Coimbra, Viseu (P)                  C
                                                                                From C. Iberia.

313   1 -1300 -1100 A Aramaeans       E Mountainous area E of Syria         L

313   2 -1112 #     A Aramaeans       E N of Aleppo, S of Amanus Mtns, TR   M
                                                                                From mountainous area E of Syria. *{313-1}*

313   5 -1100 -1080 A Aramaeans       E Along Euphrates R, N Babylonia      S
                                        (Iraq).
                                                                                From mountainous area E of Syria. *{313-1}*

900  51 -1100 -800  A Aramaeans       E {Along Euphrates R, N Babylonia     L
                                        (Iraq).} *{313-5}*

313   3 -1060 #     A Aramaeans       E Kashiari Mtns, SW of Lake Van, TR   S
                                                                                From area along Euphrates R, N Babylonia
                                                                                (Iraq). *{313-5}*

901 209 -1060 -900  A Aramaeans       E {Kashiari Mtns, SW of Lake Van,     L
                                        TR} *{313-3}*

224  18 -1000 -900  A Aramaeans       E SE AM                               A
                                                                                From Kashiari Mtns, SW of Lake Van, TR.
                                                                                *{313-3}*

313   4 -1000 #     A Aramaeans       E Around & S of Damascus, Syria       S
                                                                                From area along Euphrates R, N Babylonia
                                                                                (Iraq). *{313-5}*

900  52 -1000 -800  A Aramaeans       E Syria                               L
                                                                                (Reference in Ploetz.)

224  19  -920 #     N Aramaeans       E Samal in Amanus Mts AM (modern Nur  C
                                        Daglari).
                                                                                Probably from Syria. *{900-52}*

367   6  -200 -100  A Aratores        R Area SW of Kiev, along Rastavica    L
                                        R, SU.

 27  34  -400 -375  A Aravisci        K Rt bank of Danube knee up to mouth  M
                                        of Karpos-Sarvis R (H)
                                                                                From Austria. (Syn. Eravisci)

900  53  -400 200   A Aravisci        K Rt bank of Danube R knee            L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (27-34). End date
                                                                                to conform to (110-32). (Syn. Eravisci)

900  54 -1000 -200  A Ardiaei         Y Neretva R mouth + Dalmatia, coast   L
                                        opp Hvar
                                                                                Acc/to (51-10), (165-13).

  2  21     1 500   A Aremorici       I Between Seine & Loire R             L
                                                                                Amalgamated with Franks.

230   3  -800 -500  A Arenosi         U Pyrenean RVV of Catalonia           L
                                                                                These are Iberians.

 53  20  -600 -500  A Arevaci         K Duero (Douro) RV. See map p.36.     M
                                                                                From N of Pyrenees.

900  55  -600 -400  A Arevaci         K {Duero (Douro) RV. See map p.36.}   L
                                        {53-20}
                                                                                For consistency with (53-20).

316   6 -1250 -1150 A Armenians       O N Anatolia; incl:Troy and Bogazkoy. C
                                                                                Occupied Troy and destroyed Hittite empire
                                                                                with its capital city of Bogazkoy. From
                                                                                Balkan Mtns.

900  56 -1250 -575  A Armenians       O {N Anatolia; incl:Troy and          L
                                        Bogazkoy} *{316-6}*
                                                                                Start and end dates to conform to (316-6)
                                                                                and (900-57), respectively.  Their
                                                                                presence in Anatolia for this period is
                                                                                not definite.

900  57  -575 #     A Armenians       O Urartu (essentially historical      M
                                        Armenia).
                                                                                From the Anatolian part of Asia Minor
                                                                                (TR). (Source: Ploetz, p.310).  (Note:
                                                                                specifically from N Anatolia. *{900-56}*

900  58  -575 1970  A Armenians       O {Urartu (essentially historical     L
                                        Armenia} *{900-57}*

118  12   700 800   A Armenians       O W Macedonia, YU                     Q
                                                                                From Armenia.

234 138   755 #     N Armenians       O Thracian border with BG             R
                                                                                By Byzantines (several K). From Armenia.

236   9  1022 #     N Armenians       O Sivas (AM)                          Q
                                                                                From Armenia (part of people only).

236  13  1080 1100  A Armenians       O Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &   Q
                                        Antitaurus area of AM; SE AM).
                                                                                From Armenia.  Following conquest of
                                                                                Armenia by Seljuk Turks.

901 150  1080 1222  N Armenians       O {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &  L
                                        Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).}
                                        *{236-13}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-13) and (236-22).

