Welcome Intro Format Data Download

Abbreviations References


REF REC START   END  GENS            L          LOCATION                  A          COMMENTS

311   7 -3000 -2600 A Akkadians       E S Mesopotamia                       L
                                                                                Semitic speakers.

900  26 -3000 -2000 A Anatolians      U C TR                                L
                                                                                Acc/to (315-3).

 42   1 -3000 -2000 A Early Minoan    U Crete                               L
                                                                                Culture. Reference says resulted from
                                                                                immigrants coming from AM.

153  19 -3000 -1800 A Megalith        U Britain                             L
                                                                                Culture. Stone Circles. Calibrated BC
                                                                                dates.

 21   1 -3000 -1600 A Minoan          U Crete                               L
                                                                                Culture.

 25   8 -3000 -573  A Phoenicians     E S Lebanon (area around Sidon and    L
                                        Tyre)
                                                                                Start date is rough date given by
                                                                                Encyclopedia Brittanica. Possible origin
                                                                                from Persian Gulf. Sidon fell to Assyrians
                                                                                sometime between -677 and -668. End date
                                                                                conquest of Tyre by Babylonians. People
                                                                                presumably remained since Encyclopedia
                                                                                Brittanica says that Phoenician was spoken
                                                                                until replaced by Aramaic in 1st c BC.

 41   8 -3000 #     A Proto-Samoyeds  O Taiga of W Siberia where S group    M
                                        of Vogul now live or even further
                                        S, but N of 57
                                                                                From W of Urals Mts around bend of Volga R
                                                                                along Kama & Vyathka RR (V'atka) and also
                                                                                somewhat further E. *{41-7}* Branch of
                                                                                Uralics.

901  80 -3000 250   A Proto-Samoyeds  O {Taiga of W Siberia where S group   L
                                        of Vogul now live or even further
                                        S, but N of 57} *{41-8}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (41-7); end date
                                                                                to conform to records for specific Samoyed
                                                                                tribes. They moved further E over the
                                                                                centuries, but this does not affect our
                                                                                European database. There must have been a
                                                                                change from Proto-Samoyeds to
                                                                                Samoyeds before these split up into N & S
                                                                                branches ca 250 AD, but we know nothing of
                                                                                this. Branch of Uralics.

 47   7 -2800 -1900 A Crnobuki        U Pelagonia & Lyncus (Macedonia).     L
                                        (For the location of the Crnobuki
                                        site itself see Map 19, No. 7, in
                                        ref.)
                                                                                Culture. Successor to Porodin. Early
                                                                                Helladic period.

901 123 -2800 -2000 A Gumelnita       U Dobrugea (ROM)                      L
                                                                                Culture. Acc/to (173-8).

 47  13 -2800 -1900 A Proto-Myceneans H Porodin (Pelagonia)                 L
                                                                                This is the Porodin group. They acquired
                                                                                Greek from invading Greek speaking Kurgan
                                                                                people.

155   9 -2700 -1900 A Barrow Graves   U Moldova, Dobrugea, Muntenia         M
                                                                                From N Pontic steppes (N of Black Sea).
                                                                                All dates for this article are
                                                                                uncalibrated C 14 (bc).

900 117 -2700 -1800 A KarelianCulture U E SF & adjacent SU, see map 11a     L
                                        (49); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (380-49), (381-53). Full name:
                                                                                Karelian Culture.

380  51 -2700 -700  N Kargopol        U U Onega R & U Suchona R, also nr L  L
                                        Beloje, SU, see map 10a (46);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (387-44).
                                                                                (Intermediate times documented by other
                                                                                records.)

173  12 -2700 -1800 A Petresti        U C Transilvania (ROM)                L
                                                                                Culture.

173  13 -2600 -1800 A Decea           U W Transilvania (ROM)                L
                                                                                Culture.

129   1 -2500 -1600 A Afanasjevo      U Altai & Minussinsk areas            L
                                                                                First Kurgan graves.

315   2 -2500 -1450 A Cretans         U W GR, Aegean Islands of Thira,      S
                                        Milos, Kithira, Kea, Karpathos,
                                        Rhodes, and to Miletus, TR.
                                                                                Not clear where they came from. Could be
                                                                                bearers of the Minoan Culture.

169  32 -2500 -2000 A Finno-Ugrians   F Oka & Volga RR basins               L
                                                                                Really Proto-Finno-Ugrians. End date is
                                                                                guess supported by (201-13). This record
                                                                                is largely based on linguistic data, hence
                                                                                times are pretty vague. Linkages to later
                                                                                Finns and Ugrians remain to be
                                                                                established. These may have to be recoded
                                                                                later with a letter other than F, to
                                                                                distinguish them from the Finnic and Ugric
                                                                                branches (their descendants).

170   4 -2500 -1500 A Fishers-Hunters U Norway N of Trondheim, Sweden N of  L
                                        Dalarne (Dalarna) region
                                                                                Culture.

311  20 -2500 -2300 A Hurrians        O E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran   Q
                                                                                From Armenia (but Ploetz p. 74 says from
                                                                                NW Iran). Language isolate acc/to Ruhlen,
                                                                                but remotely related to Caucasian
                                                                                (Kartvellian) languages by others.

901  87 -2500 -2300 A Hurrians        O {E TR,N Syria and possibly NW       L
                                        Iran} *{311-20}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (311-20); end
                                                                                date to conform to (311-21) and (311-22).

219   3 -2500 -1750 A Khattic         O NC AM, roughly within Cekerek       L
                                        (classical Scylax) & Delice
                                        (classical Cappadox) RR basins.
                                                                                Language of the original non-IE Hittites.
                                                                                Stated as having inhabited area since
                                                                                prehistoric times. Actual start time may
                                                                                be earlier than -2500.

131   2 -2500 -2000 A Pit Graves      U E Carpathians, Tisza R area         L
                                                                                Culture. From S Russian steppes. Pastoral
                                                                                tribes.

234   1 -2500 -1800 A Tripolye        U Middle Dnepr R area in Ukraine      L
                                                                                Culture.

 26   4 -2400 -1900 A Tyrrhenian      U Castelluccio (SE Sicily)            L
                                                                                Culture. From East by way of sea, Aegaean
                                                                                influence. Dates need confirmation. They
                                                                                are only implicit.

215   7 -2300 #     N Anatolians      O C & Pontic Anatolia AM              L
                                                                                Hattian speakers.

901 121 -2300 -1600 A Cernavoda       U Dobrugea & lower Danube R           L
                                                                                Culture. For consistency with (48-1),
                                                                                which reports a migration but before 2200
                                                                                BC.

222   3 -2300 -1850 A Early Cypriot   U Cyprus                              L
                                                                                Culture. Early Bronze. Possibly related to
                                                                                major Anatolian catastrophe at end of E B
                                                                                2.Perhaps Cyprus peopled by survivors from
                                                                                Anatolia. Stated (on p 31) that they
                                                                                appear to have mixed with and not to have
                                                                                destroyed the sparse Chalcolithic
                                                                                II population in Morphou Bay, their first
                                                                                landfall.

