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REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

 43  15   901 #     N Vikings         G Isle of Man, Scotland               Q
                                                                                From Dublin. Expelled by Irish.

205  12   907 #     N Swedes          G Constantinople                      A
                                                                                From S via Russia.

149  28   910 997   N Croats          S Istria, Bosnia, Duklja              E
                                        (Montenegro), Zahlumje (area
                                        bordered by Dubrovnik, Dabar,
                                        Luka, Popop, Velika, Dabrava) (YU)
                                        (see map 399 for detailed
                                        description).
                                        Dabar, Luka, Popop, Velika,             From YU in Adriatic hinterlands between
                                        Dabrava) (YU) (see map 399 for          Rasa R (Istria) in W and and Cetina R (S
                                        detailed description.                   of split) in E. (Largely Dalmatia in YU.)
                                                                                + Area betw Save & Danube RR (up to at
                                                                                least Ptuj in the E, acc/to (147-24)).
                                                                                *{900-688}*

900 689   910 1970  N Croats          S {YU in Adriatic hinterlands         L
                                        between Rasa R (Istria) in W and
                                        and Cetina R (S of split) in E.
                                        (Largely Dalmatia in YU.) + area
                                        betw Save & Danube RR (up to at
                                        least Ptuj in the E, acc/to (147-
                                        24)).} + {Istria, Bosnia, Duklja
                                        (Montenegro),
                                        Zahlumje (area bordered by              Start date to conform to (149-28). End
                                        Dubrovnik, Dabar, Luka, Popop,          date: still in Croatia. Presumably some
                                        Velika, Dabrava) (YU).} *{900-687}      amalgamation with other YU peoples
                                        + {149-28}*                             especially in locations included in (149-
                                                                                28), but no hard evidence available.

154  10   911 932   N Danes           G Normandy                            S
                                                                                From DK. Leader was Rollo or Hrolf, unlear
                                                                                whether from N or DK. Viking settlers came
                                                                                from DK in the main, but also N and from
                                                                                the Danelaw in GB acc/to Gwyn Jones:
                                                                                History of the Vikings. Within very short
                                                                                time became Normans.

900 623   911 #     N Danes           G Normandy                            S
                                                                                From Danelaw, England. Leader was Rollo or
                                                                                Hrolf, unlear whether from N or DK. Viking
                                                                                settlers came from DK in the main, but
                                                                                also N and from the Danelaw in GB acc/to
                                                                                Gwyn Jones: History of the Vikings. Within
                                                                                very short time became Normans.
                                                                                Also acc/to (43-24).

901  67   911 1000  A Danes           G Normandy                            I
                                                                                Start date to conform to (154-10) & (900-
                                                                                623); end date approximate. They
                                                                                assimilated rapidly and became the
                                                                                Normans, with language code I.

 43  23   911 #     N Norwegians      G Normandy                            S
                                                                                Leader was Rollo or Hrolf, unlear whether
                                                                                from N or DK. Viking settlers came from DK
                                                                                in the main, but also N and from the
                                                                                Danelaw in GB acc/to Gwyn Jones: History
                                                                                of the Vikings. Within very short time
                                                                                became Normans. Norwegians came
                                                                                mostly from Ireland and Scotland acc/to
                                                                                Gwyn Jones. Far fewer Norwegians than
                                                                                Danes.

149  24   913 #     N Bulgarians      S Constantinople                      A
                                                                                From W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E to
                                                                                Upper Pruth R on E side of Carpathian Mts;
                                                                                along Pruth downstream to Leovo, E across
                                                                                Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream along
                                                                                Dnestr to Black Sea. S border not stated
                                                                                by author but probably not
                                                                                quite up to modern S border of BG.
                                                                                (Included Pliska, Preslav, Adrianople). +
                                                                                Srem area (betw Sava & Danube RR). -
                                                                                Pannonia E of Tisza R. *{900-660}*

 43  17   913 917   N Vikings         G IRL                                 C
                                                                                From Britain.

900 661   927 #     N Bulgarians      S Constantinople                      
                                                                                From W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E to
                                                                                Upper Pruth R on E side of Carpathian Mts;
                                                                                along Pruth downstream to Leovo, E across
                                                                                Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream along
                                                                                Dnestr to Black Sea. S border not stated
                                                                                by author but probably not
                                                                                quite up to modern S border of BG.
                                                                                (Included Pliska, Preslav, Adrianople). +
                                                                                Srem area (betw Sava & Danube RR). -
                                                                                Pannonia E of Tisza R. *{900-660}*

149  23   934 959   N Magyars         C Byzantine Emp.(Balkans) (up to      A
                                        Constantinople) (see Muir'sAtlas,
                                        p. 14)
                                                                                From Carpathian basin incl. modern H up to
                                                                                its border with A, N into Slovakia, E to
                                                                                Transylvania & S somewhat beyond Drave R.
                                                                                (cf detailed map in ref. use colors coded
                                                                                1&3) *{900-797}*

129  49   934 1091  N Pechenegi       T Byzantine Balkans (modern BG & GR.  A
                                        See p.44 Putzger et al., Atlas.)
                                                                                Repeated attacks from area betw Don &
                                                                                lower Danube RR. *{900-393}*

329   5   936 947   A Germans         G Middle Elbe R area, betw            A
                                        Brandenburg & Lake Mueritz, & E
                                        toOder R & W to Elbe R, DDR.
                                                                                From Saxony. Otto I's campaign & attempt
                                                                                to colonize & convert Veleti, Heveller,
                                                                                Reda (Settled Slavic tribes). Established
                                                                                North March as a district of G. empire.

329   6   936 950   A Germans         G Upper Elbe & Saale RR, area around  A
                                        Zeitz; W to Saale Rc DDR.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Otto I's campaign &
                                                                                attempt to colonize & convert settled
                                                                                Slavs: Sorbs, Dalminci. Established March
                                                                                of Zeitz as a district of G. empire.

 30  27   940 #     A Danes           G {S Jutland (center at Hedeby; see   E
                                        Times Atlas p. 110, map 3)} *{30-
                                        26}*
                                                                                From Sjaelland, Skane, other areas of S +
                                                                                Jutland and rest of DK other than
                                                                                Sjaelland. - S Jutland (center at Hedeby;
                                                                                see Times Atlas p. 110, map 3) *{900-629}*
                                                                                Pushed out Swedes.

900 630   940 1970  N Danes           G {Sjaelland, Skane, other areas of   L
                                        S + Jutland and rest of DK other
                                        than Sjaelland. - S Jutland
                                        (center at Hedeby; see Times Atlas
                                        p. 110, map 3)} + {S Jutland
                                        (center at Hedeby; see Times
                                        Atlas, p. 110, map3)} *{900-629} +
                                        {30-27}*
                                                                                For consistency with (30-27) and continued
                                                                                presence of Danes in DK.

329  14   940 946   A Germans         G Lorraine & West Francia, W of       A
                                        Rhine R, Laon & Rheims, F.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Campaign led by Otto I
                                                                                resulted in area's inclusion in G. empire.

331  23   940 #     N Venetians       I Comacchio, S of Venice, I           S
                                                                                From Venice.

 31  34   943 #     N Varyagi         G Baku, Berda on Kura R               C
                                                                                From Kiev Kaganate (?). May already have
                                                                                become heavily Slavicized.

331  24   944 #     N Venetians       I Ravenna, S of Venice, I             S
                                                                                From Venice.

 32  56   950 1240  A Brodniki        S Don R area                          L
                                                                                Start date by inference from text; end
                                                                                date is Mongol assault.

232  60   950 1000  N Moors           E Leon                                R
                                                                                From Andalusia. Dates to correspond
                                                                                approximately to Almanzor's reign.

329  12   951 961   N Germans         G N I betw St. Moritz (CH) & Nice in  C
                                        theW, to Mantua & Brescia in the E.
                                                                                From Thuringia. Otto led campaign that
                                                                                succeeded in conquering Kingdom of Italy.

329   4   955 #     A Germans         G Lower Elbe R area, N of Lake        A
                                        Mueritz, extending N & E to Baltic
                                        Sea, & W to Elbe R,
                                                                                From Saxony. Otto I's campaign & attempt
                                                                                to colonize & convert settled Slavs:
                                                                                Obodrites, Polabians, Warnawi. Established
                                                                                March of Billings as a district of G.
                                                                                empire.

149  25   961 969   N Byzantines      H Crete, Aleppo, Antioch (Syria)      C
                                                                                From Byzantium.

331   7   961 1084  N Byzantines      H Antioch, Syria                      L
                                                                                Area under Byzantine rule during this time.

331   4   964 #     N Byzantines      H Cyprus                              N
                                                                                Successful Byzantine reconquest of Saracen
                                                                                lands since 950. From Byzantium.

328  20   964 971   N Russians        S Along Dnieper R & around Black Sea  A
                                        area into Bulgaria and N along
                                        Volga R to Bolgar and S along
                                        Volga R to Caspian Sea & W along
                                        Caucasus Mts.
                                                                                From Kiev. Syvatoslav's campaigns. Khazars
                                                                                were 'destroyed.'

211  24   965 #     N Russians        S Kazan at great bend middle Volga R. A
                                                                                From Principality of Kiev. Volga Bulgars
                                                                                living there.

 31  35   965 969   N Varyagi         G Sarkel (p44, Putzger, Lendl,        C
                                        Wagner), (Itil; nr modern
                                        Astrachan)
                                                                                From Kiev Kaganate (?). May already have
                                                                                become heavily Slavicized. End of Khazar
                                                                                Empire.

900 198   971 976   N Byzantines      H {Betw Isker R (BG), Balkans &       C
                                        Black Sea (capital Pliska, BG).
                                        Sofia, Adrianople, LL Ochrid &
                                        Prespa. (Map in Mathew: Atlas of
                                        Medieval Europe, p.67, in blue.)}
                                        *{149-27}*
                                                                                From Byzantium. Under Emperor John
                                                                                Tzimisces.

325   8   975 #     N Byzantines      H Syria                               A
                                                                                From Byzantium. A 'temporary reconquest'.

900 715   978 1014  N Macedonians     S Zadar to Black Sea & from Srem to   C
                                        Aegean. - {W of area settled by
                                        Sagudati (51-120) which is Vardar
                                        RV betw Saloniki & Vereja (Veroia,
                                        Veria). + Vardar RV betw Saloniki
                                        & Vereja (Veroia, Veria). + Betw
                                        Crna & Treska RR betw LL Ohrid &
                                        Prespan, & in N up to Titov Veles       Acc/to (51-138). Start date of Macedonian
                                        & Kiceva, YU. + Around Teba             (Westbulgarian) Empire (51-138), end date
                                        (Thebae Phthiae) and Demetrias          is collapse of Czar Samuilo's Empire (ref
                                        (ancient towns, Demetrias is            149, p.48). From W of area settled by
                                        modern Volos (Bolos) on Gulf of         Sagudati {51-120} which is Vardar RV betw
                                        Volos (Pagasitikos Kolpos)) GR.         Saloniki & Vereja (Veroia,
                                        (See map 7/8 in Putzger.) + Mesta
                                        R area in Rodope
                                        Mts (BG & N GR). + Struma R area        Veria). + Vardar RV betw Saloniki & Vereja
                                        (BG & N GR). + E of Saloniki            (Veroia, Veria). + Betw Crna & Treska RR
                                        toward Struma R & Chalcidike, GR.       betw LL Ohrid & Prespan, & in N up to
                                        + Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along       Titov Veles & Kiceva, YU. + Around Teba
                                        Upper Vardar R betw Tetovo &            (Thebae Phthiae) and Demetrias (ancient
                                        Gostivar) YU.} *(51-138) - {900-        towns, Demetrias is modern Volos
                                        714}*
                                                                                (Bolos) on Gulf of Volos (Pagasitikos
                                                                                Kolpos)) GR. (See map 7/8 in Putzger.) +
                                                                                Mesta R area in Rodope Mts (BG & N GR). +
                                                                                Struma R area (BG & N GR). + E of Saloniki
                                                                                toward Struma R & Chalcidike, GR. +
                                                                                Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along Upper
                                                                                Vardar R betw Tetovo & Gostivar) YU. *{900-
                                                                                714}*
900 714   978 1100  N Macedonians     S {W of area settled by Sagudati (51- L
                                        120) which is Vardar RV betw
                                        Saloniki & Vereja (Veroia,
                                        Veria).} + {Vardar RV betw
                                        Saloniki & Vereja (Veroia,
                                        Veria).} + {Betw Crna & Treska RR
                                        betw LL Ohrid & Prespan, & in N up
                                        to Titov Veles & Kiceva,
                                        YU.} + {Around Teba (Thebae             These result from fusion of earlier
                                        Phthiae) and Demetrias (ancient         separate tribes of Macedonian Slavs (we
                                        towns, Demetrias is modern Volos        record Draguviti, Sagudati, Velegiziti,
                                        (Bolos) on Gulf of Volos                Smoljani, Strumljani, Rinhini, Vojniti,
                                        (Pagasitikos Kolpos)) GR. (See map      Brsjaci, Jezeriti, Milinci (ref (118-9),
                                        7/8 in Putzger.)} + {Mesta R area       (118-10)). Ref 114 considers them
                                        in Rodope Mts (BG & N GR).} +           Macedoslavs
                                        {Struma R area (BG
                                        & N GR).} + {E of Saloniki toward       and doesn't call them Macedonians until
                                        Struma R & Chalcidike, GR.}             15th C. Start date is start of Macedonian
                                        +{Polog(a) area, Macedonia (along       (Westbulgarian) Empire (51-138); end date
                                        Upper Vardar R betw Tetovo &            first recorded assimilation (114-7).
                                        Gostivar) YU.} *{900-704} + {900-
                                        705} + * *{900-706} + {900-707} +
                                        * *{900-708} + {900-709} + * *{900-
                                        710} +
                                        {51-125} *

 43  10   980 991   N Norwegians      G Southampton                         N
                                                                                From N (?).