236  22  1222 #     N Armenians       O W Taurus area (AM) including        T
                                        Silifke.
                                                                                To {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &
                                                                                Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).} - {W
                                                                                Taurus area (AM) including Silifke.} *{236-
                                                                                13} - {236-22}*

901 151  1222 1914  A Armenians       O {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &  L
                                        Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).} -
                                        {W Taurus area (AM) including
                                        Silifke.} *{236-13} - {236-22}*
                                                                                Still there by 1914 (see Dominian--
                                                                                Frontiers of Language and Nationality in
                                                                                Europe).

347  18  1914 1923  N Armenians       O W TR & across Black Sea to Europe.  Q
                                                                                350,000 Armenians left E TR for here.

901 124 -2100 -1600 A Armenokhori     U S Macedonia                         L
                                                                                Culture. Early Helladic III & Middle
                                                                                Helladic periods. Acc/to ref. 47, p. 214.

900  59 -1650 -700  A Armorican       U NW F, see map 14a (44);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (384-52), (385-43), (386-23), (387-
                                                                                24).

900  60  -700 #     A Armorican       U {NW F, see map 14a (44);            E
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."} - {W F, see map
                                        18a (17) "Archeologicky Atlas A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."} *{900-59} - {388-
                                        17}*
                                                                                For consistency with (388-17). From NW F,
                                                                                see map 14a(44); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                                                                Evropy A Ceskoslovenska".

388  17  -700 -600  A Armorican       U W F, see map 18a (17);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

900  61   200 1970  A Aromuni         I N Balkans (not NE BG)               L
                                                                                End date: still there (123-20). Romanized
                                                                                about this time. Pre-Roman linguistic
                                                                                affiliation not given (123-20). Syn with
                                                                                Macedo-Romans early on. Also syn with
                                                                                Tzintzars. Mostly assimilated but a few
                                                                                pockets left at least in YU.

120   6   700 900   A Aromuni         I Former Dacia RP                     Q
                                                                                From Spain incl. Balearics. *{901-61}*

900  62   700 1450  A Aromuni         I {Former Dacia RP} *{120-6}*         L
                                                                                Start date: to conform to (120-6). End
                                                                                date: wild guess. Presumably assimilated
                                                                                in ROM.

114   2  1500 1800  A Aromuni         I YU + BG                             I
                                                                                Start date acc/to (114-16); end date
                                                                                acc/to (114-2). Presumably not all
                                                                                assimilated since some small populations
                                                                                survive. (Syn. Tzintzars). By Slavs.

389   8  -150 -50   A Arra            K E England, see map 20a (10);        L
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Gens is a La Tene group.

384  53 -1650 -1550 A Artenacien      U Seine R area, F, see map 14a (45);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

143  10  -750 -50   A Arverni         K Auvergne                            L

307   4  -600 -500  A Arvernove       U SC F around & W of Lyon             L

900  63 -1650 -700  A AsbestosCeramic U SC SF, see map 14a (37);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (384-44), (385-34), (386-41), (387-
                                                                                47). Full name: Asbestos Ceramic.

 26  34  -600 -300  A Asilii          U Central I                           L
                                                                                Pre-Indoeuropean people.

224   2 -2200 -1800 A Assyrians       E Kueltepe (ancient Kanesh, nr        S
                                        modern Kayseri)(C AM).
                                                                                From Assyria. They are merchants in
                                                                                Anatolia.

900  64 -2200 -607  A Assyrians       E Assyria (centered on Tigris R),     L
                                        Iraq.
                                                                                (Source: Encyclopedia Brittanica & (312-
                                                                                7)).

224   9 -1334 #     N Assyrians       E Mitanni betw Euphrates R at level   C
                                        of modern Birecik and
                                        Mediterranean.
                                                                                From Assyria (centered on Tigris R), Iraq.
                                                                                *{900-64}*

900  66 -1334 -625  A Assyrians       E {Mitanni betw Euphrates R at level  L
                                        of modern Birecik and
                                        Mediterranean.} *{224-9}*

223   2 -1114 #     N Assyrians       E Ancient Subartu: Up Tigris RV betw  C
                                        Mts Idni & Aia, Up Zab RV.
                                                                                From Assyria (centered on Tigris R), Iraq.
                                                                                *{900-64}*

223   3 -1113 #     N Assyrians       E W of L Van                          C
                                                                                Inhabited by Nairi hill-folk. From Assyria
                                                                                (centered on Tigris R), Iraq. *{900-64}*