139   5 -2300 -1900 A Hittites        A C Anatolia                          M
                                                                                Few in number at first. Probably from the
                                                                                Balkans, but there is an alternative
                                                                                hypothesis that has them coming from NE
                                                                                via Caucasus (Mellaart in ref 139; also
                                                                                ref 311.)

901 104 -2300 -1900 A Hittites        A C Anatolia                          L
                                                                                For consistency with (139-5).

311  21 -2300 -2100 A Hurrians        O SC TR (Cappadocia)                  E
                                                                                From E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran.
                                                                                *{311-20}*

311  22 -2300 -1900 A Hurrians        O NW Syria                            E
                                                                                From E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran.
                                                                                *{311-20}*

218   4 -2300 -1550 A Hurrians        O {E TR,N Syria and possibly NW       L
                                        Iran} + {NW Syria}+ {AM (that part
                                        called Cappadociain Hellenistic
                                        times)} *{901-87} + {311-22} +
                                        {218-5}*
                                                                                Start date to conform to (311-21); end
                                                                                date to conform to (220-2). Probably the
                                                                                lower population stratum.

216  20 -2300 #     A Luvians         A Balikesir Plain, AM, See map 1 SW   M
                                        AM, Konya Plain, Cilicia,
                                        Eskisehir-Ankara area.
                                                                                From the Balkans.

900 208 -2300 -1940 A Luvians         A {Balikesir Plain, AM, See map 1 SW  L
                                        AM, Konya Plain, Cilicia,
                                        Eskisehir-Ankara area.} *{216-20}*
                                                                                Acc/to (216-20).

139   6 -2300 -1900 A Palaeans        A W Anatolia                          M
                                                                                From the Balkans.

311   4 -2200 -2000 A Amorites        E C & S Mesopotamia                   S
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   5 -2200 -2100 A Amorites        E Along Lebanon Mtns Lebanon &        S
                                        Israel.
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   6 -2200 -1900 A Amorites        E NW Syria                            S
                                                                                From area betw Euphrates and Orontes RR,
                                                                                Syria. *{311-3}*

311   3 -2200 -1900 A Amorites        E Area betw Euphrates and Orontes     L
                                        RR, Syria.

224   2 -2200 -1800 A Assyrians       E Kueltepe (ancient Kanesh, nr        S
                                        modern Kayseri)(C AM).
                                                                                From Assyria. They are merchants in
                                                                                Anatolia.

900  64 -2200 -607  A Assyrians       E Assyria (centered on Tigris R),     L
                                        Iraq.
                                                                                (Source: Encyclopedia Brittanica & (312-
                                                                                7)).

382  20 -2200 -1900 A Auvernier       U E C F, see map 12a (17);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

169  65 -2200 -1900 A Balanovo        U W of Volga R (see Map 12a) CS       L
                                        Atlas).

170   3 -2200 -1900 A Battle Axe      U S S, E DK, SE N                     M
                                                                                At least some from east (Fatjavono
                                                                                culture).

382  22 -2200 -1800 N Battle Axe      U SCA, & Estonia, see map 12a (18: O- L
                                        Q); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                The cultures are boat shaped battle axes.
                                                                                End date to fit (383-28).

 44   5 -2200 -1550 A Bell Beakers    U All of GB & IRL                     L
                                                                                Author believes that the people bearing
                                                                                this culture migrated to this locality
                                                                                from the continent (by implications); but
                                                                                he was an arch migrationist. This includes
                                                                                both A & B Beaker cultures. Start date
                                                                                acc/to (44-4).

172  12 -2200 -1700 A Bell Beakers    U NW Transdanubia, H (see Map p. 14   L
                                        in ref 131)
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (131-4).

901 118 -2200 -1900 A Bell Beakers    U N I, W Sicily, Bohemia & Moravia    L
                                                                                Combined from (26-1), (26-2), (152-5). In
                                                                                N I Remedello Culture; in W Sicily Conca
                                                                                d'Oro Culture.

901 119 -2200 -1550 A Bell Beakers    U Iberia, F, D, N B, C NL             L
                                                                                Culture. Combined from (167-5), (383-47),
                                                                                (384-55), (382-25), (179-12), (180-2), and
                                                                                (181-3).

382  15 -2200 -1900 N Conca d'Oro     U Sicily, see map 12a (12);           L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Intermingled with Bell Beakers
                                                                                (see (382-25)). Said to be Bell Beakers by
                                                                                (26-2).

382  21 -2200 -1850 N Corded Ware     U C Europe, SCA,& W SU, see map 12a   L
                                        (18: A-Z); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                The "cultures" designated within this area
                                                                                include Corded Pottery and Battle Axe but
                                                                                there is no specification as to which is
                                                                                which so I have considered it one large
                                                                                culture(s) area, for lack of any better
                                                                                way to deal with this! Cultures
                                                                                from earlier periods, which had been kept
                                                                                separate, including Fatjanovo & Balanovo,
                                                                                are included, by the authors, in this
                                                                                large group. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-19), (383-25), (383-
                                                                                26), (383-27), and (383-29).
                                                                                Culture derived from Forest-steppe zone
                                                                                between Vistula & Dnepr RR for Baltic
                                                                                countries in (169-17), and from the ochre
                                                                                graves of S Russia in (179-7) for C D.
                                                                                Believed by (19-2) to be differentiated I-
                                                                                E already.

901 122 -2200 -1700 A Cotofeni        U C Transylvania, W Oltenia, Banat    L
                                        (all ROM) (see also Map 12a(6a),
                                        Czech atlas)
                                                                                Culture. Record synthesized from (382-10),
                                                                                (48-12), and (48-17).

 48   4 -2200 -1800 A Cucuteni        U NE Muntenia & Moldavia & SE         L
                                        Transilvania, ROM
                                                                                Culture.

382  26 -2200 -1900 N Ditch Comb      U Area bounded on E by Onega R, in    L
                                        NW cutting across SF, in SE nr Oka
                                        R, also isolated area along
                                        Vycegda R, NW SU. See map 12a
                                        (20); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

382  27 -2200 -1900 N Ditch Comb      U PL & NW Europe (mostly S S),see     L
                                        map 12a(23); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

172  37 -2200 -1550 A Fatjanovo       B C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26),    L
                                        CS Atlas)
                                                                                Anthrop. Europid.

382  23 -2200 -1900 N Finger Grave    U CH, see map 12a (18                 L
                                        H);"Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture, part of Corded Ware & Battle Axe
                                                                                Cultures.

382  14 -2200 -1900 N Gaudo           U S I, see map 12a (11 and 13);       L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Note that Gaudo also found in
                                                                                area labelled as Lateriya (382-16).

 48   7 -2200 -1800 A Gumelnita       U Mid & W Muntenia (Valachia) ROM     L
                                                                                Culture.

 47  18 -2200 -1900 A Ionians         H Ionian Gulf & hinterlands (map 3)   L
                                                                                This is questionable.

382  13 -2200 -1850 N Jamov-Catacomb  U S & C SU, betw Juznyi Bug & Ural    L
                                        RR, see map 12a (10);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-36) (Catacomb).

382  12 -2200 -1900 N Kemi-Obyn       U Crimea, see map 12a (9);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

382   7 -2200 -1850 N Late Ezero      U E BG, see map 12a (3);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Syn: Karanovo VIIb. Culture. End date
                                                                                interpolated to fit start date of (383-3).