237   3   985 1000  N Arabs           E Barcelona, Astorgay Leon, Santiago  C
                                        de Compostela, Burgos.
                                                                                From E. C. Spain.

237   2   987 997   N Arabs           E Coimbra, Viseu (P)                  C
                                                                                From C. Iberia.

 15  17   990 1016  A Danes           G Thames R, Wessex                    A
                                                                                Danish Vikings from DK. Called Vikings in
                                                                                ref, but Gwyn Jones: History of the
                                                                                Vikings identifies them as Danes. End date
                                                                                also acc/to Gwyn Jones, pp. 371 & 205-8.

 15  16   990 #     A Danes           G Lincoln, Stamsford & Leicester,     S
                                        Derby, Nottingham (England)
                                                                                From DK. Additional immigrants.

205   8   990 1016  N Swedes          G England                             A
                                                                                From S. As members of Danish & Norwegian
                                                                                Viking armies. Dates to conform to (15-17).

900 349  1000 1200  N Albanians       Y Albania- {C Albania (in             E
                                        mountainous area)(See map 1 in ref
                                        165.)} *(Albania) - {900-348}*
                                                                                Acc/to ref 149, p.70. From C Albania (in
                                                                                mountainous area.) (See map 1 in ref 165.)
                                                                                *{900-348}*

900 350  1000 1300  N Albanians       Y Albania                             L
                                                                                For consistency with (900-349) and (123-
                                                                                33). After 1300 AD split into Ghegs and
                                                                                Tosks.

900 625  1000 1100  A Danes           G {Dublin area} *{15-20}*             I
                                                                                By Irish. Acc/to (30-29). (Norwegian
                                                                                Vikings)

901 152  1000 1970  N Finns           F Area W of L Onega, N SU +           L
                                        Leningrad area & Karelian ASSR
                                                                                Acc/to (346-5) and (213-20).  50-100K
                                                                                people.  The population figures from ref
                                                                                213 (a generally more detailed reference
                                                                                than 212) have been updated from 1970
                                                                                census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encylcopaedia Brittanica.  Start date
                                                                                compromise between
                                                                                (900-121) and (346-5), (213-20).  Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (900-121).

900 109  1000 1150  A Galindians      B S of Smolensk, Moscow & Kaluga      L
                                        (see fig 50, xeroxed).
                                                                                Acc/to (38-20).

359   2  1000 1200  N Germanics       G W CH, N of L Geneva, & E to NW      E
                                        border Bodensee.
                                                                                Very few Germanic place names near
                                                                                Bodensee, but many along and N & NE of L
                                                                                Geneva, evidenced by Germanic place names.
                                                                                Not necessarily expansion from (359-1).
                                                                                Could be migration from elsewhere.

 51 134  1000 1100  A Illyrians       Y Macedonia                           I
                                                                                By Slavs. (This must be matched up later--
                                                                                during the gens- consistency check--with
                                                                                specific Illyrian tribes extant in this
                                                                                area, and will then serve to provide end
                                                                                dates for the location records of such
                                                                                tribes.)

201  10  1000 #     A Karelians       F N of Savo, W to Nastola, S in       E
                                        Ingria & E to White Sea lands.
                                                                                From SE SF around Kexholm (see Kaekisalmi,
                                                                                NW corner of L Ladoga. ref 202, map 2.)
                                                                                *{201-9}*  Reference calls these Proto-
                                                                                Karelians.  These turn into Karelians.

169  10  1000 1500  A Kvaens          F N Sweden                            M
                                                                                Related to Karelians. Presumably came from
                                                                                Karelia. Mentioned by author but info from
                                                                                Geipel, and Coon: The Races of Europe, who
                                                                                gives the date as (Northern) Middle Ages.

900 799  1000 1970  A Kvaens          F {N Sweden} *{169-10}*               L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (169-10). End
                                                                                date: still there.

900 111  1000 1200  A Lettigallians   B W Dvina R                           L
                                                                                *(Place description can be attributed to *
                                                                                *(234-102).)*

901 214  1000 1200  A Lithuanians     B Lithuania - {Area betw Nemunas R,   E
                                        Vilnius, & S to around Lida, S
                                        Lithuania & N Belorussia.}
                                        *(Lithuania) - {364-8}*
                                                                                From area betw Nemunas R, Vilnius, & S to
                                                                                around Lida, S Lithuania & N Belorussia.
                                                                                *{364-8}*

900 116  1000 1200  A Lithuanians     B Lithuania                           L
                                                                                (Connecting (364-8) with (38-26).)

900 129  1000 1970  A Livonians       F Latvian SSR: Rayon Ventspils        L
                                                                                Acc/to (169-1). 'Earlier' were located to
                                                                                both sides of Daugava R. See (364-2).

 51 136  1000 #     A Macedonians     H Yugoslav portion of Macedonia       I
                                                                                By Slavs.

 13  64  1000 1100  A Merya           F {Area between Kostroma, Rostov and  I
                                        Suzdal (NE of Moscow, see map ref
                                        328)} *{900-790}*
                                                                                Syn. Merja. By Slavs (Krivice).

901  82  1000 #     A Nenets          O {N of E Europe & W Siberia. Tundra  M
                                        from mouth of N Dvina R to mouth
                                        of Yenisey R on Kanin Penin, on
                                        little Tundra (Malaya Zemlya) betw
                                        Mezer & Pechora RR, on Great
                                        Tundra (Bol'shay Zemlya) betw
                                        Pechora R & Ural Mts, on Yamel
                                        Penin, on
                                        Ob R delta along Nadyn, lower Pur,      From Taiga of W Siberia where S group of
                                        lower Taz, lower Yenisey RR             Vogul now live or even further S, but N of
                                        islands, nr coast, specifically         57. *{41-8}* Date acc/to ref 41.
                                        Kolguyev, Vayzach, Novaya Zemlya,
                                        Belyy. Also forest region of
                                        middle Ob R.} *{41-1}*

 41   1  1000 1970  A Nenets          O N of E Europe & W Siberia. Tundra   L
                                        from mouth of N Dvina R to mouth
                                        of Yenisey R on Kanin Penin, on
                                        little Tundra (Malaya Zemlya) betw
                                        Mezer & Pechora RR, on Great
                                        Tundra (Bol'shay Zemlya) betw
                                        Pechora R & Ural Mts, on Yamel
                                        Penin, on
                                        Ob R delta along Nadyn, lower Pur,      Syn Yurak, a tribe of N. Samoyeds, Uralic
                                        lower Taz, lower Yenisey RR             speakers. Start date to conform to (901-
                                        islands, nr coast, specifically         82); end date still there. In 1960, 10-50
                                        Kolguyev, Vayzach, Novaya Zemlya,       K (upper bound seems high; E article on
                                        Belyy. Also forest region of            Uralic language mentions 24K) acc/to (213-
                                        middle Ob R.                            23).

900 723  1000 1945  A Poles           S {Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw),    L
                                        PL.} + {Middle Warta R around
                                        Poznan, PL.} +{Upper Oder R around
                                        Wroclaw, PL (see map ref 302).} +
                                        {Middle or upper Odra R around
                                        Glogow, PL.} + {W of Wisla R,
                                        around Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla
                                        and Notec
                                        RR).} + {Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw      Start date: Approximate date of start of
                                        Nysa Klodzka & Upper Warta RR           Polish people. Union of Polane, Vislane,
                                        around Opole (Oppeln) PL.} *{900-       Slenzane, Dadosane, Goplane, Opolini,
                                        717} + {900-718} + * *{900-720} +       Bobrane, Trebovane ((900-717), (900-718),
                                        {900-721} + * *{302-32} + {900-         (900-720), (900-721), (302-32), (900-722),
                                        722} *                                  (302-34), (371-4)). End date:
                                                                                Relocation of boundaries after WW II.

900 110  1000 1100  A Semigallians    B W Dvina R                           L
                                                                                Acc/to (234-101).

900 643  1000 1100  A Swedes          G {Old Ladoga (Staraya Ladoga at or   I
                                        nr Novaja Ladoga at S end of L.
                                        Ladoga), Novgorod & Gnezdovo nr
                                        Smolensk, Kiev (SU)} *{15-25}*
                                                                                Acc/to (154-9) and other sources. By Slavs.

149  29  1000 #     N Venetians       I Coasts of Dalmatia & Istria         S
                                                                                From Venice.

900 133  1000 1500  A Vepses          F From Seksna R (now betw Rybinsk     L
                                        Reservoir and L Beloje) in S to N
                                        Dvina (Severnaja Dvina) R in N.
                                                                                Acc/to (169-14), (213-21). Syn. Chudes.
                                                                                Probably syn. with Cud. Already captured.
                                                                                But note that Geipel states that Chudes
                                                                                are Vepses plus Votes. We cannot
                                                                                corroborate this.

149  27  1001 1018  N Byzantines      H Betw Isker R (BG), Balkans & Black  C
                                        Sea (capital Pliska, BG). Sofia,
                                        Adrianople, LL Ochrid & Prespa.
                                        (Map in Mathew: Atlas of Medieval
                                        Europe, p.67, in blue.)
                                                                                From Byzantium. Under Emperor Basil II.

900 273  1001 1207  N Byzantines      H {Betw Isker R (BG), Balkans &       L
                                        Black Sea (capital Pliska, BG).
                                        Sofia, Adrianople, LL Ochrid &
                                        Prespa. (Map in Mathew: Atlas of
                                        Medieval Europe, p.67, in blue.)}
                                        *{149-27}*
                                                                                Dates from ref 51.

331  13  1016 #     N Italians        I Corsica                             C
                                                                                From Pisa, I. Pisan raid/conquest of
                                                                                Saracen lands since 950.

211  26  1018 #     N Poles           S Kiev                                A
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}*

236   9  1022 #     N Armenians       O Sivas (AM)                          Q
                                                                                From Armenia (part of people only).

900 201  1025 1143  A Byzantines      H GR, BG, YU, Crete, Cyprus, AM, and  L
                                        part of I. (See ref 325, map on
                                        p.113.)
                                                                                Extent of Byzantine Empire during this
                                                                                time period.

 49   5  1027 1059  A Pechenegi       T Nr Silistra (Dristra) in the        S
                                        Paristrion (Dobrugea).
                                                                                20K settled. From area betw Don & lower
                                                                                Danube RR. *{900-393}*

900 396  1027 1122  A Pechenegi       T {Nr Silistra (Dristra) in the       L
                                        Paristrion (Dobrugea).} *{49-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (49-5) and (49-13).
                                                                                Destroyed and dispersed by Kipchaks in
                                                                                1091 acc/to (211-13). But rests subdued by
                                                                                Byzantines in 1122 acc/to ref 129, p.370.