221   6 -1100 #     A Assyrians       E Area of Halfeti on U Euphrates R    C
                                                                                Carried off 6K Phrygian captives to
                                                                                Nisibis. From Assyria (centered on Tigris
                                                                                R), Iraq. *{900-64}*

900  67 -1100 -625  A Assyrians       E {Ancient Subartu: Up Tigris RV      L
                                        betw Mts Idni & Aia, Up Zab RV.} +
                                        {W of L Van} + {Area of Halfeti on
                                        U Euphrates R.} *{223-2} + {223-3}
                                        + {221-6}*

312   8  -883 -859  A Assyrians       E Through Charchemush to the          A
                                        Mediterranean.
                                                                                From Mitanni betw Euphrates R at level of
                                                                                modern Birecik and Mediterranean. *{224-9}*

224  20  -880 #     A Assyrians       E SE AM & Samal in Amanus Mts AM      A
                                        (modern Nur Daglari).
                                                                                From Mitanni betw Euphrates R at level of
                                                                                modern Birecik and Mediterranean. *{900-
                                                                                66}*

312   9  -858 -824  A Assyrians       E North to Taurus Mtns, and S to      A
                                        Damascus.
                                                                                & gained control of former important for
                                                                                trade routes to Europe & as a source of
                                                                                metals, latter brought them into conflict
                                                                                with Aramaean states in Syria & their
                                                                                allies in Palestine (incl Israel). From
                                                                                Syria.

312  10  -824 -775  A Assyrians       E Syria, Palestine, N. Egypt          C
                                                                                Extended control over & included in
                                                                                Assyrian Empire. From area North to Taurus
                                                                                Mtns, and S to Damascus. *{312-9}*

900  68  -824 -650  A Assyrians       E {Syria, Palestine, N. Egypt} *{312- L
                                        10}*

312  11  -766 -733  A Assyrians       E Egypt to W Persia, & N to Taurus    C
                                        Mtns.
                                                                                Attempting to control whole near East &
                                                                                becoming severely overstretched. From
                                                                                Syria, Palestine, N. Egypt. *{900-68}*

900  69  -766 -650  A Assyrians       E {Egypt to W Persia, & N to Taurus   L
                                        Mtns.} *{312-11}*

224  22  -744 -727  N Assyrians       E Ancient Urartu (S of L Van) also    C
                                        SE AM, Samal in Amanus Mts AM
                                        (modern Nur Daglari).
                                                                                From Mitanni betw Euphrates R at level of
                                                                                modern Birecik and Mediterranean. *{224-9}*

900  70  -744 -650  A Assyrians       E {Ancient Urartu (S of L Van) also   L
                                        SE AM, Samal in Amanus Mts AM
                                        (modern Nur Daglari)}*{224-22}*

900  71  -725 -650  A Assyrians       E Babylonia, Iraq                     L

224  17  -715 #     N Assyrians       E Phrygia (NW AM; centers at Midas)   A
                                                                                From Ancient Urartu (S of L Van) also SE
                                                                                AM, Samal in Amanus Mts AM (modern Nur
                                                                                Daglari). *{224-22}*

312  17  -700 #     A Assyrians       E Babylonia, Iraq C Mesopotamia and   C
                                        E Assyria, W of Little Zab R, and
                                        Zagros Mtns Area, Iran & Iraq.
                                                                                Overran & annexed Elam as a result of
                                                                                Chaldean tribes' dominance & associated
                                                                                Elamite meddling. From Assyria.

900  72  -700 -607  A Assyrians       E {Babylonia, Iraq C Mesopotamia and  L
                                        E Assyria, W of Little Zab R, and
                                        Zagros Mtns Area, Iran & Iraq.}
                                        *{312-17}*
                                                                                End date acc/to Ploetz p.77.

231   6  -100 #     A Astures         K Asturias & Leon                     L

900  73  -800 -50   A Asva            U Estonia, S SF, W SU, see map 17a    L
                                        (45); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (387-46), (388-44), (389-22).

 22  36  -450 #     A Athenians       H Most of GR and Cyprus (see Putzger  N
                                        pg.12, Map I).
                                                                                From Attica.

318  10  -425 #     N Athenians       H Sphacteria, near Sparta, S GR       A
                                                                                From Attica.

318   7  -425 #     N Athenians       H Pylos, SW GR                        N
                                                                                From Attica.

318   9  -425 #     A Athenians       H SW corner Aetolia (GR); SW of       N
                                        Messolongi.
                                                                                From Pylos, SW GR. *{318-7}* Area was
                                                                                Athenian ally.