 48  11 -2200 -2000 A Late Vinca      U W Banat (Only the province (?) in   L
                                        ROM is meant. See Fig. 1 in ref.)
                                                                                Culture.

 48  19 -2200 -1800 A Late Vinca      U SW Transilvania (ROM)               L
                                                                                Culture.

382  16 -2200 -1900 N Laterza         U SE I, see map 12a (13);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Gaudo & other cultures also found
                                                                                here, with Lateriya.

 48  16 -2200 -1900 A LatestNeolithic U Mid Transilvania (ROM)              L
                                                                                The culture entry LatestNeolithic should
                                                                                be Latest Neolithic. (This abbrev. has
                                                                                been added to the people synonym list.)

 48  21 -2200 -1700 A LatestNeolithic U W Transilvania & Maramures (ROM)    L
                                                                                The culture entry LatestNeolithic should
                                                                                be Latest Neolithic. (This abbrev. has
                                                                                been added to the people synonym list.)

382   1 -2200 -1900 N Middle Helladic U GR, see map 12a (1a);               L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

382   2 -2200 -1850 N Middle Minoan   U Crete, see map 12a (1b);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

382   3 -2200 -1900 N MiddleBronzeAge U Cyclades, Thessaly, Greek           L
                                        Macedonia, see map 12a (1c, d,e);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full culture name: Old & Beginning of
                                                                                Middle Bronze Age.

360   1 -2200 -1500 N Nordic Culture  G N from Elbe R area around Luebeck   L
                                        & Hamburg, D & into DK.
                                                                                Time period = Late Neolithic; marking
                                                                                early spread of this culture.

382  19 -2200 -1900 N Ozieri          U Sardinia, Corsica, see map 12a      L
                                        (16); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Intermingled with Bell Beakers
                                                                                (see (382-25)).

203   4 -2200 -1800 A Passage Graves  U Skane, Halland, Vaestergoetland,    L
                                        Bohuslaen, Oeland (S)
                                                                                Culture. Reference suggests migration from
                                                                                unspecified location.

900  96 -2200 #     A Proto-Balts     B Shores of Baltic, Byelorussia       M
                                        greater Russia. Along Baltic up to
                                        SW SF. To middle & upper Dnepr,
                                        upper Volga, & Oka RR. + {C Russia
                                        (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26), CS
                                        Atlas).} *(38-1) + {172-37}*
                                                                                From Eurasian (Pontic) Steppes (lower
                                                                                Dnepr R Basin).

900  97 -2200 -1300 A Proto-Balts     B Shores of Baltic, Byelorussia       L
                                        greater Russia. Along Baltic up to
                                        SW SF. To middle & upper Dnepr,
                                        upper Volga, & Oka RR. See fig 10
                                        xerox in ref 38. - [ {C Russia
                                        (maps 12a(x) & & 14a(26), CS
                                        Atlas)} + {Along Belaja R as far
                                        as S Ural
                                        Mts.} + {E along Volga R & its
                                        tributaries, lower Oka, Sura,
                                        lower Vjatka, lower Kama RR.}]
                                        *(38-3) - [{172-37} + {38-10}* * +
                                        {38-9}] *

382  18 -2200 -1900 N Remedello       U N I, see map 12a (15);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Italian versions of Bell Beaker Culture
                                                                                acc/to (168-7).

382  17 -2200 -1900 N Rinaldone       U C I, see map 12a (14);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

 48  10 -2200 -1800 A Salcuta         U Oltenia & E Banat (ROM)(see Fig. 1  L
                                        in ref)
                                                                                Culture.

382   9 -2200 -1850 N Schneckenberg-G U R, see map 12a (6); "Archeologicky  L
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date interpolated between this record
                                                                                and (383-9) and (383-6). Full name of
                                                                                culture: "Schneckenberg-Glina III."
                                                                                Apparently fragmented into Late
                                                                                Schneckenberg (383-9) and Late Glina III
                                                                                (383-6).

382  24 -2200 -1900 N Schoenfeld      U Area at junction of Havel and Elbe  L
                                        RR, N DDR, see map 12a(18a)
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Apparently associated with Corded
                                                                                Ware (Corded Pottery).

208   4 -2200 -2000 A Slate           U E Finnmark (N)                      L
                                                                                Culture. "First introduced from the East
                                                                                somewhere."

382   6 -2200 -1700 N Troy            U NW AM and Thrace, see map 12a (2);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (383-4). Culture comprises
                                                                                Troy V & VI.

382   8 -2200 -1850 N Vucedol         U YU, A, H, see map 12a (4);          L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Also referred to as Zok Complex.
                                                                                It includes several groups: Mako-Kosihy,
                                                                                Nyirseg-Zatin. End date interpolated
                                                                                betwen this record and (383-5).

901 124 -2100 -1600 A Armenokhori     U S Macedonia                         L
                                                                                Culture. Early Helladic III & Middle
                                                                                Helladic periods. Acc/to ref. 47, p. 214.

157   1 -2100 -1300 A Maliq           U Albania                             L
                                                                                Culture: Including Maliq IIIa through
                                                                                IIId. End date acc/to (385-6). Author
                                                                                believes that this represents new ethnic
                                                                                element. Not stated from where they came.
                                                                                Supposedly mixed with local Eneolithic
                                                                                population.

 48   2 -2100 #     A Ochre Grave     U W & N coasts of Black Sea, also     M
                                        Caucasus.
                                                                                From N of the Black Sea & wooded steppes.
                                                                                This is a culture, but ref is quite
                                                                                explicit that ochre-grave folk moved.

901 120 -2100 -1800 A Ochre Grave     U {W & N coasts of Black Sea, also    L
                                        Caucasus} *{48-2}*
                                                                                Culture. For consistency with (48-2). End
                                                                                date suggested by ref.

112   6 -2100 -1300 A Tumulus         U W Serbia, Glasinac, Herzegovina,    L
                                        Montenegro & Dalmatia.

131   3 -2000 #     A Anatolians      U BG, ROM, Vardar-Morava-Danube R     M
                                        areas.
                                                                                From Anatolia (C TR). *{900-26}*

 37   3 -2000 -800  A Cimmerians      R Betw lower Danube & Caucasus Mts    L
                                                                                This is Gimbutas' hypothesis concerning
                                                                                the people who produced the North Pontic
                                                                                culture. Pushed out by Scythians.

221  14 -2000 -300  N Lycians         A Lycia: Xanthus, Pinara, Myra,       L
                                        Phellus & Antiphellus. + SW AM
                                        betw Caria & Pamphylia & extending
                                        to ridge of Taurus Mts.
                                                                                Origin unknown. Possibly were part of
                                                                                Luvians who came via Balkans. Start time
                                                                                chosen conservatively for Late Bronze.
                                                                                *(Location modified to include area
                                                                                described by * *(224-37).) *

 47  23 -2000 -1700 A Paeones         U EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R plain)   L
                                                                                End date to conform to (47-24).

203   5 -2000 -1800 A Pitted Ware     U S coast of S (see Fig. 18 in ref)   L
                                                                                Culture. Ref states that they immigrated
                                                                                from the East.