154  12  1029 1087  N Normans         I S I, Sicily (see ref 331)           C
                                                                                From Normandy. End date to include
                                                                                Syracuse acc/to (331-21).

901  69  1029 1194  A Normans         I {S I, Sicily (see ref 331)} *{154-  I
                                        12}*
                                                                                By indigenous population. Start date to
                                                                                conform to (154-12); end date: conquest of
                                                                                Sicily by Henry VI. Based on info in
                                                                                Finley, Smith & Duggan: History of Sicily.

130   2  1040 1089  N Seldjuks        T From L Aral & India to Upper        E
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.
                                                                                From L Aral & Lower Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) R
                                                                                (Transoxania).

900 417  1040 1065  A Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.} *{130-2}*
                                                                                For consistency with (130-2) & (325-12).

236   5  1040 1100  A Turkmens        T E provinces of Byzantine Empire (E  Q
                                        AM).
                                                                                From C Asia.

325  14  1043 #     A Byzantines      H E Sicily                            A
                                                                                From Byzantium. A 'temporary reconquest'.

900 200  1043 1088  N Byzantines      H {E Sicily} *{325-14}*               L
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz. Lost to Normans.

236   8  1045 #     N Seldjuks        T Kars, L Van (AM)                    A
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

 53  56  1045 1149  N Spaniards       I Ebro & Tejo RVV: Calahorra,         C
                                        Tortosa & Lerida. In W: Coria.
                                                                                From N Christian area (Calahorra conquered
                                                                                by Christians from Pamplona).

236  10  1047 1059  N Seldjuks        T Erzerum, Ani, Kars, Melitene        A
                                        (Malayta), Sebaste (Sivas) [AM]
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

331  15  1050 #     N Italians        I Sardinia                            C
                                                                                From Pisa, I. Pisan raid/conquest of
                                                                                Saracen lands since 950.

 31  41  1050 1100  A Pechenegi       T H                                   Q
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR.
                                                                                *{900-392}* Parts of invaders resettled in
                                                                                eastern H, assimilated by Magyars.

900 751  1050 1970  A Slovaks         S Slovakia                            L
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-750). End
                                                                                date still present. We use a wider
                                                                                geographic area than (900-750) but have at
                                                                                the moment no specfic record of when
                                                                                Slovaks expanded in mountain regions.

 53  54  1050 1150  A Spaniards       I Betw Douro & Tejo RR                Q
                                        (councils=districts of Salamanca,
                                        Avila, Segovia, Cuellar,etc) & in
                                        Ebro RV(councils of Zaragoza,
                                        Daroca, Alcaniz, Calatayud, etc.)
                                                                                Christians. From Christian north.

325  16  1052 #     N Byzantines      H Area betw Tigris & Euphrates RR,    A
                                        NE of Aleppo.
                                                                                From Byzantium. A 'temporary reconquest'.

900 638  1052 1200  A Norwegians      G {IRL: Dublin, Carlingford, at Linn  I
                                        Duachail in Louth, & in Linn Roio.
                                        + Trading post in Ireland:
                                        Waterford, Cork, Limerick,
                                        Wexford} *{900-637}*
                                                                                Inferred acc/to Gwyn Jones: History of the
                                                                                Vikings, p. 397.

325  15  1054 #     N Byzantines      H Area nr Ani, Caucasus Mts           A
                                        foothills.
                                                                                From Byzantium. A 'temporary reconquest'.

328   5  1054 1242  N Chudes          F Area around N (Severnaja) Dvina &   L
                                        Vaga RR, N SU.
                                                                                Group of early 'Baltic Finns'.

328  23  1054 1242  N Kuri            B W Latvia, betw Baltic Sea & Gulf    L
                                        of Riga.
                                                                                Probably syn. with Curonians.

328   9  1054 1242  N Muroma          F Area near Murom & Oka R, SU         L
                                                                                Probably ancestral Mordvins. East Finnic
                                                                                group acc/to ref 234.

328  25  1054 1242  N Yatvagi         S Area betw Grodno, Pinsk, &          L
                                        Berestae, W SU & E PL.
                                                                                Eastern Slavic tribe according to
                                                                                reference. Could these be Slavicized
                                                                                Yatvingi (see (234-104)).

328   2  1054 1242  N Yugra           U Area betw Pechora & Vychegda RR, W  L
                                        of Ural Mtns N SU.

236   7  1055 #     N Seldjuks        T Baghdad                             A
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

 49   9  1055 1064  N Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        M
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) *{900-
                                        393}*
                                                                                From area between Ural & Volga RR (given
                                                                                in ref as: Patxinachia, Chaxaria, Alania
                                                                                (transcribed from Greek). Former homeland
                                                                                of Pechenegi.) *{49-7}* Probably coexisted
                                                                                with the Pechenegi for a period of time.

900 398  1055 1100  A Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        L
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) *{49-9}*
                                                                                For consistency with (49-9) and (49-11),
                                                                                (49-12).

900 399  1060 #     A Cumans          T {Area between Ural & Volga RR}      M
                                        *{900-387}*
                                                                                Acc/to (49-10). From N of Aral Sea.

900 404  1060 1070  A Cumans          T {Area between Ural & Volga RR}      L
                                        *{900-399}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-399).

331  17  1063 #     N Italians        I Palermo, Sicily                     N
                                                                                From Pisa, I.

325  12  1065 #     N Seldjuks        T Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil        E
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. *{900-417}*

900 418  1065 1078  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM.} + {Anatolia betw Halys R
                                        (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See
                                        112/ 113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)} *{900-417} + {325-12}*
                                                                                For consistency with (325-12) & (236-12).

154  11  1066 #     N Normans         I England                             C
                                                                                From Normandy. 4-7 K cavalry & infantry
                                                                                (acc/to Encyclopaedia Brittanica).

901  68  1066 1300  A Normans         I {England} *{154-11}*                I
                                                                                By Anglo-Saxons.

211  27  1068 #     N Poles           S Kiev                                A
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}*

236  11  1069 #     N Byzantines      H Armenia                             A
                                                                                Incl mercenaries such as SCA, Francs,
                                                                                Slavs, Pechenegi, Turks (Cumans &
                                                                                Oghuzes), Sicilians, Crusaders. From
                                                                                Byzantium.

900 400  1070 #     A Cumans          T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR} *{900- E
                                        392}*
                                                                                Acc/to (49-10). From area between Ural &
                                                                                Volga RR. *{900-399}*

900 403  1070 1150  A Cumans          T {Area between Ural & Volga RR} +    L
                                        {Betw Don & lower Danube RR} *{900-
                                        399} + {900-400}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-400) and (32-55).

 31  42  1071 1072  A Cumans          T E H (between Danube & Tisza RR)     Q
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR.
                                                                                *{900-400}* Date acc/to to Ploetz, p.375.
                                                                                Parts of invaders resettled in eastern H,
                                                                                assimilated by Magyars.

 53  76  1072 1109  N Bretons         K Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From Brittany. Not many. Resettled by King
                                                                                Alfonso VI.

900 402  1072 1200  A Cumans          T {E H (between Danube & Tisza RR)}   L
                                        *{31-42}*
                                                                                Acc/to (31-42). For consistency with (31-
                                                                                42) and (900-401).

 53  78  1072 1109  N English         G Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From GB. Not many. Resettled by King
                                                                                Alfonso VI.

 53  79  1072 1109  N French          I Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                Resettled by King Alfonso VI from various
                                                                                regions in F (Bourgogne, Gascony,
                                                                                Normandy, Provence, Toulouse).

 53  77  1072 1109  N Germans         G Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From D. Not many. Resettled by King
                                                                                Alfonso VI.

 53  83  1072 1109  N Lombards        G Sahagun Zone: Logrono, Santo        R
                                        Domingo de la Calzada, Najera,
                                        Burgos, Castrojeriz, Carrion de
                                        los Condes, Leon, Astorga,
                                        Ponferrada, Lugo, Puerto Marin &
                                        Santiago de Compostela.
                                                                                From Lombardy, I. Not many. Resettled by
                                                                                King Alfonso VI. Perhaps by now they are
                                                                                Italian speakers.

900 419  1078 1106  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)} *{900-418}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-12) & (236-17).

236  13  1080 1100  A Armenians       O Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &   Q
                                        Antitaurus area of AM; SE AM).
                                                                                From Armenia.  Following conquest of
                                                                                Armenia by Seljuk Turks.

901 150  1080 1222  N Armenians       O {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &  L
                                        Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).}
                                        *{236-13}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-13) and (236-22).

326   3  1081 1085  N Normans         I Durres (Albania) & Corfu,           A
                                        Kastoria, Larisa, & around
                                        Preveza, GR.
                                                                                Start date acc/to (149-31). From Brindisi,
                                                                                SE coast I (see (326-2)).

232  47  1085 #     N Spaniards       I Toledo (E)                          C
                                                                                From Kingdom of Leon.

232  48  1086 1089  N Almoravids      E Nr Badajoz, Aledo                   A
                                                                                From Morocco. Including many Negrid
                                                                                soldiers from Nigeria.

331  22  1090 #     N Normans         I Malta                               C
                                                                                Saracen lands since 950 successfully
                                                                                conquered by Normans. Ref suggests from
                                                                                Normandy, but more likely they came from
                                                                                Sicily, conquered earlier.

232  49  1091 1099  N Almoravids      E Seville, Granada, Badajoz Valencia  C
                                        (Moorish kingdoms of...).
                                                                                From Morocco. Including many Negrid
                                                                                soldiers from Nigeria.

149  30  1091 1102  N Hungarians      C Croatia and coasts of Dalmatia,     C
                                        Istria, Bosnia, Duklja, Zahumlje.
                                                                                From Carpathian basin incl. modern H up to
                                                                                its border with A, N into Slovakia, E to
                                                                                Transylvania & S somewhat beyond Drave R.
                                                                                (cf detailed map in ref. use colors coded
                                                                                1&3). *{900-797}*

900 798  1091 1918  N Hungarians      C {Croatia and coasts of Dalmatia,    L
                                        Istria, Bosnia, Duklja, Zahumlje.}
                                        *{149-30}*
                                                                                Hungarian suzerainty over Croatia. Start
                                                                                date to conform to (149-30). End date:
                                                                                independence of Croatia.

328  12  1093 #     N Cumans          T Kiev, W SU                          A
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR.
                                                                                *{900-400}*

227   1  1096 1097  N French          I Balkans                             W
                                                                                1st crusade (majority from France).

236  15  1097 #     N Byzantines      H Nicaea (Iznik) TR                   C
                                                                                Troops from Lombardy & D.

227   2  1098 1099  N French          I {Antioch (the crusader state, not   C
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)} +
                                        {Edessa (the crusader state, not
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)} *{227-
                                        5} + {901-64}*
                                                                                From F. 1.2 to 1.5K cavalry & 12K
                                                                                soldiers. Conquest of Edessa implied by
                                                                                map of ref. 227, page 302.

227   5  1098 1268  N French          I Antioch (the crusader state, not    L
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)
                                                                                Franks, as they were called, were a small
                                                                                minority of population.

901  64  1098 1144  N French          I Edessa (the crusader state, not     L
                                        the city. See Putzger p.49)
                                                                                Franks, as they were called, were a small
                                                                                minority of population acc/to ref 227 p.
                                                                                302.

154  13  1098 #     N Normans         I Antioch                             C
                                                                                From France. By 1099 1.2 to 1.5K cavalry &
                                                                                12K soldiers acc/to (227-2).

  9  20  1100 #     A Anglo-Saxons    G GB (excluding Scotland and Wales)   L
                                                                                Fused with Danes. Must exclude areas
                                                                                settled by Celts.

 50   1  1100 1300  A Germans         G N Transilvania                      S
                                                                                From D.

900 770  1100 #     A Kajkavic        S {Prekomurje a border area between   Q
                                        A, H, YU on other side of Mur R
                                        (from YU point of view).} *{51-94}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-94). Identified
                                                                                as Slovenian Kajkavic. Could these be
                                                                                Caucasians? From Slovenia.

 51  94  1100 1300  A Kajkavic        S Prekomurje a border area between    L
                                        A, H, YU on other side of Mur R
                                        (from YU point of view).
                                                                                Identified as Slovenian Kajkavic. Could
                                                                                these be Caucasians?