128  16  -424 -405  N Athenians       H Chalcedon, Byzantium (on Bosporus). C
                                                                                From Attica.

318   6  -424 #     N Athenians       H Island of Cythera (S of             N
                                        Peloponnese).
                                                                                From Attica. Athenian victory.

318   3  -416 #     N Athenians       H Island of Melos (E of Peloponnese.) C
                                                                                From Attica. Athenian victory.

318   4  -415 -413  A Athenians       H Across Ionian sea to Syracuse,      N
                                        Sicily.
                                                                                From Attica. Alcibiades' route, & were
                                                                                defeated by Spartans.

318   2  -406 #     N Athenians       H Arguinusae Islands, nr Lesbos       N
                                                                                From Athens. Athenian victory.

165  14  -300 -200  A Atintani        Y Albania betw Durres & Drin (Drim)   L
                                        R.

368   2   -50 50    A Atmones         G Dnestr R area, betw Beskid Mtns to  L
                                        the W, & Seret R to the E, S of
                                        Ivano-Frankovsk (Stanislav), W SU.
                                                                                Subgroup of Bastarnae acc/to Much.

320  11  -500 -314  A Aurunci         I Area along Gulf of Gaeta & N of     L
                                        Capua, WC I.
                                                                                Presumably Italic speakers (not on synonym
                                                                                list). End date: massacred by Romans.

230   4  -800 -500  A Ausetani        U Interior Catalonia                  L
                                                                                These are Iberians.

168  12 -1250 #     A Ausonii         I Liparic Is.                         Q
                                                                                See (26-20). Not clear from where. They
                                                                                may have come from Italian peninsula.

 26  20 -1250 -900  A Ausonii         I WC I, Map page 359                  L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (168-12).

179  29  1725 #     N Austrians       G SW D & E Prussia                    Q
                                                                                From Salzburg.

179  30  1725 #     N Austrians       G N & W D                             Q
                                                                                From Lower & Upper A.

345  19  1814 #     N Austrians       G N F & B                             A
                                                                                From A.

151   2  1945 1970  N Austrians       G CH                                  Q
                                                                                0.69 percent of population. From A.

117   3  -500 -450  N Autariatae      Y Betw Isker (Iskar) & Velika Morava  A
                                        RR. See map p.132.
                                                                                From SE Bosnia, SW Serbia, N Crna Gora
                                                                                (Montenegro). See map p.132, ref 117.
                                                                                *{900-74}* Area of the Triballi; see (117-
                                                                                2).

900  74  -500 -250  A Autariatae      Y SE Bosnia, SW Serbia N Crna Gora    L
                                        (Montenegro). See map p.132, ref
                                        117.
                                                                                Acc/to (117-1), (51-21).

 27  85  -360 #     A Autariatae      Y Macedonia                           A
                                                                                From Morava V. *{27-83}*

 27  83  -360 #     A Autariatae      Y Morava V                            C
                                                                                From SE Bosnia, SW Serbia, N Crna Gora
                                                                                (Montenegro). See map p.132, ref 117.
                                                                                *{117-1}*

900  75  -360 -275  A Autariatae      Y {Morava V} *{27-83}*                L
                                                                                For consistency with (27-83).

165  16  -320 #     A Autariatae      Y E of mid Axius (Vardar) R           A
                                                                                From SE Bosnia, SW Serbia, N Crna Gora
                                                                                (Montenegro). See map p.132, ref 117.
                                                                                *{900-74}*

 46  11  -310 #     N Autariatae      Y Mt. Orbelus (Paeonia) ( = Mt.       Q
                                        Bjelasica nr Petric, Greek-BG
                                        border).
                                                                                From YU: W (Zapadna) Morava, Lim, Tara RR.
                                                                                *{46-9}* 20K people, part of tribe only.

 27  86  -310 #     A Autariatae      Y Istria, Dalmatia                    S
                                                                                From SE Bosnia, SW Serbia N Crna Gora
                                                                                (Montenegro). See map p.132, ref 117.
                                                                                *{900-74}*

900  76  -310 -250  A Autariatae      Y {Istria, Dalmatia} *{27-86}*        L
                                                                                For consistency with (27-86).

900  78  -310 -275  A Autariatae      Y {Mt. Orbelus (Paeonia) ( = Mt.      L
                                        Bjelasica nr Petric, Greek-BG
                                        border).} *{46-11}*
                                                                                For consistency with (46-11).