900 341 -2000 -1200 A Proto-Illyrians Y Betw Epirus & Cetina R & defined    L
                                        inland by Neretva R & the mouth of
                                        its tributary, the Rama, & from
                                        the area by the watershed of the
                                        Neretva & Bosna RR. + From mouth
                                        of Cetina to mouth of Krka R, incl
                                        W & S Bosnia & Lika plain.
                                                                                Acc/to (112-1), (128-2), (158-1), (158-5).
                                                                                Locality definition acc/to (158-1), (158-
                                                                                5). This is the group ancestral to Istri,
                                                                                Dalmatians, Pannonians and other Illyrian
                                                                                language family tribes, whom we listed
                                                                                starting in 1200 BC.

900 253 -2000 -1200 A Proto-Thracians P E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly ROM  L
                                        and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-8).)
                                                                                Origins of Thracians ambiguous. Ref 128
                                                                                has them coming into Balkans from Hungary
                                                                                and E Galicia. Possible connection with
                                                                                Ochre Grave culture (ref 39). *Location
                                                                                information from (128-1).*

208   9 -2000 -1500 A Slate           U From E Finnmark to Mien (N of       L
                                        Alesund) (N)
                                                                                Culture. Apparent expansion over (208-4).
                                                                                End date is fictitious. No indication
                                                                                given in ref.

 37   4 -2000 -1800 A Timbergrave     R Don to Ural RR (see fig 351,        L
                                        xerox).
                                                                                Proto-Scythians.

 23   2 -1950 #     A Achaeans        H Macedonia                           Q
                                                                                But not necessarily displacing the
                                                                                Thracians. Coming from the NE.

218   5 -1940 -1780 A Amorites        E AM (that part called Cappadocia in  L
                                        Hellenistic times).
                                                                                Western Semites. Came with Assyrians. May
                                                                                have been in AM earlier. Perhaps came from
                                                                                NW Syria. *{311-6}*

218   3 -1940 #     A Luvians         A AM (that part called Cappadocia in  E
                                        Hellenistic times).
                                                                                At least the ruling classes from Balikesir
                                                                                Plain, AM, (See map 1.), SW AM, Konya
                                                                                Plain, Cilicia, Eskisehir-Ankara area.
                                                                                *{900-208}* They could also be Hittites.

900 209 -1940 -1600 A Luvians         A {Balikesir Plain, AM, See map 1 SW  L
                                        AM, Konya Plain, Cilicia,
                                        Eskisehir-Ankara area.} +{AM (that
                                        part called Cappadocia in
                                        Hellenistic times).} *{900-208} +
                                        {218-3}*

 47  19 -1900 -1550 A Aeolians        H C & S Albania                       L

 47  10 -1900 -1600 A Bukri           U W Macedonia (for the location of    L
                                        the Bukri site itself, see Map 19,
                                        No. 9, in ref.)
                                                                                Culture. Overthrew more artistic and
                                                                                advanced Crnobuki culture. For further
                                                                                cultures (not captured) see chronology on
                                                                                p. 214. Middle Helladic period.

173  15 -1900 -1700 A Cernavoda       U Valachia (ROM)                      L
                                                                                Culture.

 47  17 -1900 -1600 A Dorian-Macednan H Haliacmon RV (S Maced.) around      L
                                        Servia, later held region of
                                        Thessaly known as Phtiotis, &
                                        country under Mts Ossa & Olympus.

 47  12 -1900 -1600 A Greeks          H Pelagonia                           W
                                                                                From NE.

900 212 -1900 #     A Hittites        A {C Anatolia} - {Halys R area,       TB
                                        around Ankara, TR} *{901-104} -
                                        {311-23}*
                                                                                To Halys R area, around Ankara, TR *{311-
                                                                                23}* Necessary to adjust location to
                                                                                conform with with (311-23).

311  23 -1900 -1700 A Hittites        A Halys R area, around Ankara, TR     L

900 205 -1900 -1300 A Ionians         H Attica, Euboea                      M
                                                                                Questionable whether they came from Ionian
                                                                                Gulf & hinterlands (map 3, ref 47). *{47-
                                                                                18}* May have originated in situ.

900 146 -1900 -400  A Ionians         H {Attica, Euboea} *{900-205}*        L
                                                                                Acc/to (162-1). Also reported from Attica
                                                                                in numerous refs. Acc/to (22-14), around -
                                                                                1000 only remaining Achaeans (original
                                                                                Greeks) in face of Doric Invasion. Also in
                                                                                area around Athens, GR acc/to (318-1).

123   3 -1900 #     A Luvians         A Crete (E&C)                         S
                                                                                From AM.

900 206 -1900 -1500 A Luvians         A {Crete (E&C)} *{123-3}*             L
                                                                                Acc/ to L.R. Palmer in ref 139 based on
                                                                                scant linguistic evidence, but Crossland
                                                                                thinks that Luvians did not migrate in
                                                                                large numbers.

 47  20 -1900 -1600 A Macednans       H N Pieria                            L
                                                                                Collateral branch of Greek-speaking
                                                                                people. They are the ancient Macedonians.

 47  16 -1900 -1600 A NW. Greeks      H C Albania, C Epirus                 Q
                                                                                From Porodin (Pelagonia). *{47-13}* Only
                                                                                part of population.

900 142 -1900 -1000 N NW. Greeks      H {C Albania, C Epirus} *{47-16}*     L
                                                                                Following (47-16).

900 210 -1900 -1700 A Palaeans        A {Pala region of AM (classical       M
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).}
                                        *{219-6}*
                                                                                Needed to get them from Pala distr. in
                                                                                Khatti (139-3) to (219-6).

219   6 -1900 -1500 A Palaeans        A Pala region of AM (classical        L
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).

 38   2 -1900 -1700 A Proto-Balts     B N limit from Lithuania to upper     I
                                        Volga. Shores of Baltic,
                                        Byelorussia, greater Russia. Along
                                        Baltic up to SW SF. To middle &
                                        upper Dnepr, upper Volga & Oka RR.
                                                                                With established neolithic farmers or
                                                                                hunter-fishers -- funnel beaker culture,
                                                                                bell beaker culture, comb marked & pitted
                                                                                ware people amalgam.

123   5 -1900 #     A Proto-Hellenes  H Epiros, W Thessaly & Pieria         L
                                                                                Probably syn. with Proto-Greeks.

383  36 -1850 -1700 N Catacomb        U S SU betw Volga & Dnestr RR,        L
                                        seemap 13a (32); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (382-13) (Jamov-Catacomb).

383  29 -1850 -1700 N Corded Ware     U W SU, see map 13a (24);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated to conform to (382-
                                                                                21). Culture gave rise to Komarov Culture
                                                                                acc/to (13-19), and to Trzciniec Culture
                                                                                acc/to (13-5).

383  19 -1850 -1700 N L.Corded Ware   U CH, see map 13a (16a);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full name: Late Corded Ware. Start date
                                                                                interpolated to conform to (382-21).