114   7  1100 1300  A Macedonians     S BG                                  I
                                                                                This should take care of Macedonian
                                                                                populations in (51-124) and (51-123). By
                                                                                Bulgarian Slavs.

900 716  1100 1970  N Macedonians     S {W of area settled by Sagudati (51- L
                                        120) which is Vardar RV betw
                                        Saloniki & Vereja (Veroia, Veria).
                                        + Vardar RV betw Saloniki & Vereja
                                        (Veroia, Veria). + Betw Crna &
                                        Treska RR betw LL Ohrid & Prespan,
                                        & in N up to Titov Veles & Kiceva,
                                        YU. + Around Teba (Thebae Phthiae)      Start date for consistency with (114-7).
                                        and Demetrias (ancient towns,           End date: still in Macedonia, but some
                                        Demetrias is modern Volos (Bolos)       assimilation by Greeks and others
                                        on Gulf of Volos (Pagasitikos           undoubtedly took place, but we have
                                        Kolpos)) GR. (See map 7/8 in            specific records thereof.
                                        Putzger.) + Mesta R area in Rodope
                                        Mts (BG & N GR). + Struma R area
                                        (BG & N
                                        GR). + E of Saloniki toward Struma
                                        R & Chalcidike, GR. + Polog(a)
                                        area, Macedonia (along Upper
                                        Vardar R betw Tetovo & Gostivar)
                                        YU.} - {BG} *{900-714} - {114-7}*

232  59  1100 1150  A Moors           E Galicia                             R
                                                                                Dates correspond to Portugese reconquista.
                                                                                From C & S P.

169  25  1100 1600  A Pecora          O Pecora R, N SU                      L
                                                                                Paleoasiatic (=Paleosiberian) group
                                                                                (probably).

900 615  1100 1300  N Saxons          G Hungary                             Q
                                                                                From Saxony. Acc/to (50-3).

 51 115  1100 1200  A Serbs           S Morava R                            E
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). *{51-44}*

900 696  1100 1200  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU).} + {Morava
                                        R} *{51-44} + {51-115}*
                                                                                For consistency with (51-44) and (51-117).

 51 137  1100 1200  A Slavs           S GR                                  I
                                                                                By Hellenes. Facts established, but date
                                                                                is questionable.

900 415  1100 1300  A Turkmens        T {E provinces of Byzantine Empire    L
                                        (E AM).} *{236-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (236-5). End date is
                                                                                a guess.

 49  11  1100 #     A Uzi             T Macedonia                           R
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR
                                                                                (given in reference as: Bug, Sereth, Lower
                                                                                Danube RR.) *{900-398}* Part of tribe.
                                                                                Pushed out by Cumans.

 49  12  1100 #     A Uzi             T {Betw Don & lower Danube RR}        T
                                        (given in reference as: Bug,
                                        Sereth, Lower Danube RR.) -
                                        {Perislavija (SU)} *{900-398} -
                                        {901-222}*
                                                                                To Perislavija (SU). *{901-222}*  Part of
                                                                                tribe. Pushed out by Cumans.

901 222  1100 #     A Uzi             T Perislavija (SU).                   L
                                                                                For consistency with (49-12).

901  57  1100 1400  A Vlachs          I Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia   Q
                                        (ROM)
                                                                                From Area of Greater BG empire (W BG & E
                                                                                Serbia & E Macedonia). *{901-56}* Gradual
                                                                                spread first to Transylvania, then
                                                                                Wallachia, then Moldavia (acc/to
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Brittanica). Start date for
                                                                                consistency with (120-5); end date acc/to
                                                                                E.

114   8  1100 1300  A Vlachs          I {Area of Greater BG empire (W BG,   I
                                        E Serbia & E Macedonia)} *{901-54}*
                                                                                By Bulgarian Slavs. Syn Valachi, earlier
                                                                                called Daco-Romans.

901  58  1100 1881  A Vlachs          I {Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia  L
                                        (ROM)} *{901-57}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (901-57); end
                                                                                date foundation of ROM Kingdom. Listed as
                                                                                Romanians thereafter. Locations given in
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Brittanica, also (50-4).

210   5  1100 1200  A Yatvingi        B Latvia                              L

234 104  1100 1200  A Yatvingi        B Upper Niemen & Narev RR             L
                                                                                (SYN = Yatviagians).

234 103  1100 1200  A Zhmud           B Niemen R mouth                      L

236  16  1101 1104  N French          I N AM                                A
                                                                                From F. These are Crusaders!

236  17  1106 1107  N Seldjuks        T Malatya (anc. Melitene),            C
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.) *{900-418}*

900 420  1106 1164  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + {Malatya (anc. Melitene),             For consistency with (236-17) & (236-18).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.} *{900-419} +
                                        {236-17}*

210   4  1106 #     N Slavs           S Latvia                              A
                                                                                From Polock, Byelorussia.

900 821  1110 1200  A Jews            E N two-thirds of Spain               Q
                                        (Christian)(For detailed locations
                                        see map p. 40 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)
                                                                                From S two-thirds of Spain (Umayyad
                                                                                Empire). *{900-819}* Dates inferred from
                                                                                de Lange: Atlas of the Jewish World pp.
                                                                                39/40.

900 822  1110 1497  N Jews            E {N two-thirds of                    L
                                        Spain(Christian)(For detailed
                                        locations see map p. 40 in Atlas
                                        of Jewish World.)} *{900-821}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-821) and (900-
                                                                                823). Dates inferred from De Lange: Atlas
                                                                                of the Jewish World pp. 41, 44. End date
                                                                                is expulsion from P.

331   9  1115 #     N Italians        I Balearic Islands, Mediterranean     A
                                        Sea.
                                                                                From Pisa, I. Pisan raid/conquest of
                                                                                Saracen lands since 950.

325  17  1118 #     A Byzantines      H Area along Kizil R, C TR            A
                                                                                From Byzantium. A 'temporary reconquest'.

339   1  1125 1226  A Germans         G Betw Elbe & Oder RR                 E
                                                                                From area to the W. Germans began moving
                                                                                east as a result of population pressure &
                                                                                quickly submerged the small West Slavs:
                                                                                Wagrians. Abodrites, Sorbs, & Lusatians.
                                                                                Military & predatory at first, it soon
                                                                                developed into a vast movemant
                                                                                of peasants, often called in by Slav
                                                                                princes to develop their territories.

900 649  1125 1226  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} *{339-1}*     L
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (339-1), to permit (340-1) to come from an
                                                                                occupied area. End date ?

232  50  1142 1147  N Spaniards       I Coria, Almeria                      C
                                                                                From Leon.

325  18  1143 1200  A Byzantines      H GR, BG, S YU, Crete, Cyprus, W TR,  L
                                        N & S coast TR. (See ref 325, map
                                        on p.113.)
                                                                                Extent of Byzantine Empire. Temporary stop
                                                                                date furnished here until exact timing can
                                                                                be determined.

339   2  1143 #     A Germans         G Wagria (area E of Kiel), N D        N
                                                                                From D. This conquest opened the Baltic to
                                                                                the Germans.

339   4  1143 #     N Germans         G Luebeck FRG; Wismar, Rostock,       S
                                        Stralsund, Greifswald, Cammin,
                                        Kolberg; all along Baltic coast,
                                        DDR.
                                                                                From D. Founded these German cities.

331  11  1143 #     N Italians        I Balearic Islands, Mediterranean     C
                                        Sea.
                                                                                From Pisa, I. Pisan raid/conquest of
                                                                                Saracen lands since 950.

232  51  1147 1195  N Almohads        E Andalusia                           C
                                                                                From sedentary tribes in Morocco.

 53  84  1147 #     N Italians        I Almeria                             A
                                                                                From Genoa, I. Together with Spaniards
                                                                                (crusade in Spain, stimulated by the
                                                                                second crusade).

326   5  1147 #     N Normans         I Islands of Corfu, Kefallinia,       A
                                        Zakinthos (islands W of GR) & thru
                                        Gulf of Corinth to Korinthos,
                                        Athens, & Monemvasia, GR.
                                                                                From Sicily.

 53  57  1147 #     N Portuguese      I Santarem, Lisbon (P)                C
                                                                                From N of Douro R.

 32  55  1150 #     A Cumans          T Tama (Locality is Tmutokoran; see   C
                                        Putzger Atlas p.44) penins., S of
                                        Sea of Azov.
                                                                                From area betw Don & lower Danube RR.
                                                                                *{900-400}*

900 405  1150 1500  A Cumans          T {Area between Ural & Volga RR +     L
                                        Betw Don & lower Danube RR} +
                                        {Tama (Locality is Tmutokoran; see
                                        Putzger Atlas p.44) penins., S of
                                        Sea of Azov.} *{900-403} + {32-55}*
                                                                                For consistency with (32-55) and (50-6)
                                                                                which has some Kipchaks at Astrachan in
                                                                                1430.

 31  43  1150 1175  A Mongols         M Steppes N of China around Onon R    L
                                        nr Dulun-Boldag.

179  26  1150 1450  A Slavs           S Mecklenburg, Pommerania Saxony,     I
                                        Thuringia, Lower & Middle Silesia.
                                                                                By Germans.

332   2  1154 1155  N Germans         G Parma, Bologna, Rome, & Ancona,     A
                                        Verona
                                                                                From Roncaglia, nr Piacenza Lombardy, N I.
                                                                                Frederick I's first Expedition route. No
                                                                                info on ethnic composition of Frederick's
                                                                                army.

204   4  1155 1293  N Swedes          G Uusimaa, Finland proper (Varsinais  Q
                                        Suomi) (both regions in SF),
                                        Ostrobothnia (region in F, see map
                                        2 ref 202)
                                                                                From S.

332   4  1158 1162  N Germans         G Verona, I Roncaglia-Piacenza,       A
                                        Pavia, Milan, Dole, F.
                                                                                From Besancon, on Saone R, F (see (332-
                                                                                3)). Frederick I's second Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

 53  58  1158 1230  N Spaniards       I Mid Guadiana R basin: Badajoz. In   C
                                        Aragon: upper R basin of Turia R
                                        with Albarracin & Teruel,
                                        Maestrazgo, Guadaloupe (tributary
                                        of Ebro), Guadalaviar R basin.
                                                                                By Christians (military orders) from N
                                                                                region.

332   6  1163 1164  N Germans         G Bozen, D, Bologna, I                A
                                                                                From Area nr Innsbruck, Bavaria, D. *{332-
                                                                                5}* Frederick I's third Italian expedition
                                                                                route. No info on ethnic composition of
                                                                                Frederick's army.

236  18  1164 1169  N Seldjuks        T Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)         C
                                        Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR).
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. *{900-420}*

900 421  1164 1214  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-18) & (236-20).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul.} + {Elbistan,
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR).} *{900-420}
                                        + {236-18}*

901 127  1166 1171  N English         G E and S Ireland                     C
                                                                                from England. Anglo-Norman invasion of
                                                                                Ireland. acc/to E.

901 141  1166 1300  A English         G E and S Ireland                     L
                                                                                start date tct 901-127, end date tct 901-
                                                                                129.

332   8  1167 1168  N Germans         G Brenner Pass A/I, Bozen (Bolzano,   A
                                        I), area E of Verona, I, Ancona,
                                        Rome, Parma, Pavia, Dijon, F.
                                                                                From Area S of Augsburg, Bavaria, D. *{332-
                                                                                7}* Frederick I's fourth Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

332  10  1174 1178  N Germans         G Alessandria, Chiavenna (N of Lake   A
                                        Como), Milan, Anagni, Venice, all
                                        I.
                                                                                From Area around Dijon, F. *{332-9}*
                                                                                Frederick I's fifth Italian expedition
                                                                                route. No info on ethnic composition of
                                                                                Frederick's army.

 31  44  1175 1200  N Mongols         M Central Asia (Mongolia)             E
                                                                                From Steppes N of China around Onon R nr
                                                                                Dulun-Boldag. *{31-43}*

236  19  1176 #     N Byzantines      H Konya                               A
                                                                                From Byzantium.