 53  21  -600 -500  A Autrigoni       K Duero (Douro) RV                    M
                                                                                From N of Pyrenees.

382  20 -2200 -1900 A Auvernier       U E C F, see map 12a (17);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

900  79   500 #     A Avars           M W part of S Russian steppes         M
                                                                                Acc/to (169-47). Pushed there from C Asia
                                                                                by expansion of Turcic state acc/to (3-1).

900  85   500 850   A Avars           M {W part of S Russian steppes}       L
                                        *{900-79}*
                                                                                Amalgamated with surrounding peoples.

  3   1   525 #     A Avars           M N of Caucasus Mts                   M
                                                                                Pushed there from C Asia by expansion of
                                                                                Turcic state.

900  80   525 558   A Avars           M Mouth of Danube R 'Scythian         Q
                                        Lands', + Black Sea N shore, W
                                        area, W of Dnepr R.
                                                                                Acc/to (3-3), (7-7). From W part of S
                                                                                Russian steppes. *{169-47}*

900  86   525 850   A Avars           M {N of Caucasus Mts} *{3-1}*         L
                                                                                Amalgamated with surrounding peoples.

901 223   525 552   N Avars           M {Mouth of Danube R 'Scythian        L
                                        Lands', + Black Sea N shore, W
                                        area, W of Dnepr R.} *{901-80}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-80) and (900-81).

900  81   552 568   N Avars           M Danube nr Thracia & Moesia inf RP.  M
                                        The newly reorganized (284-305)
                                        Diocese Thracia. See ref 40, fig
                                        22. + Upper Dnestr R. + Pannonia.
                                        The area occupied by the Gepids.
                                        Did not settle S of line Pecs-
                                        Keszthely-Szombathely. + W
                                        Volhynia.
                                        + Carpathian basin, Pannonia & the      Acc/to (40-116), (33-13), (7-15), (234-
                                        Gepid area between Save R & Drave       78), (3-5). From mouth of Danube R
                                        R.                                      'Scythian Lands' + Black Sea N shore, W
                                                                                area, W of Dnepr R. *{900-80}*

900  82   552 630   N Avars           M {Mouth of Danube R 'Scythian        L
                                        Lands'. + Black Sea N shore, W
                                        area, W of Dnepr R.} + {Danube nr
                                        Thracia & Moesia inf RP. The newly
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22. +
                                        Upper Dnestr R. + Pannonia. The
                                        area occupied
                                        by the Gepids. Did not settle S of      Left Dioc. Thracia & Dalmatia acc/to (33-
                                        line Pecs-Keszthely-Szombathely. +      24).
                                        W Volhynia. + Carpathian basin,
                                        Pannonia & the Gepid area between
                                        Save R & Drave R.} *{900-80} +
                                        {900-81}*

129  39   560 #     N Avars           M S Russia (Volga R to Lower Danube). C
                                                                                From the mouth of Danube R 'Scythian
                                                                                Lands', + Black Sea N shore, W area, W of
                                                                                Dnepr R. *{900-80}*

234  67   560 #     N Avars           M Taman Peninsula (extends from N of  C
                                        Caucasus to meet E tip of Crimea).
                                                                                From the mouth of Danube R 'Scythian
                                                                                Lands', + Black Sea N shore, W area, W of
                                                                                Dnepr R. *{900-80}*

900  88   560 850   N Avars           M {S Russia (Volga R to Lower         L
                                        Danube).} *{129-39}*
                                                                                Amalgamated with surrounding peoples.

900  89   560 850   N Avars           M {Taman Peninsula (extends from N    L
                                        of Caucasus to meet E tip of
                                        Crimea).} *{234-67}*
                                                                                Amalgamated with surrounding peoples.

  3   4   562 566   N Avars           M Frankish Empire                     A
                                                                                From Pannonia.

  7  17   577 626   N Avars           M Balkans                             A
                                                                                At one time an army of 60K is mentioned
                                                                                (not clear whether warriors or all
                                                                                people). The ethnic mix may be deduced
                                                                                from the report of a Byzantine general
                                                                                (Priskos). In a battle along the Tisza R
                                                                                he captured 3K Avars, 6K other barbarians,
                                                                                8K Slavs. From Pannonia.