383  25 -1850 -1700 N L.Corded Ware   U Upper reaches of Bug R in W         L
                                        Ukraine, see map 13a(22);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Pocapsky type of Late Corded Pottery. Full
                                                                                name: Late Corded Ware. Start date
                                                                                interpolated to conform to (382-21).

383  26 -1850 -1700 N L.Corded Ware   U NW Ukraine, see map 13a (22a);      L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Strizovo culture of Late Corded Pottery.
                                                                                Full name: Late Corded Ware. Start date
                                                                                interpolated to conform to (382-21).

383  27 -1850 -1700 N L.Corded Ware   U N D, N NL, N DDR, SCA,see map 13a   L
                                        (23); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full name: Late Corded Ware. Start date
                                                                                interpolated to conform to (382-21).

383   3 -1850 -1675 N Late Ezero      U SE BG, see map 13a (2a);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Middle Bronze Age (Trojan
                                                                                influence). Start and end dates
                                                                                interpolated to fit (382-7) and (384-4),
                                                                                respectively. Apparent slight southward
                                                                                displacement over (382-7).

383   6 -1850 -1600 N Late Glina III  U S R, see map 13a (5);               L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (382-9). Area previously
                                                                                part of Schneckenberg-Glina III (382-9).
                                                                                See (383-9) for Late Schneckenberg. End
                                                                                date acc/to (48-8) and (48-14). Syn. Glina.

383   9 -1850 -1700 N Late Schneckenb U N & C R, se map 13a (7);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (382-9). Full name: Late
                                                                                Schneckenberg. Area previously part of
                                                                                Schneckenberg-Glina III (382-9). See (383-
                                                                                6) for Glina III.

383   5 -1850 -1700 N Late Vucedol    U NE YU, see map 13a (4);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolation between (382-8)
                                                                                and this record. Apparent contraction over
                                                                                (382-8). Referred to as a "group," not a
                                                                                culture.

222   4 -1850 -1550 A Middle Cypriot  U Cyprus                              L
                                                                                Culture in Middle Bronze.

383   2 -1850 -1700 N MiddleBronzeAge U Crete, see map 13a (2);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                "Minoan" culture. Full name: Middle Bronze
                                                                                Age.

383  18 -1800 -1675 A Adlerberg       U Rhine R area, W C D, see map 13a    L
                                        (16); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."

 21   5 -1800 #     A Aegaeans        U Greek mainland                      I
                                                                                By Achaeans.

900  28 -1800 -1300 A Andronovo       U Ural & Kama RR area, N of Caspian   L
                                        Sea, SU, see map 13a (34);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (383-38), same as (384-37) or (385-
                                                                                26).

383  28 -1800 -1650 N Battle Axe      U N D, N NL, N DDR, SCA,see map 13a   L
                                        (23); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date to conform to (384-45). Culture.
                                                                                Apparent expansion to N D over (382-22).
                                                                                In SF the culture becomes Kiukais culture,
                                                                                which acc/to (202-3) is an amalgam of
                                                                                Battle Axe and primordial peoples.

383  31 -1800 -1675 N Castellucio     U Sicily & "toe" of I, see map 13a    L
                                        (27); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolation between
                                                                                this record and (384-17).

173  19 -1800 -1200 A Costisa         U N Moldavia, ROM                     L
                                                                                Culture. Part of "Trzciniec Culture
                                                                                Complex" acc/to (384-27).

383  35 -1800 -1100 N ElArgar         U S E, see map 13a (31);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (386-19). Ref 230
                                                                                says these gave rise to Iberians s. str.

383  20 -1800 -1550 N Grob-Smiardow   U Area W of Oder R and N of Warta R,  L
                                        NW PL, see map 13a(17);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (384-21). Syn.
                                                                                Grob II acc/to (384-21).

383  13 -1800 -1700 N Hatvan          U S CS & N H, see map 13a (11);       L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Including Tokod group.

383  21 -1800 -1550 N Iwno            U Lower Wista R area, N PL, see map   L
                                        13a (18); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Syn. Iwienska.

900 118 -1800 -700  A KarelianCulture U Betw White Sea & L Ladoga, N SU &   L
                                        E SF, see map 17a (41);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (383-45), (386-39), (387-43), (384-
                                                                                42), (385-32). Full name: Karelian Culture.

383  12 -1800 -1700 N Kisapostag      U W H, see map 13a (10);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Including Guntramsdorf-Drassburg
                                                                                (= Litzenkeramik & Burgenland).

383  46 -1800 -1475 N Kiukais         U SW SF & W Estonia, see map 13a      L
                                        (43); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                (384-43) and (385-35). Syn. Kiukainen.
                                                                                Acc/to (203-3) these are an amalgam of
                                                                                Battle Axe and primordial peoples.

383  23 -1800 -1700 N Kostian         U Carpathian Mts., CS, see map 13a    L
                                        (20); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

383  39 -1800 -1100 N Marjaniv-Bondar U Psiol & Donec RR area, SU, see map  L
                                        13a (35); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (386-33). Full culture
                                                                                name: "Marjaniv-Bondarichin."

383  24 -1800 -1700 N Meranovo        U Betw Upper Wista & Upper Warta RR,  L
                                        S PL, see map 13a(21);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

383   1 -1800 -1700 N MiddleBronzeAge U GR & Macedonia, see map 13a (1);    L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                "Helladic" culture. Full name: Middle
                                                                                Bronze Age.

383  34 -1800 -1550 N Monte Claro     U Sardinia, Corsica, see map 13a      L
                                        (30); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Incl. Megalith culture of Corsica
                                                                                (225-9). End date acc/to (384-56).

383  11 -1800 -1700 N Nayrev          U Between Danube & Tisza RR, C H,     L
                                        see map 13a(9); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Including Csepel (= Protonagyrev)
                                                                                group.

383  22 -1800 -1700 N Nitran          U Lower Vah R area, C S, see map      L
                                        13a(19); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

383   7 -1800 -1700 N Older Monteoru  U Moldavia, E R, see map 13a (6);     L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Continued as Monteoru (48-6).

173  17 -1800 -1200 A Otomani         U NW ROM & adjacent areas of H        L
                                                                                Culture.

383  10 -1800 -1675 N Periam          U E YU & W R, see map 13a (8);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Possible synonyms include:
                                                                                Pejamos, Pecica (although ref (48-18)
                                                                                shows Pecica to follow Periam in SW
                                                                                Transylvania).

383  33 -1800 -1675 N Polada          U N I, SE F, see map 13a (29);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date interpolated betw this record and
                                                                                (384-49). This culture also referred to as
                                                                                "Terramare."

383  37 -1800 -1700 N Poltava         U Volga R area, S of mouth of Samara  L
                                        R, see map 13a(33); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

383  32 -1800 -1650 N Proto-Appenine  U I, see map 13a (28);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date to conform to (384-48).
                                                                                Continued as Appenine (384-48).

139  15 -1800 -900  A Proto-Italics   I I                                   M
                                                                                From NE. These are represented later by
                                                                                Latin, Oscan, and Umbrian speaking groups.
                                                                                Start date acc/to beginning or Terramare
                                                                                culture in CSSR Atlas linked to (26-5).
                                                                                This ref starts them at 1500 BC.