332  12  1183 1186  N Germans         G Verona, Milan, I                    A
                                                                                From Konstanz, NE of Zurich, CH. *{332-
                                                                                11}* Frederick I's sixth Italian
                                                                                expedition route. No info on ethnic
                                                                                composition of Frederick's army.

326   7  1185 #     N Normans         I Durres (Albania), Ochrid (YU),      A
                                        Thessaloniki, Xanthi (GR)
                                                                                From Brindisi, I.

326   8  1185 #     N Normans         I Corfu, Zakinthos Islands, & around  N
                                        S of GR to Aegean Sea & towards
                                        Thessaloniki GR.
                                                                                From Brindisi, I.

328  22  1185 #     N Russians        S N shore Sea of Azov                 A
                                                                                From Novgorod-Seversky, on Desna R. Prince
                                                                                Igor Syvatovich's campaign against the
                                                                                Polovtsians. (Polovtsians = Kumans).

339   5  1186 1201  N Germans         G Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval         S
                                        (Talinn), SU.
                                                                                From N D (from cities that later formed
                                                                                the Hanseatic League). In a series of
                                                                                expeditions intendeded to extend German
                                                                                sway as far as Gulf of Finland.
                                                                                Appreciable German colonisation limited to
                                                                                these cities. German enclaves remained
                                                                                important
                                                                                element in Baltic states, right down to
                                                                                20th century, but the bulk of the
                                                                                peasantry retained their Finno-Ugrian
                                                                                character (in Estonia). End date correct
                                                                                for Riga acc/to (211-29).

900 653  1186 1201  N Germans         G {Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval        L
                                        (Talinn), SU.} *{339-5}*
                                                                                For consistency with (339-5) & (340-13).

330   3  1190 1194  N Germans         G Tagliacozzo, Lucera Gaeta, Naples,  A
                                        San Germano, Troia,Salerno, Melfi,
                                        Taranto, Cosenza, Reggio, Messina,
                                        Cefaln, Palermo, all I.
                                                                                From D. An invasion of the Kingdom of
                                                                                Sicily. We don't know ethnic composition
                                                                                of the army.

227  13  1191 #     N English         G Cyprus                              C
                                                                                From GB. 3rd Crusade. English/French.

227   6  1191 #     N French          I Cyprus                              C
                                                                                From F. 3rd Crusade. English/French.

900 401  1200 1221  A Cumans          T {E H (between Danube & Tisza RR)}   I
                                        *{31-42}*
                                                                                Acc/to (31-42). By Magyars.

900 852  1200 1500  A Jews            E {Mainland I} - [INTERSECTION OF     E
                                        ({Pisa area, C & S I, Sicily} +
                                        {Po RV, area E of Rome, S
                                        Sardinia}) AND {Mainland I}] *{900-
                                        850} - INTERSECTION OF * *{900-
                                        849} AND {900-850} * (For detailed
                                        locations see maps pp. 44, 38, 40
                                        in Atlas
                                        of Jewish World.)                       From INTERSECTION OF ({Pisa area, C & S I,
                                                                                Sicily} + {Po RV, area E of Rome, S
                                                                                Sardinia}) AND {Mainland I} * INTERSECTION
                                                                                OF {900-849} AND {900-850} * Dates
                                                                                inferred from de Lange: Atlas of the
                                                                                Jewish World p. 44.

900 875  1200 1500  A Jews            E E of Elbe R & up to Oder R (For     E
                                        detailed locations see map p. 44
                                        in Atlas of Jewish World.)
                                                                                From Much of D & A & CH (For detailed
                                                                                locations see map p. 40 in Atlas of Jewish
                                                                                World). *{900-893}* Dates inferred from de
                                                                                Lange: Atlas of the Jewish World p. 44.

900 895  1200 1600  A Jews            E PL, W Ukraine, Byelorussia,         Q
                                        Lithuania (For detailed locations
                                        see map p. 50 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)
                                                                                From Much of D & A & CH + Augusta
                                                                                Treverorum (Trier) + Rhine & Moselle RVV -
                                                                                Augusta Treverorum (Trier) + Main & U
                                                                                Danube RVV *{900-894}* Dates inferred from
                                                                                de Lange: Atlas of the Jewish World p. 50.

900 851  1200 1500  A Jews            E ({Pisa area, C & S I, Sicily} +     T
                                        {Po RV, area E of Rome, S
                                        Sardinia}) - [INTERSECTION OF
                                        ({Pisa area, C & S I, Sicily} +
                                        {Po RV, area E of Rome, S
                                        Sardinia}) AND {Mainland I}] *{900-
                                        849} - INTERSECTION OF * *{900-
                                        849} AND {900-850} * (For
                                        detailed locations see maps pp.         To INTERSECTION OF ({Pisa area, C & S I,
                                        38, 40, 44 in Atlas of Jewish           Sicily} + {Po RV, area E of Rome, S
                                        World.)                                 Sardinia}) AND {Mainland I} * INTERSECTION
                                                                                OF {900-849} AND {900-850} * Dates
                                                                                inferred from de Lange: Atlas of the
                                                                                Jewish World p. 44.

900 897  1200 1500  A Jews            E {Augusta Treverorum (Trier) +       T
                                        Rhine & Moselle RVV - Augusta
                                        Treverorum (Trier) + Main & U
                                        Danube RVV + Much of D & A & CH.} -
                                        {Much of D & A & CH - (A, Silesia,      To Much of D & A & CH (900-893) - (A,
                                        Saxony) + E of Elbe R & up to Oder      Silesia, Saxony). Dates inferred from de
                                        R.} *{900-894} - {900-898}*  (For       Lange: Atlas of the Jewish World p. 44.
                                        detailed locations see maps pp.
                                        29, 30, 38, 40, 44 in Atlas of
                                        Jewish World.)

900 850  1200 1500  A Jews            E Mainland I (For detailed locations  L
                                        see map p. 44 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)
                                                                                For consistency with (900-849), (900-851)
                                                                                and (900-852).

900 898  1200 1500  A Jews            E {Much of D & A & CH} - (A,          L
                                        Silesia, Saxony) + {E of Elbe R &
                                        up to Oder R} *{900-893} - (A,
                                        Silesia, * *Saxony) + {900-875} *
                                        (For detailed locations see maps
                                        pp. 40, 44 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)
                                                                                For consistency with (900-875) and (900-
                                                                                897).

900 917  1200 1495  A Jews            E {PL, W Ukraine, Byelorussia,        L
                                        Lithuania (For detailed locations
                                        see map p. 50 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)} *{900-895}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (900-895). End
                                                                                date: expulsion of Jews from Lithuanian
                                                                                Empire. Dates inferred from de Lange:
                                                                                Atlas of the Jewish World p. 45.

900 113  1200 1618  A Latgallians     B Polotsk & Disna R                   L
                                                                                Acc/to (210-12). Probably syn. with
                                                                                Lettigallians.

 38  29  1200 1960  N Lettigallians   B Latvia                              L

 38  26  1200 1960  A Lithuanians     B Lithuania                           L

900 395  1200 #     A Pechenegi       T {H} *{900-394}*                     I
                                                                                By Magyars acc/to (31-41).

 51 117  1200 1331  A Serbs           S Macedonia                           C
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R. *{900-696}*

900 697  1200 1331  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava
                                        R} + {Macedonia} *{900-696} + {51-
                                        117}*
                                                                                For consistency with (900-696), (51-117)
                                                                                as well as (149-41).

210   6  1200 1300  A Slavs           S Latvia area where Yatvings were     C
                                        located.
                                                                                From PL and Russia.

900 680  1200 1970  N Sorbs           S {Oberlausitz (DDR)} +               L
                                        {Niederlausitz (DDR; Westermann's
                                        Atlas p.6-8).} *{33-34} + {148-6}*
                                                                                (Syn. Wends (Wenden)). These (acc/to
                                                                                Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 1976,
                                                                                vol.IX, p.357) split into Upper (High),
                                                                                Lower, and E. Sorbian speakers by the 13th
                                                                                C, centered at Bautzen, Cottbus, and
                                                                                Muskau, respectively. They are the
                                                                                putative descendants of the Milziane and
                                                                                Lusizi in Oberlausitz & Niederlausitz,
                                                                                respectively. Start date to conform to (33-
                                                                                34) & (148-6). End date present today.
                                                                                (200K people, ref E).

 50   2  1200 1970  A Szeklers        C Transilvania                        L
                                                                                Changed language to F no later than start
                                                                                date.

900 427  1200 1300  N Turks           T {AM (minus Cilicia)} *{130-8}*      Q
                                                                                Acc/to ref 130. From East. With Mongol
                                                                                armies.

130   8  1200 1970  N Turks           T AM (minus Cilicia)                  L

149  53  1200 1209  A Venetians       I Port cities along Greek coast (see  S
                                        map in Putzger, p. 49)
                                                                                From Venice. Time span given is for the
                                                                                settlement. They stayed until ca 1500 AD.

901  73  1200 1500  A Venetians       I {Port cities along Greek coast      L
                                        (see map in Putzger, p. 49)} *{149-
                                        53}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (149-53); end
                                                                                date acc/to Putzger, p. 49.

178  13  1200 1300  N Walsers         U Romanches (F?), Liechtenstein,      Q
                                        Vorarlberg (Kleines & Grosses
                                        Walsertal) (A), Tessin (Ticino),
                                        Lombardy, Trentino Mts (I), Val
                                        d'Aosta (I), Bas-Valais (F).
                                                                                From Canton Vallois. Not clear at this
                                                                                time whether migrants were Italic or
                                                                                Germanic speakers.

340  13  1201 1274  N Germans         G N from Riga into Livonia, & E to    C
                                        Semgallen & SW to Courland; also W
                                        to Saarenaa, off W coast Estonia.
                                                                                From Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval (Talinn),
                                                                                SU. *{339-5}*

900 652  1201 1346  N Germans         G {Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval        L
                                        (Talinn), SU.} + {N from Riga into
                                        Livonia, & E to Semgallen & SW to
                                        Courland; also W to Saarenaa, off
                                        W coast Estonia.} *{900-653} +
                                        {340-13}*
                                                                                For consistency with (340-13) & (340-16).

227   7  1202 #     N French          I Zara (modern Zadar, YU)             C
                                                                                From F. 4th Crusade. Mostly French.

901  74  1202 1214  N Venetians       I {Coast of Albania nr Durres         N
                                        (Durazzo)} *{149-37}*
                                                                                From Venice.

227   8  1203 #     N French          I Constantinople                      C
                                                                                From F. 4th Crusade. Mostly French.

900 183  1204 1246  N Greeks          H Skutari, Ochrid & Prilep, Maritza   C
                                        (Marica) R, Thessaloniki (GR),
                                        Skoplje.
                                                                                Acc/to (149-34), (51-140). Acc/to ref 149
                                                                                are Greek, acc/to ref 51 they could
                                                                                possibly be Slavs. From Epirus.

232  54  1209 #     N French          I Carcassone, Toulouse                A
                                                                                From N F.

236  20  1214 #     N Seldjuks        T Antalya, Sinope (AM)                C
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. + Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)
                                                                                Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR). *{900-421}*

900 422  1214 1220  N Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-20) & (236-21).
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul. + Elbistan,
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR).} + {Antalya,
                                        Sinope (AM)} *{900-421} + {236-20}*

129  52  1218 1241  N Mongols         M Qara-Qytai, Chorezm (Buchara,       C
                                        Samarkand, Gurgang) Kuman Empire
                                        in S Russia, Persia. (See map
                                        entitled 'Feldzuege und Reich
                                        Dschingis- Chans' following p.376
                                        in xerox.)
                                                                                From Central Asia (Mongolia). *{31-44}*

211  28  1219 1237  N Danes           G Estonia                             C
                                                                                From DK.