144   5   578 600   A Avars           M Thrace                              A
                                                                                From Danube nr Thracia & Moesia inf RP.
                                                                                The newly reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                                                                Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22. + Upper
                                                                                Dnestr R. + Pannonia. The area occupied by
                                                                                the Gepids. Did not settle S of line Pecs-
                                                                                Keszthely-Szombathely. + W Volhynia.
                                                                                + Carpathian basin, Pannonia & the Gepid
                                                                                area between Save R & Drave R. *{900-81}*

129  43   582 620   N Avars           M Byzantine Empire                    A
                                                                                From Pannonia.

 33  21   590 #     N Avars           M Valleys of the Alps & Sudeten area. C
                                                                                From Pannonia.

900  90   590 630   N Avars           M {Valleys of the Alps & Sudeten      L
                                        area.} *{33-21}*
                                                                                Left Dalmatia, Sudeten, Alps, & BG (see
                                                                                (33-24).

 33  22   592 #     N Avars           M Betw Tisza & Danube RR              S
                                                                                Retreated from Byzantines into 'ring' in
                                                                                this area. From Danube nr Thracia & Moesia
                                                                                inf RP. The newly reorganized (284-305)
                                                                                Diocese Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22. +
                                                                                Upper Dnestr R. + Pannonia. The area
                                                                                occupied by the Gepids. Did not settle
                                                                                S of line Pecs-Keszthely-Szombathely. + W
                                                                                Volhynia. + Carpathian basin, Pannonia &
                                                                                the Gepid area between Save R & Drave R.
                                                                                *{900-81}*

234  75   597 598   N Avars           M Singidunum (Belgrade), Thrace       A
                                        Macedonia up to Salonika,
                                        Dalmatia, S bank of Danube R to
                                        Lower Moesia & Dobrugea.
                                                                                From area betw Tisza & Danube RR. *{33-22}*

900  83   600 #     A Avars           M S Moravia, Slovak plain also E      C
                                        Lower A.
                                                                                From Pannonia. *Location information from
                                                                                (152-19) and (133-53).*

114  32   600 800   N Avars           M Serbia                              I
                                                                                By Serbs.

114  45   600 900   N Avars           M Croatia                             I
                                                                                By Croats.

900  91   600 850   A Avars           M {S Moravia, Slovak plain also E     L
                                        Lower A.} *{900-83}*
                                                                                Amalgamated with local population.

149   7   602 626   N Avars           M Balkan Peninsula                    E
                                                                                From Danube nr Thracia & Moesia inf RP.
                                                                                The newly reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                                                                Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22.

129  42   610 #     N Avars           M Friulia                             A
                                                                                From Pannonia.

  7  19   611 #     N Avars           M Venice                              A
                                                                                From Pannonia.

900  87   630 850   A Avars           M {Mouth of Danube R 'Scythian        L
                                        Lands'. + Black Sea N shore, W
                                        area, W of Dnepr R. + Danube nr
                                        Thracia & Moesia inf RP. The newly
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia. See ref 40, fig 22. +
                                        Upper Dnestr R. + Pannonia. The
                                        area occupied
                                        by the Gepids. Did not settle S of      Amalgamated with surrounding peoples.
                                        line Pecs-Keszthely-Szombathely. +
                                        W Volhynia. + Carpathian basin,
                                        Pannonia & the Gepid area between
                                        Save R & Drave R.} - {Danube nr
                                        Thracia & Moesia inf RP. The newly
                                        reorganized (284-305) Diocese
                                        Thracia.
                                        See ref 40, fig 22.} - Dalmatia.
                                        *{900-82} - {40-116} - Dalmatia*

 31  18   800 850   A Avars           M Pannonia                            I
                                                                                Amalgamated with Germanic & Slavic
                                                                                populations of the country.

 36   7   890 #     A Avars           M H                                   L
                                                                                Largely Slavicized.

 27  10  -750 #     A Averni          K Auvergne Most of these are on ref   L
                                        27, first unnumbered map.

900  92    80 850   A Avioni          G N Albingia=Dietmarschen, the        L
                                        Stormarn around Hamburg, & Holsten.
                                                                                Acc/to (194-16), (194-19). Part of Saxons.

389   7  -150 -50   A Aylesford-Swarl K S England, see map 20a (9);         L
                                        'Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska'.
                                                                                Gens is a La Tene group: 'Aylesford-
                                                                                Swarling'.

900  93  -100 200   A Azali           U E Lower A + W of Fejer & Tolna Cos  L
                                        + Danube knee.
                                                                                Acc/to (133-5), (110-19), (132-16). But
                                                                                note Azali (called Asaler in ref 133) are
                                                                                designated Illyrian in ref 132 (133-5).

110  36   200 300   A Azali           U Pannonia RP                         I
                                                                                By Romans.

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