383  17 -1800 -1675 N Straubing       U Area S of Upper Danube R, Bavaria,  L
                                        D, see map 13a(15); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (384-18).

173  21 -1800 -1200 A Tei             U Valachia E of Olt R, ROM            L
                                                                                Culture. Late Tei Culture is also included
                                                                                in record (385-15), Coslogeni.

900 226 -1800 #     A Timbergrave     R Area west of Don to Ural RR (see    E
                                        fig 351, xerox). *{37-4}*
                                                                                From Don to Ural RR (see fig 351, xerox).
                                                                                *{37-4}* Proto-Scythians acc/to ref 37.

900 227 -1800 -750  A Timbergrave     R {Don to Ural RR (see fig 351,       L
                                        xerox).} + {Area west of Don to
                                        Ural RR (see fig 351, xerox).}
                                        *{37-4} + {900-226}*
                                                                                Proto-Scythians acc/to ref 37. We extend
                                                                                termination date from -1100 (ref 37) to -
                                                                                750 to link up with the appearance of
                                                                                Scythians proper. If we should find other
                                                                                gentes occupying this area between -1100
                                                                                and -750, we need to adjust this
                                                                                time.

383  42 -1800 -1550 N Turbino         U Area around Perm, SU, see map 13a   L
                                        (38); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (384-36).

383  15 -1800 -1675 N Unetice         U Elbe R, Oder R, and Morava (March)  L
                                        R areas (E A), S CS, D, & PL, see
                                        map 13a(13); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Called "Older Unetice." End date
                                                                                interpolated between this record and (384-
                                                                                17). Believed by (19-3) to have been Indo-
                                                                                Europeans.

383  16 -1800 -1700 N Unterwoebling   U Danube R area A, see map 13a (14);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

383  40 -1800 -1300 N Valdaj          U Lovat R area, NW SU, see map 13a    L
                                        (36); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-29).

108   5 -1800 -1700 A Vinkovci        U YU Danube Basin (includes: Szava    L
                                        nr Siklos, Gradina on Bosut R,
                                        Vinkovci, Sirmia, part of
                                        Slavonia, Baranja area,
                                        Svetozarevo in W Serbia, Szeged in
                                        H.)
                                                                                Full name: Vinkovci-Somogyvar Culture.

383  41 -1800 -1675 N Volosovsk       U Area SE of L. Ladoga, extending NE  L
                                        to Vaga R & E to Vjetka R, NW SU,
                                        see map
                                        13a(37);"ArcheologickyAtlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (384-35).

383  44 -1800 -700  N White Sea       U Onezkij Peninsula W of              L
                                        Archangelsk, N SU, see map 13a
                                        (41); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (387-45).

173  18 -1800 -1200 A Wietenberg      U E & SE Transilvania (ROM)(See Fig.  L
                                        4 in ref)
                                                                                Culture.

219   7 -1750 -900  A Kaska           U N of Kattusha (mod. Bogazkoey,      L
                                        TR), AM
                                                                                Nomads of unknown language, troublesome to
                                                                                Hittites. End date to conform to (224-16).

219   4 -1750 -1500 A Khattic         O {NC AM, roughly within Cekerek      I
                                        (classical Scylax) & Delice
                                        (classical Cappadox) RR basins}
                                        *{219-3}*
                                                                                End date: guess. By Hittite speakers.

119   2 -1750 -1650 A Mysians         P NW margins BG, NE Serbia            L
                                                                                Origin ambiguous. Termination date from
                                                                                reference 39 by same author.

139  14 -1750 -1300 A Tumulus         U Danubian area (C Europe)            L
                                                                                & Urnfield.

305   7 -1700 -400  A Black Sea       U E ROM, E BG, S SU, around Black     L
                                        Sea and C SU.
                                                                                Full name: Black Sea Culture Area.

900 213 -1700 #     A Hittites        A {Halys R area, around Ankara, TR}   E
                                        + Khattusha in Khatti, AM (approx.
                                        from Kizil Irmak R (R Halys) & the
                                        plain of Konya in W to mts in
                                        Malatya region in E). *{311-23} +
                                        (139-1)*
                                                                                From Halys R area, around Ankara, TR.
                                                                                *{311-23}* Necessary to adjust to (139-1).

900 214 -1700 -1650 A Hittites        A {Halys R area, around Ankara, TR +  L
                                        Khattusha in Khatti, AM (approx.
                                        from Kizil Irmak R (R Halys) & the
                                        plain of Konya in W to mts in
                                        Malatya region in E).} *{900-213}*
                                                                                Acc/ to (139-1).

131   5 -1700 -1300 A Incrusted Ware  U Transdanubian H up to Drava R (see  L
                                        map on p. 16)
                                                                                Culture.

 48   6 -1700 -1300 A Monteoru        U NE Muntenia & Moldova (Moldavia),   L
                                        ROM (see Fig. 4 in ref 173)
                                                                                Culture.

305   1 -1700 -1400 A Old Bronze Age  U Betw Rhine, Sava, Duna (Danube)     L
                                        and Odra (Oder) RR, D, DDR, A, CS,
                                        PL, H, YU.
                                                                                Culture.

 47  24 -1700 -1500 A Paeones         U Beyond Vardar R thru plain to       E
                                        Ludias R, then into Eordaea,
                                        Lyncus & finally Pelagonia. Up
                                        Vardar R to Stobi.
                                                                                Dates are guesses to place this action
                                                                                with limits given by (47-23) and (901-97).

901  98 -1700 -1400 A Paeones         U {EC Macedonia (Mid-Vardar R         L
                                        plain)} + {Beyond Vardar R thru
                                        plain to Ludias R, then into
                                        Eordaea, Lyncus & finally
                                        Pelagonia. Up Vardar R to
                                        Stobi.} *{47-23} + {47-24}*             Start date for consistency with (47-24).
                                                                                End date for consistency with (901-97).

173  23 -1700 -1100 A Pecica          U SW Transylvania (Temisoara area),   L
                                        ROM
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to Fig. 51 in ref
                                                                                48. Latest Pecica considered Early
                                                                                Hallstatt in ref 48, Fig. 51.

131   6 -1700 -1400 A Tell Culture    U E H (see 131, p. 16, Fig.3, shades  L
                                        3a-3c)
                                                                                Culture comprised of Perjamos,
                                                                                Fuezesabony, & Gyulavarsand cultures.

384   3 -1700 -1250 N Troy            U W AM and Thrace, see map 14a (1b);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This is the Troy VI Culture. Start date
                                                                                for consistency with (382-6); end date
                                                                                acc/to (385-3) and for consistency with
                                                                                (386-14). This appears to be an expansion
                                                                                of area in (382-6). We are not certain
                                                                                this is correct.

108   6 -1700 -1550 A Vatin           U YU Danube, see Map 4, p. 59         L
                                                                                Culture.

131   7 -1700 -1475 A Vatya           U C H betw Transdanubia & Tisza R     L
                                                                                Culture. End date compromise between this
                                                                                record and (384-9).

384  20 -1675 -1550 A Adlerberg       U Rhine R, D, see map 14a (14);       L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

384  47 -1675 -1550 N Castellucio     U Sicily, "toe" of I, see map 14a     L
                                        (39); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolation between
                                                                                this record and (383-31). Apparent
                                                                                expansion over (383-31).