236  21  1220 #     N Seldjuks        T Kalonoros (Alaiye = Alanya, S       C
                                        coast AM)
                                                                                From L Aral & India to Upper Euphrates
                                                                                River & Syria, Armenia, AM. + Anatolia
                                                                                betw Halys R (Kizil Irmak) & L Van (TR).
                                                                                (See 112/113, map 1, Times Historical
                                                                                Atlas.)
                                                                                + Malatya (anc. Melitene), Mayyafarikin,
                                                                                Mosul. + Elbistan, Laranda (Karaman)
                                                                                Kayseri, Malatya, Ankara (TR). + Antalya,
                                                                                Sinope (AM). *{900-422}*

900 423  1220 1305  A Seldjuks        T {From L Aral & India to Upper       L
                                        Euphrates River & Syria, Armenia,
                                        AM. + Anatolia betw Halys R (Kizil
                                        Irmak) & L Van (TR). (See 112/
                                        113, map 1, Times Historical
                                        Atlas.)
                                        + Malatya (anc. Melitene),              For consistency with (236-21) & ref 236
                                        Mayyafarikin, Mosul. + Elbistan,        chronology. End of Seldjuk Empire results
                                        Laranda (Karaman) Kayseri,              in fragmentation into Turkish kingdoms,
                                        Malatya, Ankara (TR). + Antalya,        rise of Osman Turks.
                                        Sinope (AM)} + {Kalonoros (Alaiye
                                        = Alanya, S coast AM)} *{900-422}
                                        + {236-21}*

900 406  1221 #     N Cumans          T E H                                 Q
                                                                                Acc/to (200-4). (Area restricted to E H
                                                                                acc/to (172-46), (172-47), (172-48).) From
                                                                                area between Ural & Volga RR + Betw Don &
                                                                                lower Danube RR + Tama (Locality is
                                                                                Tmutokoran; see Putzger Atlas p.44)
                                                                                penins., S of Sea of Azov. *{900-405}*
                                                                                Due to pressure of Mongols.

900 407  1221 #     N Cumans          T Thrace                              Q
                                                                                Acc/to (200-4). From area between Ural &
                                                                                Volga RR + Betw Don & lower Danube RR +
                                                                                Tama (Locality is Tmutokoran; see Putzger
                                                                                Atlas p. 44) penins., S of Sea of Azov.
                                                                                *{900-405}* Due to pressure of Mongols.

900 408  1221 #     N Cumans          T AM                                  Q
                                                                                Acc/to (200-4). From area between Ural &
                                                                                Volga RR + Betw Don & lower Danube RR +
                                                                                Tama (Locality is Tmutokoran; see Putzger
                                                                                Atlas p. 44) penins., S of Sea of Azov.
                                                                                *{900-405}* Due to pressure of Mongols.

900 409  1221 1970  A Cumans          T {E H} *{900-406}*                   L
                                                                                Acc/to (172-46). Probably speak Hungarian
                                                                                now. Text is not clear. Called Great
                                                                                Kumans in Kom. Szolnok, Little Kumans in
                                                                                area between Danube and Tisza RR.

200   1  1221 #     N Mongols         M Sea of Azov coast                   A
                                                                                From Qara-Qytai, Chorezm (Buchara,
                                                                                Samarkand, Gurgang) Kuman Empire in S
                                                                                Russia, Persia. (See map entitled
                                                                                'Feldzuege und Reich Dschingis- Chans'
                                                                                following p.376 in xerox.) *{129-52}*

236  22  1222 #     N Armenians       O W Taurus area (AM) including        T
                                        Silifke.
                                                                                To {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &
                                                                                Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).} - {W
                                                                                Taurus area (AM) including Silifke.} *{236-
                                                                                13} - {236-22}*

901 151  1222 1914  A Armenians       O {Cilicia (Little Armenia =Taurus &  L
                                        Antitaurus area of AM;  SE AM).} -
                                        {W Taurus area (AM) including
                                        Silifke.} *{236-13} - {236-22}*
                                                                                Still there by 1914 (see Dominian--
                                                                                Frontiers of Language and Nationality in
                                                                                Europe).

200   5  1222 #     N Mongols         M Dnestr R banks                      A
                                                                                From Qara-Qytai, Chorezm (Buchara,
                                                                                Samarkand, Gurgang) Kuman Empire in S
                                                                                Russia, Persia. (See map entitled
                                                                                'Feldzuege und Reich Dschingis- Chans'
                                                                                following p.376 in xerox.) *{129-52}*

 32  58  1223 1245  N Mongols         M Russian Empire (See map p.60, in    C
                                        Putzger, Lendl, Wagner.)
                                                                                From Central Asia (Mongolia). *{31-44}*

 32  59  1223 1350  A Mongols         M W Russia (Ukraine & Byelorussia)    L

 32  60  1223 1350  A Mongols         M E Russia (Muscovite Empire)         L
                                                                                Located within the separate Khanate of the
                                                                                Golden Horde. Here the population was less
                                                                                urbanised & partly nomadic, consequently,
                                                                                Mongol rule lasted longer in Russia, (for
                                                                                200 more years following Mongke's death in
                                                                                1259): comment acc/to
                                                                                (336-13).

340   1  1226 1232  A Germans         G PL W of Vistula R minus Pomerellia  E
                                        (see map ref 340)
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR. *{900-649}*
                                                                                Advance of Teutonic Knights.

900 650  1226 1232  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} + {PL W of    L
                                        Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see
                                        map ref 340)} *{339-1} + {340-1}*
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (340-1); end date to conform to (340-6).

232  52  1229 1235  N Spaniards       I Balearic Is, Valencia               C
                                                                                From Aragon (900-50). (See pg.126, ref232.)

149  35  1230 #     N Bulgarians      S N Albania, Macedonia & W Thrace.    C
                                                                                From W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E to
                                                                                Upper Pruth R on E side of Carpathian Mts;
                                                                                along Pruth downstream to Leovo, E across
                                                                                Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream along
                                                                                Dnestr to Black Sea. S border not stated
                                                                                by author but probably not quite
                                                                                up to modern S border of BG. (Included
                                                                                Pliska, Preslav, Adrianople). + Srem area
                                                                                (betw Sava & Danube RR). - Pannonia E of
                                                                                Tisza R. *{900-660}*

900 662  1230 1600  N Bulgarians      S {W boundary Tisza R; W Tisza R E    L
                                        to Upper Pruth R on E side of
                                        Carpathian Mts; along Pruth
                                        downstream to Leovo, E across
                                        Bessarabia to Dnestr R. Downstream
                                        along Dnestr to Black Sea. S
                                        border not stated by author but
                                        probably not quite
                                        up to modern S border of BG.            Start date for consistency with (149-35).
                                        (Included Pliska, Preslav,              End date to conform to (114-20).
                                        Adrianople). + Srem area (betw
                                        Sava & Danube RR). - Pannonia E of
                                        Tisza R} + {N Albania, Macedonia &
                                        W Thrace} *{900-660} + {149-35}*

340   6  1232 1255  A Germans         G (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula &       E
                                        Nemunas (Memel) RR
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340).
                                                                                *{900-650}* Expansion by Teutonic Order.

900 651  1232 1329  N Germans         G {Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of      L
                                        Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see
                                        map ref 340)} + {(Old) Prussia,
                                        betw Vistula & Nemunas (Memel) RR}
                                        *{900-650} + {340-6}*
                                                                                Eastward colonization by Germans. Start
                                                                                date corresponds to beginning of record
                                                                                (340-6); end date acc/to (340-10).

 53  60  1232 1236  N Portuguese      I Lower Guadiana R & Algarve Moura,   C
                                        Faro.
                                                                                From N of Tejo R.

 53  61  1233 1263  N Spaniards       I Andujar, Vejer de la Frontera       C
                                                                                From Castille & Leon.

169  57  1236 1300  A Russians        S N of S Russia                       Q
                                                                                Population fleeing Mongols into the
                                                                                forests of the N from steppe & wooded
                                                                                steppe. (See ref 328.)

232  53  1236 1243  N Spaniards       I Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen               C
                                                                                From Castille.

200  18  1238 #     N Mongols         M N Caucasus                          A
                                                                                From Central Asia (Mongolia). *{31-44}*

 53  63  1238 1253  N Spaniards       I Turia & Jucar RR area; (Valencia,   C
                                        Alcira, Biar)
                                                                                Includes Catalans. From Aragon (900-50).

211  30  1238 #     N Swedes          G Neva R (SU)                         A
                                                                                From S.

900 115  1240 1260  A Curonians       B Dk & S                              
                                                                                Acc/to (38-23). From W Latvia.

200  21  1240 #     N Mongols         M PL, Lithuania                       A
                                                                                With 20K men. From Russia.

335   2  1240 #     N Mongols         M Lublin, Sandomir, Khmelnik Cracow,  A
                                        Ratibor, Oppeln, Breslau, Liegnitz
                                        (Legnica), PL.
                                                                                One route taken by Batu's armies. From
                                                                                Russia.

200  24  1241 #     N Cumans          T Szombateley (H)                     A
                                                                                From E H (between Danube & Tisza RR). *{31-
                                                                                42}*

200  23  1241 #     N Mongols         M Moldavia, Wallachia Transylvania,   A
                                        SE H, Moravia, Silesia, Esztergom
                                        (H), Udine (I).
                                                                                From Russia.

334   7  1241 #     N Mongols         M Mohi, in modern day H (nr Eger).    A
                                                                                Mongols routed Hungarians here; part of a
                                                                                two-pronged assault on Poland & Hungary.
                                                                                From Qara-Qytai, Chorezm (Buchara,
                                                                                Samarkand, Gurgang) Kuman Empire in S
                                                                                Russia, Persia. (See map entitled
                                                                                'Feldzuege und Reich Dschingis- Chans'
                                                                                following
                                                                                p.376 in xerox.) *{129-52}*

236  23  1241 1242  N Mongols         M Erzurum (AM)                        C
                                                                                From Caucasus.

202  13  1242 #     N Germans         G L Peipus                            A
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340) +
                                                                                (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula & Nemunas
                                                                                (Memel) RR. *{900-651}* End date to
                                                                                conform to (340-1).

 53  62  1243 #     N Spaniards       I Segura R (Murcia)                   C
                                                                                From Catalonia.

901 215  1245 #     A Mongols         M {W Russia (Ukraine &                C
                                        Byelorussia)} - area of the
                                        {Russian Empire (See map p.60, in
                                        Putzger, Lendl, Wagner.)} *{32-
                                        59} - {32-58}*
                                                                                For consistency with (32-58) and (32-59).
                                                                                From C Asia (Mongolia?). *{31-44}*

232  56  1248 #     N Spaniards       I Seville                             C
                                                                                From Castille.

900 370  1250 1944  A Crimean Tatars  T Crimea                              L
                                                                                Acc/to numerous sources. For consistency
                                                                                with (229-15) & (229-14).

172  48  1250 1970  N Jagyses         T Kom. Pest & Szolnok                 L
                                                                                Probably speak Hungarian now. Text is not
                                                                                clear.

229  15  1250 #     A Mongols         M Crimea                              S
                                                                                From E Russia (Muscovite Empire). *{32-
                                                                                60}* Offshoot of Golden Horde. They became
                                                                                Crimean Tatars.

 51  89  1250 1300  A Slovenes        S A                                   I
                                                                                By Germans. From those parts of A where
                                                                                they were located. (See (900-668).)

900 669  1250 1970  A Slovenes        S {W boundary along line from Istria  L
                                        (YU) to Cevidad (Cedad; Cividale,
                                        I?) & Pontebba (I). Some complexes
                                        of Slovenic settlements S of
                                        Cividale toward W across
                                        Palmanovo, Kodrajno & the
                                        Tagliamento R up to Pordenone (all
                                        I). From Pontebba
                                        Slovenic border reached to W            For consistency with (900-668) and current
                                        slopes Carinthian Alps, up to           location of Slovenes.
                                        source of Drave (Drau) R, at Arnas
                                        on Muehlbach R (between Innichberg
                                        & Linz) N border around Isel RV,
                                        Deferchen & Kalzer (RR or Mts).
                                        Border from Arnas over crest of
                                        Defereggener
                                        Alps to Dreiherrspitz Mts to
                                        Venediger Mt to Grossglockner Mt
                                        over crests of Hohe Tauern and
                                        Radstaedter Tauern, including
                                        Salzburgian Lungau (all in A).
                                        Never crossed Danube R. Middle
                                        Danube up to Drave R was E
                                        border.} - {A} *{900-668}
                                        - {51-89}*

232  58  1250 1300  N Spaniards       I Andalusia                           Q
                                                                                From Castile, Galicia (largest
                                                                                contributor), Leon, Aragon, the Basque
                                                                                country & P.

232  61  1257 #     N Spaniards       I Algarve, P                          C
                                                                                From Castille. Gave it later to P as dowry.