384   4 -1675 -1550 N Late Ezero      U E BG, see map 14a (2);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated to fit (383-3).
                                                                                Middle Bronze Age culture. Apparent slight
                                                                                displacement away from Black Sea over (383-
                                                                                3).

384   6 -1675 -1550 N Periam          U Area around Muras R junction into   L
                                        Tisza R, NE YU, E H, & W ROM, see
                                        map 14a (4); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture synonym given by author: Periamos.
                                                                                Shift in location over (383-10).

384  49 -1675 -1475 N Polada          U N I, see map 14a (41);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Start date interpolated between (383-33)
                                                                                and this record. End date between this
                                                                                record and (385-39). Culture synonym:
                                                                                "Terramare" acc/to authors. Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (383-33).

384  18 -1675 -1550 N Straubing       U Upper Danube R area, Bavaria, D,    L
                                        see map 14a (12c); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-17). Apparent
                                                                                expansion of (383-17).

384  17 -1675 -1550 N Unetice         U Elbe, Saale, Odra (Oder), Warta,    L
                                        Vltava RR, D, DDR, PL, CS, see map
                                        14a (12b); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Cuture called "Classical Unetice." Start
                                                                                date interpolated between this record and
                                                                                (383-15). Location shifted over (383-15).
                                                                                Believed by ref (19-3) to have been Indo-
                                                                                Europeans.

384  35 -1675 -1550 N Volosovsk       U SE of Lake Ladoga, extending E to   L
                                        Vjatka R area, N SU, see map 14a
                                        (27a); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Start date interpolated between
                                                                                this record and (383-41). Apparent
                                                                                contraction over (383-41).

384  48 -1650 -1475 A Appenine        U I, see map 14a (40);                L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

900  59 -1650 -700  A Armorican       U NW F, see map 14a (44);             L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (384-52), (385-43), (386-23), (387-
                                                                                24).

384  53 -1650 -1550 A Artenacien      U Seine R area, F, see map 14a (45);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

900  63 -1650 -700  A AsbestosCeramic U SC SF, see map 14a (37);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Acc/to (384-44), (385-34), (386-41), (387-
                                                                                47). Full name: Asbestos Ceramic.

384  29 -1650 -1550 N Bagatovalikov   U Dnepr R area S of Kiev, SU, see     L
                                        map 14a (21); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full name: Bagatovalikov Ceramic.

384  24 -1650 -1475 N Baltic Bronze   U E PL, Latvia, Lithuania, see map    L
                                        14a (19); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."

384  16 -1650 -1550 N Boeheimkirchen  U NE A, see map 14a (12a);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. "Height of Central European
                                                                                Bronze Age."

384  57 -1650 -1500 N Early BronzeAge U CH, see map 14a (13);               L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Early Bronze Age.

384  23 -1650 -1475 N Early N.Bronze  U Denmark, see map 14a (18);          L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Early Northern Bronze
                                                                                Age. End date extended to conform to (170-
                                                                                5).

311  24 -1650 #     A Hittites        A Syria, N of Aleppo & W of           E
                                        Euphrates R.
                                                                                From Halys R area, around Ankara, TR +
                                                                                Khattusha in Khatti, AM (approx. from
                                                                                Kizil Irmak R (R Halys) & the plain of
                                                                                Konya in W to mts in Malatya region in E).
                                                                                *{900-214}*

900 215 -1650 -1470 A Hittites        A {Halys R area, around Ankara, TR +  L
                                        Khattusha in Khatti, AM (approx.
                                        from Kizil Irmak R (R Halys) & the
                                        plain of Konya in W to mts in
                                        Malatya region in E).} + {Syria, N
                                        of Aleppo & W of Euphrates R.}
                                        *{900-214} + {311-24}*

384  14 -1650 -1550 N Hungarian-Slova U Middle Danube and Vah RR, H & CS,   L
                                        see map 14a (12a); "Archeologicky
                                        Atlas Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full name: Hungarian-Slovakian Culture,
                                                                                incl. Hurbanovo Type. "Height of Central
                                                                                European Bronze Age."

 13  19 -1650 -1200 A Komarov         U Upper Dnestr R & in Ukrainian       L
                                        forest steppe on right bank of
                                        Dnepr R (see Fig. 3, p. 35)
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (384-26); end
                                                                                date for consistency with (386-31).
                                                                                Derived from Corded Pottery Ceramic; gave
                                                                                rise to Belogrudov culture.

384  45 -1650 -1550 N Late Battle Axe U S S & N, see map 14a (38);          L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Full culture name: Late Boat-Shaped Battle
                                                                                Axe. Apparent contraction over (383-28).

384   2 -1650 -1550 N Late Minoan     U Crete, see map 14a (1a);            L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."

384  30 -1650 -1475 N Log Hut         U Area betw Ural & Dnepr RR incl      L
                                        Crimea, S SU, see map 14a (22);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date interpolated with (385-20).
                                                                                Synonymous with "Srubova" culture.

384   5 -1650 -1300 N M.BronzeAgeComp U Middle Danube R basin, NE YU, SW    L
                                        ROM, NW BG, see map 14a (3);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (385-5). Culture includes
                                                                                Slatina Group, Verbicioara Culture,
                                                                                Vattina-Vrsac-Girla Mare Culture. Also
                                                                                Paracin Culture & Dubovac Zuto-Brdo group
                                                                                later on. Full name: Middle Bronze Age
                                                                                Complex.

 39   4 -1650 #     A Mysians         P SE Balkans                          E
                                                                                From NW Balkans (Danube R area).

900 254 -1650 -1    A Mysians         P {SE Balkans} + {NW margins BG, NE   L
                                        Serbia} *{39-4} + {119-2}*
                                                                                Acc/to ref 165. Probably Romanized.

384  39 -1650 -1550 N N. Belorussian  U N Belorussia, SU, see map 14a       L
                                        (32); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

384  40 -1650 -1300 N Porista Ceramic U Estonia, N Latvia, see map 14a      L
                                        (33); "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy
                                        A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                End date acc/to (385-22). Culture.

384  34 -1650 -1250 N Pre-Kazan       U Near Kazan area, Volga R, see map   L
                                        14a (27); "Archeologicky Atlas
                                        Evropy A Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-28).

384  50 -1650 -1250 N Rhone           U Rhone R area, F, see map 14a (42);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-41).

384  28 -1650 -1300 N Sosnick         U Between Beresina & Desna RR N of    L
                                        Kiev, SU, see map 14a (20d);
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                This culture is part of "Trzciniec Culture
                                                                                Complex." End date acc/to (385-19).

169  42 -1650 -800  A Srub            U S Russia (See Maps 14a-16a, CS      L
                                        atlas)
                                                                                End date extended beyond maps to conform
                                                                                to (169-45). Tribes forming the Srub
                                                                                culture.

 39   2 -1650 #     A Thracians       P SE Balkans (mostly BG)              M
                                                                                From E Balkans, Carpathians (mostly ROM
                                                                                and Moldavian SSR, acc/to (387-8).) *{900-
                                                                                253}* Now called Thracians after they
                                                                                leave (900-253).