169  83  1263 1795  A Poles           S Byelorussia (excluding Smolensk     C
                                        area).
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Actually
                                                                                Lithuanian conquest but reference states
                                                                                that cities & nobility became Polonized.
                                                                                PL had a union with Lithuania in these
                                                                                years.
                                                                                Start date acc/to Ploetz p.480 (death of
                                                                                Mindanges). End date Muir's Historical
                                                                                Atlas, p.57. Polish occupation of
                                                                                Byelorussia.

333   8  1264 1268  N French          I I (NW & boot)                       A
                                                                                Attack by Charles of Anjou to aid Pope
                                                                                Clement IV.

227  10  1265 1268  N Mamluks         E Cilician Armenia (AM), Antioch      C
                                                                                From Egypt. Mamluks are a dynasty derived
                                                                                from slaves imported from Turkic (1250-
                                                                                1382 AD) and Circassian (1382-1517 AD)
                                                                                speaking areas. By this time they must
                                                                                have spoken Arabic.

129  55  1266 #     N Italians        I Kaffa (= mod Feodosija, Crimea)     S
                                                                                From Genoa, I.

901  71  1266 1380  N Italians        I {Kaffa (= mod Feodosija, Crimea)}   L
                                        *{129-55}*
                                                                                Genoese. Start date to conform to (129-
                                                                                55). End date: last date we know them to
                                                                                be there.

232  62  1275 1285  N Marinids        E Jerez to Seville                    A
                                                                                From Morocco.

232  70  1275 1333  N Marinids        E Granada                             Q
                                                                                From Morocco.

202  15  1278 #     N Rus             S Karelia                             A
                                                                                From Novgorod. These are probably
                                                                                slavicized Varyagi.

901 211  1282 #     N English         G Wales                               C
                                                                                From England.  Formal date of conquest of
                                                                                Wales.  Subsequent diffusion of English
                                                                                into Wales is difficult to document by our
                                                                                records.  Source: Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

149  40  1282 1321  N Saxons          G Serbia, Macedonia & BG              S
                                                                                From Hungary. *{900-615}* Ref to BG added
                                                                                because of (114-9), to Macedonia because
                                                                                of (114-18). Miners brought in.

114   9  1282 1500  A Saxons          G BG                                  I
                                                                                Start date acc/to (149-40). Miners. By
                                                                                Bulgarian Slavs.

900 616  1282 1450  A Saxons          G Macedonia & Serbia                  L
                                                                                For consistency with (149-40) & (114-3).

 53  85  1282 1324  N Spaniards       I Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica           C
                                                                                From Aragon (900-50).

232  65  1284 #     N French          I Aragon (old kingdom in E)           A
                                                                                From F.

238   1  1285 1298  N Crimean Tatars  T BG                                  A
                                                                                From Crimea.

200  26  1285 #     N Mongols         M Transylvania                        A
                                                                                From Russia.

200  27  1286 #     N Mongols         M PL                                  A
                                                                                From Russia.

 38  25  1288 1650  A Prussians (Old) B E Prussia                           I
                                                                                By Germans (Knights of the Teutonic
                                                                                order). The western provinces were more
                                                                                rapidly Germanized than the peninsula of
                                                                                Samland, where the old population lived in
                                                                                compact groups. By the 17 C the last
                                                                                Prussian language (B) speakers disappeared.

900 907  1290 #     N Jews            E B & N F (For detailed locations     M
                                        see map p. 36 in Atlas of Jewish
                                        World.)
                                                                                From England & Dublin area *{900-906}*
                                                                                Dates inferred from de Lange: Atlas of the
                                                                                Jewish World p. 36.

901 129  1300 1425  A English         G E and S Ireland                     I
                                                                                by Irish. acc/to Eb and to Ploetz, p573

359   3  1300 #     N Germanics       G S CH N of Rhone R, incl Berner      E
                                        Alps, Lepantine Alps, & Glarner
                                        Alps.
                                                                                Sparse distribution of Germanic place
                                                                                names in these Alpine regions; densest
                                                                                expansion in Luzern area; evidenced by
                                                                                Germanic place names. Not necessarily
                                                                                expansion from (359-1). Could be migration
                                                                                from elsewhere. But from W CH, N of
                                                                                L Geneva, & E to NW border Bodensee. *{359-
                                                                                2}*

206   4  1300 1450  A Germans         G N                                   Q
                                                                                In connection with Hanseatic League. From
                                                                                N D.

900 353  1300 1400  A Ghegs           Y GR (Acania, Aetolia, Boetia,        Q
                                        Attica).
                                                                                Acc/to (149-38), N. Hammond: Migrations
                                                                                and invasions in Greece & adjacent area,
                                                                                p.63. From N Albania (N of Shkumbi R &
                                                                                including Kossovo & Metahia districts in
                                                                                YU). *{900-351}*

900 351  1300 1970  A Ghegs           Y N Albania (N of Shkumbi R &         L
                                        including Kossovo & Metahia
                                        districts in YU).
                                                                                Acc/to N. Hammond: Migrations & invasions
                                                                                in Greece and adjacent areas, p.63. Also
                                                                                to conform to (176-10).

170  24  1300 1500  A Karelians       F Halogaland (C part of N); nr Bodoe. S
                                                                                From Karelia.

208   6  1300 1700  A Norwegians      G Coast of E Finnmark (N)             E
                                                                                From S N (S of 60 deg N) + N N + Coast of
                                                                                Finnmark (N). *{900-633}*

900 634  1300 1970  A Norwegians      G {S N (S of 60 deg N) + N up to      L
                                        Senja Is. (N N) + Coast of
                                        Finnmark (N)} + {Coast of E
                                        Finnmark (N)} *{900-633} + {208-
                                        6}* (all of N)
                                                                                For consistency with (208-6). A continued
                                                                                presence of Norwegians in N.

 50   3  1300 1500  A Saxons          G Transilvania                        S
                                                                                From Saxony. Brought in as silver miners.

202  16  1300 #     N Swedes          G Modern Leningrad                    A
                                                                                From S.

900 352  1300 1970  A Tosks           Y S Albania (S of Shkumbi R up to     L
                                        Aous R; see map 14 in Hammond).
                                                                                Acc/to N. Hammond: Migrations & invasions
                                                                                in Greece and adjacent areas, p.63. Also
                                                                                to conform to (176-11).

341   2  1301 1462  N Russians        S Area around Moscow, N to            E
                                        Solvychegdosk (on Vychegda R), E
                                        to Nizhniy Novgorod, S to Tula, &
                                        W to Desna R, SU. (See color 1,
                                        map ref 341.)
                                                                                From Muscovy. Acquired many towns in
                                                                                region. International position of this
                                                                                state of Muscovy was extremely isolated;
                                                                                cut off from almost all contact with
                                                                                outside world by the hostility of
                                                                                immediate neighbors: Turks, Swedes, Poles.
                                                                                Note
                                                                                that (169-60) mentions Russians on right
                                                                                bank of Volga R before Mongol conquest.

900 780  1301 1970  N Russians        S {Area around Moscow, N to           L
                                        Solvychegdosk (on Vychegda R), E
                                        to Nizhniy Novgorod, S to Tula, &
                                        W to Desna R, SU. (See color 1,
                                        map ref 341.)} *{341-2}*
                                                                                Start date: to conform to (341-2). End
                                                                                date: still present.

232  66  1303 1307  N Spaniards       I Constantinople                      A
                                                                                6500 Catalans camped outside city. From
                                                                                Aragon (see (900-50)).

232  67  1307 1309  N Spaniards       I Athens (Duchy of) GR                S
                                                                                From Constantinople. In 1370 ca 1/3 of pop
                                                                                was of Catalan origin.

232  68  1307 1309  N Turks           T Athens (Duchy of) GR                Q
                                                                                From AM. Several thousand Turks recruited
                                                                                by Catalan freebooters.

340   8  1309 #     N Germans         G Pomerelia, betw Danzig & Kulm, NE   S
                                        PL (see map in ref)
                                                                                From {Betw Elbe & Oder RR} + {PL W of
                                                                                Vistula R minus Pomerellia (see map ref
                                                                                340)} + {(Old) Prussia, betw Vistula &
                                                                                Nemunas (Memel) RR} *{900-651}* 1309 marks
                                                                                end of systematic subjugation of Pagan
                                                                                Prussian tribes and the beginning
                                                                                of 70 years of prosperity.

901 128  1315 1316  N Scoti           K Ulster, Connacht, Ireland           
                                                                                intervention by Edward Bruce, brother of
                                                                                the Scottish king, on behalf of Irish
                                                                                rebels against the English. from Scotland.
                                                                                acc/to Ploetz, p 573.

149  42  1322 1391  N Bosnians        S Hercegovina, Cetina R mouth (on     E
                                        Adriatic), Upper Drina R,
                                        Trebinije (YU).
                                                                                From Bosnia.

229  11  1325 1525  A Tatars          T Byelorussia: Hrodno, Minsk, Troki   S
                                        (modern Trakai), Vilna.
                                                                                From E Russia (Muscovite Empire). *{32-60}*

229  12  1325 1550  A Tatars          T Byelorussia: Hrodno, Minsk, Troki   I
                                        (modern Trakai), Vilna; PL:
                                        Bialystok.
                                                                                By Slavs. By then were Slavic Speakers.
                                                                                Start date for consistency with (32-59).

340  10  1329 1383  N Germans         G Area around Memel, (present day     S
                                        Klaipeda, Lithuania).
                                                                                From Betw Elbe & Oder RR + PL W of Vistula
                                                                                R minus Pomerellia (see map ref 340) +
                                                                                (Old) Prussia, betw Vistula & Nemunas
                                                                                (Memel) RR *{900-651}*

149  41  1331 1346  N Serbs           S Albania (excluding Durazzo),        C
                                        Epirus, Macedonia (excluding
                                        Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. -
                                        {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in
                                        YU). + Morava R + Macedonia} *          From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                        Albania ... - {900-697}*                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R + Macedonia. *{900-
                                                                                697}* Conquest of Czar Stefan Dusan.

900 698  1331 1400  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia} + {Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      For consistency with (149-41) and (149-1).
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia} *{900-697} + {149-
                                        41}*

211  32  1340 1377  N Lithuanians     B Kiev, Volhynia, Chernigov,          C
                                        Novgorod-Seversk, Pereiaslav.
                                                                                From Lithuania.

 53  88  1344 1492  N Spaniards       I Granada (Kingdom of) (see map, p.   C
                                        134)
                                                                                From Castille.

340  16  1346 #     N Germans         G Estonia                             S
                                                                                From Riga, Dorpat (Tartu), Reval (Talinn),
                                                                                SU + N from Riga into Livonia, & E to
                                                                                Semgallen & SW to Courland; also W to
                                                                                Saarenaa, off W coast Estonia. *{900-652}*
                                                                                Estonia sold by Danish King to Teutonic
                                                                                Order.

 51 102  1346 1376  N Kocevari        G Kocevje (Gottscheewen; Slovenia,    M
                                        YU)
                                                                                These may have come from Frankonia and
                                                                                Thuringia. Possibly these are German
                                                                                speaking Gottscheewen but text says they
                                                                                are Slovenianized.

900 593  1346 1970  N Kocevari        G {Kocevje (Gottscheewen; Slovenia,   L
                                        YU)} *{51-102}*
                                                                                Start date acc/to (51-102). Was told they
                                                                                still live there but are Slovenianized.
                                                                                Language code might therefore be incorrect.

202  18  1348 #     N Finns           F Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From SW SF (map 1, ref 202). *{202-9}*

202  19  1348 #     N Germans         G Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From D. Mercenaries accompanying Swedes &
                                                                                Finns.

202  17  1348 #     N Swedes          G Neva R area                         A
                                                                                From S.

323   9  1350 1450  A Jews            E R                                   Q
                                                                                From area around Budapest, H.

901 212  1350 #     A Moldavians      I Moldavia (Romanian and SSR)         Q
                                                                                From Transylvania.  Source: Encyclopaedia
                                                                                Brittanica.

900 368  1350 1450  A Mongols         M {E Russia (Muscovite Empire)} *{32- I
                                        60}*
                                                                                Located within the separate Khanate of the
                                                                                Golden Horde. Here the population was less
                                                                                urbanised & partly nomadic, consequently,
                                                                                Mongol rule lasted longer in Russia, (for
                                                                                200 more years following Mongke's death in
                                                                                1259): comment acc/to
                                                                                (336-13). Became Turkicized by the Turkic
                                                                                tribes (Kipchaks) they ruled. New amalgam
                                                                                of peoples called Tatars.

174   5  1350 #     A Tatars          T E BG                                Q
                                                                                From E Russia (Muscovite Empire). *{32-
                                                                                60}* As frontier guards.

149  44  1354 1365  N Turks           T Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv,    C
                                        BG), Adrianople (Edirne, TR).
                                                                                From AM.

900 444  1354 1970  N Turks           T Gallipoli, Adrianople (Edirne,      L
                                        TR). *2/3 of {149-44}*
                                                                                For consistency with (149-44).

900 449  1354 1885  N Turks           T Plovdiv (incl. all of E Rumelia)    L
                                        (see Putzger p. 97, map II). *1/3
                                        of {149-44}*
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map II.

149  49  1358 #     N Hungarians      C Cities of coastal Dalmatia: Split,  C
                                        Trogir, Sibenik, Nin, Brac. (YU)
                                                                                Conquered from Venetians. From Carpathian
                                                                                basin incl. modern H up to its border with
                                                                                A, N into Slovakia, E to Transylvania & S
                                                                                somewhat beyond Drave R. (cf detailed map
                                                                                in ref. use colors coded 1&3) + Croatia
                                                                                and coasts of Dalmatia,
                                                                                Istria, Bosnia, Duklja, Zahumlje. *{900-
                                                                                797} + {900-798}*

 38  27  1362 #     N Lithuanians     B Dnepr & Dnestr R basins             C
                                                                                From Lithuania.

900 134  1362 1569  N Lithuanians     B {Dnepr & Dnestr R basins} *{38-27}* L
                                                                                Acc/to (38-27). Occupied but did not
                                                                                settle area. Ceded it to Poland in 1569.

 53  90  1363 #     N Spaniards       I Aragon                              A
                                                                                From Castille.

336   3  1370 1405  A Mongols         M N, across Syr Darya R & N of Aral   A
                                        Sea, across Ural Mt area & W to
                                        Astrakhan, on Volga R nr Caspian
                                        Sea.
                                                                                By Timur's army. From Samarkand, betw Syr
                                                                                Darya & Amu-Darya RR, S of Aral Sea, SU.
                                                                                *{336-1}* There was a Mongol ruling
                                                                                stratum, organized into separate
                                                                                'Khanates' which had gone independent ways
                                                                                upon the death of Mongke, in 1259. Under
                                                                                him there had been a short lived unity of
                                                                                the Mongol empire.

336   5  1370 1405  A Mongols         M Tabriz, N Iran                      A
                                                                                From Astrakhan, SU, via Caucasus Mts.
                                                                                Lands S of Caucasus Mts are located within
                                                                                Timur's Empire.

 51 142  1371 1430  N Turks           T Macedonia                           C
                                                                                End date acc/to (130-14). From AM.

900 445  1371 1913  N Turks           T {Macedonia} *{51-142}*              L
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map II.

232  71  1377 1379  N Spaniards       I S coast of England(Cornwall to      N
                                        Thames).
                                                                                From Seville, E.

232  75  1381 #     N English         G Lisbon and from there to Spanish    N
                                        frontier
                                                                                From GB. Expeditionary force (came by sea)
                                                                                to aid the Portuguese.

 53  87  1385 #     N Spaniards       I Estremadura Province, P             A
                                                                                From Castille. Battle of Albujarotta.

232  72  1387 1492  N Jews            E S & E Spain                         I
                                                                                By Spaniards. Forced conversions.

169  75  1387 1667  A Poles           S Ukraine including Kiev, Czernigov.  C
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Start date acc/to
                                                                                Ploetz, p.584 when Poland united with
                                                                                Lithuania; end date acc/to Ploetz, p.687 &
                                                                                Muir's Historical Atlas, p.56. Ref
                                                                                says Ukrainian cities heavily Polonized.
                                                                                For other Ukrainian cities, see (900-724).

900 724  1387 1795  N Poles           S S Ukraine: Lvov, Zhitomir           C
                                                                                From Middle Vistula R (incl Warsaw), PL. +
                                                                                Middle Warta R around Poznan, PL. + Upper
                                                                                Oder R around Wroclaw, PL (see map ref
                                                                                302). + Middle or upper Odra R around
                                                                                Glogow, PL. + W of Wisla R, around
                                                                                Inowroclaw, PL (betw Wisla and Notec
                                                                                RR). + Upper Odra (Oder) R, betw Nysa
                                                                                Klodzka & Upper Warta RR around Opole
                                                                                (Oppeln) PL. *{900-723}* Start date to
                                                                                conform to (169-75), end date: partition
                                                                                of Poland, Muir's Historical Atlas p.68.
                                                                                Ref (169-75) states that cities were
                                                                                heavily Polonized. See also (211-35).

338  10  1389 #     N Turks           T Serbia                              C
                                                                                From Macedonia + Gallipoli, Philippople
                                                                                (Plovdiv, BG), Adrianople (Edirne, TR).
                                                                                *{51-142} + {149-44}* Under Bayezid I,
                                                                                reduced area to vassal status. No mention
                                                                                of extent of Turks' presence. Not
                                                                                including Belgrade.

900 446  1389 1817  N Turks           T N Serbia (see Putzger p.97, map I.) L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I.

900 448  1389 1878  N Turks           T S Serbia (see Putzger p.97, map I.) L
                                                                                Acc/to Putzger p.97, map I.

149  37  1392 #     N Venetians       I Coast of Albania nr Durres          S
                                        (Durazzo)
                                                                                From Venice.

901  72  1392 1501  N Venetians       I {Coast of Albania nr Durres         L
                                        (Durazzo)} *{149-37}*
                                                                                Both dates to conform to (149-37).

149  45  1393 #     N Bulgarians      S AM                                  R
                                                                                From Turnovo, BG, by Turks. Majority of
                                                                                inhabitants.

338  11  1393 #     N Turks           T BG                                  C
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}* Under
                                                                                Bayezid I, absorbed this Medieval Slav
                                                                                Kingdom into Ottoman Empire.

900 450  1393 1878  N Turks           T BG (northern portion. See Putzger   L
                                        p.97, map I).
                                                                                Acc/to to Putzger p.97, map I.

323  16  1394 #     A Jews            E N E, C I, S D                       M
                                                                                From F. Expulsion from F.

338  25  1396 #     N Turks           T Area around Nicopolis, N BG, NW of  A
                                        Varna.
                                                                                From Gallipoli, Philippople (Plovdiv, BG),
                                                                                Adrianople (Edirne, TR). *{149-44}* But
                                                                                failed to take city in this Western
                                                                                campaign. (Source of this comment is
                                                                                unknown.)

338  26  1396 #     A Turks           T Area between Carpathian Mts & E     C
                                        coast R (Wallachia).
                                                                                From BG. *{338-11}* Area became a vassal
                                                                                state to Ottoman empire. No mention of
                                                                                extent of Turkish presence.

900 451  1396 1829  N Turks           T Wallachia                           L
                                                                                Acc/to Ploetz p.828.

118  21  1400 1800  A Albanians       Y YU Macedonia                        Q
                                                                                Mass immigration. From Albania. Reference
                                                                                does not distinguish between Ghegs and
                                                                                Tosks.

900 655  1400 1970  A Belorussians    S Belorussia                          L
                                                                                Start date: to connect with various E.
                                                                                Slavic tribes in the area. End date:
                                                                                currently present. Ref (213-2) states:
                                                                                9052K people. The population figures from
                                                                                this book (a generally more detailed
                                                                                reference than 212) have been updated from
                                                                                1970 census. Figures obtained from the
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica.

 51  95  1400 1800  A Croats          S Istria                              Q
                                                                                From Dalmatia.

160   1  1400 #     A Ghegs           Y Peloponnese: Tripolis               Q
                                                                                From Albania. Observer in 1689 writes
                                                                                there are 3 times as many Albanians as
                                                                                Greeks and Turks. Reference does not
                                                                                distinguish between Ghegs and Tosks. N.
                                                                                Hammond: Migrations & invasions in Greece
                                                                                and adjacent areas, page 61 states 10K
                                                                                migrants.

177   3  1400 1600  A Ghegs           Y Calabria & Sicily                   Q
                                                                                From GR, especially Peloponnese.
                                                                                Diminished Albanian element in GR.

900 354  1400 1600  A Ghegs           Y NW of Albania (Kosovo)              Q
                                                                                Acc/to (149-38), (176-7). From N Albania
                                                                                (N of Shkumbi R & including Kossovo &
                                                                                Metahia districts in YU). *{900-351}*

900 876  1400 1600  A Jews            E Avignon area (For detailed          L
                                        locations see map p. 44 in Atlas
                                        of Jewish World.)
                                                                                For consistency with (900-875). End date
                                                                                guess since not there in 1800. Dates
                                                                                inferred from de Lange: Atlas of Jewish
                                                                                World p. 57.

170  29  1400 1500  N Lapps           F L Onega & S SF                      T
                                                                                To N of (N, S, SF, SU as far E as Kola
                                                                                Penin- sula on White Sea). Occasional
                                                                                settlements in mt backbone of SCA as far
                                                                                South as L Femund in C N and North
                                                                                Dalecarlia in Sweden. *{207-1}* Ref says:
                                                                                still there in 14th C AD.

207   1  1400 1970  N Lapps           F N of N, S, SF, SU as far E as Kola  L
                                        Peninsula on White Sea. Occasional
                                        settlements in mt backbone of SCA
                                        as far South as L Femund in C N
                                        and North Dalecarlia in Sweden.
                                                                                Modern pop. size 20 K in Norway, 8 K in
                                                                                Sweden, 2 K in Kola Peninsula (from refs
                                                                                (170-28) & (213-22)). Start date to
                                                                                conform to (170-29). End date: still there.

149   1  1400 1450  A Serbs           S YU: N of Danube & S H               Q
                                                                                From Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,
                                                                                Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                                                                Srbica (last 2 in Aegean Macedonia, rest
                                                                                in YU). + Morava R. + Macedonia + Albania
                                                                                (excluding Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                                                                (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR, Morava-
                                                                                Vardar
                                                                                line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia, Bosnia,
                                                                                Neretva area, Zahumlje, Travunija,
                                                                                Konavlje, Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                                                                Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R +
                                                                                Macedonia. *{900-698}* Dates are
                                                                                compromise between (149-1) & (51-118). As a
                                                                                result of Turkish pressure.

900 699  1400 1500  A Serbs           S {Serbia, Bosnia, Neretva area,      L
                                        Zahumlje, Travunija, Konavlje,
                                        Duklje, Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). + Morava R
                                        + Macedonia + [Albania (excluding
                                        Durazzo), Epirus, Macedonia
                                        (excluding Thessaloniki), C GR,
                                        Morava-Vardar
                                        line with Belgrade in N. - Serbia,      Start date for consistency with (149-1).
                                        Bosnia, Neretva area, Zahumlje,         End date for consistency with (114-19).
                                        Travunija, Konavlje, Duklje,
                                        Srbica (last 2 in Aegean
                                        Macedonia, rest in YU). - Morava
                                        R - Macedonia]} + {YU: N of Danube
                                        & S H} *{900-698} + {149-1}*

213   1  1400 1970  N Ukrainians      S Ukraine                             L
                                                                                Start date: to connect with various E.
                                                                                Slavic tribes in the area. End date: still
                                                                                there. In 1970, 40753K people. The
                                                                                population figures from this book (a
                                                                                generally more detailed reference than
                                                                                212) have been updated from 1970 census.
                                                                                Figures obtained from the Encyclopedia
                                                                                Brittanica.

169  21  1400 1500  A Voguls          C N Urals, Cussovaja (Cusovaja) R &   L
                                        Pecora R
                                                                                (Syn. Mansi). None W of Urals by 1600 AD.
                                                                                They and the related Ostyaks now are
                                                                                entirely E of Urals.

 51 128  1400 1500  A Vojniti         S {S Epirus around Arta Bay           I
                                        (Amvrakikos Kolpos) GR} *{51-127}*
                                                                                By Hellenes.


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