900 289 -1650 -800  A Thracians       P {SE Balkans (mostly BG)} *{39-2}*   L
                                                                                Acc/to (39-2).

 13   5 -1650 -1200 A Trzciniec       U E of Oder R between right           L
                                        tributaries of Oder R & middle
                                        course of Dnepr R (see Fig. 3, p.
                                        35)
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (384-25).
                                                                                Derived from Corded Pottery Ceramics. Gave
                                                                                rise to Belogrudov culture.

384  15 -1650 -1550 N Veterovo-Moravi U C & S CS & N A, see map 14a (12a);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. Full name: Veterovo-Moravian.

384  54 -1650 -1300 N Wessex          U S coast England, see map 14a (46);  L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture. End date acc/to (385-47).

384  46 -1650 -1550 N Wickelschnurker U NL & N D, see map 14a (38a);        L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Ref calls this a group, not a culture.
                                                                                Full name is "Wickelschnurkeramik."

384  11 -1650 -1550 N Wieselburg-Gata U NW H, see map 14a (9);              L
                                        "Archeologicky Atlas Evropy A
                                        Ceskoslovenska."
                                                                                Culture.

129   2 -1600 -800  A Andronovo       U Altai & Minussinsk areas &          L
                                        Kazakhstan (in Asian SU).

900 207 -1600 #     A Luvians         A SW Khatti                           E
                                                                                Acc/to (139-2). From Balikesir Plain, AM,
                                                                                (See map 1.), SW AM, Konya Plain, Cilicia,
                                                                                Eskisehir-Ankara area. + AM (that part
                                                                                called Cappadocia in Hellenistic times).
                                                                                *{900-209}*

900 229 -1600 -1300 A Luvians         A {Balikesir Plain, AM, See map 1 SW  L
                                        AM, Konya Plain, Cilicia,
                                        Eskisehir-Ankara area. + AM (that
                                        part called Cappadocia in
                                        Hellenistic times).} + {SW
                                        Khatti.} *{900-209} + {900-207}*

900 174 -1600 -1050 N Macedonians     H N Pieria area                       L
                                                                                Acc/to (47-87), (165-51), (47-88).

 26   9 -1600 -1400 A Matera          U Apulia, NE Sicily                   L
                                                                                Culture. First area in S I to show Indo-
                                                                                European influences.

900 144 -1600 -1300 N Minoan          U Crete                               L
                                                                                (To connect (21-1) and (385-2).) Culture.

311  25 -1595 #     A Hittites        A Babylon                             A
                                                                                From Halys R area, around Ankara, TR +
                                                                                Khattusha in Khatti, AM (approx. from
                                                                                Kizil Irmak R (R Halys) & the plain of
                                                                                Konya in W to mts in Malatya region in E).
                                                                                *{900-214}*

900 137 -1580 #     A Achaeans        H Greek mainland                      M
                                                                                To replace (21-4) with more conservative
                                                                                data. From NE.

900 140 -1580 -700  N Achaeans        H Arcadia (in Peloponnese)            L
                                                                                Implied by (900-137); also (22-15), (160-
                                                                                13). Also called Arcadians. Only remaining
                                                                                Achaeans (original Greeks) in face of
                                                                                Doric Invasion. Did not leave at 700 BC
                                                                                but became part of general Greek
                                                                                population.

900 184 -1580 -1100 N Achaeans        H Peloponnese less Arcadia            L
                                                                                Replaced by Dorians and NW. Greeks (see
                                                                                (22-15)).

220   1 -1570 #     A Hurrians        O Hittite kingdom probably nr modern  A
                                        Gueruen W of Malatya (AM).
                                                                                From E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran +
                                                                                NW Syria + AM (that part called Cappadocia
                                                                                in Hellenistic times). *{218-4}*

 21   2 -1550 #     A Achaeans        H Crete                               A
                                                                                From Greek mainland.

900 138 -1550 #     A Aeolians        H Corinthia + Thessaly, Phocis,       M
                                        Locris & Boeotia.
                                                                                From north (possibly C & S Albania, see
                                                                                (47-19).) *(Place description constructed
                                                                                by adding * *(160-10) + (47-27).)*

900 139 -1550 -1200 A Aeolians        H {Corinthia + Thessaly, Phocis,      L
                                        Locris & Boeotia.} *{900-138}*
                                                                                Implied by (900-138). Termination date
                                                                                acc/to (47-27) which says they left from
                                                                                Thessaly, etc.

900  98 -1550 -1100 A Fatjanovo       B {C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26),   L
                                        CS Atlas).} *{172-37}*
                                                                                Implied by (38-9), (38-10).

219   5 -1550 #     A Hurrians        O S part (Cilicia) of AM              E
                                                                                Area previously inhabited by Luvians. From
                                                                                E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran + NW
                                                                                Syria + AM (that part called Cappadocia in
                                                                                Hellenistic times). *{218-4}* 'Came from
                                                                                their kingdom beyond eastern mts.'

220   3 -1550 -1380 N Hurrians        O {E TR,N Syria and possibly NW Iran  L
                                        + NW Syria + AM (that part called
                                        Cappadociain Hellenistic times)} +
                                        {S part (Cilicia) of AM} *{218-4}
                                        + {219-5}*
                                                                                (Syn. Mitanni.)

222   5 -1550 -1050 A Late Cypriot    U Cyprus                              L
                                                                                Culture in Late Bronze Period.

900 136 -1550 -1100 A Mycenaeans      H Mainland GR with center around      L
                                        Mycenae.
                                                                                Compromise start date between (384-1) and
                                                                                (153-21) to conform to Ploetz date of 1580
                                                                                BC arrival of Achaeans of whom the
                                                                                Mycenaeans formed a subgroup. Conquered
                                                                                and dispersed by 1100 BC acc/to (160-6).

 38  10 -1500 -1250 A Fatjanovo       B Along Belaja R as far as S Ural     E
                                        Mts.
                                                                                From C Russia (maps 12a(x) & 14a(26), CS
                                                                                Atlas). *{172-37}*

900  99 -1500 -1100 A Fatjanovo       B {Along Belaja R as far as S Ural    L
                                        Mts.} *{38-10}*
                                                                                Implied by (38-9).

900 300 -1500 -1200 A Liburni         Y Istria, YU, S and E of Rasa R       L
                                                                                Acc/to (123-13) and (158-6). Rasa R
                                                                                boundary implied by (165-49).

305   2 -1500 -1200 A Megalith        U Betw Seine, Loire, Rhone RR, F and  L
                                        Sava, Duna (Danube) and Odra
                                        (Oder) RR, D, DDR, A, CS, PL, H,
                                        YU.
                                                                                Culture.

119   3 -1500 #     A Mysians         P Anatolia (to NW of peninsula, see   S
                                        Mysia, p.16, Putzger/Lendl/Wagner
                                        Atlas.)
                                                                                From SE Balkans. *{39-4}*

 29   2 -1500 -500  A Non-Germanics   U N SCA, most of SF, E Baltic         L
                                                                                Non (Pre) Germanic Scandinavian pops.
                                                                                "Stone age cultures."

900 460 -1500 -1200 A Nordic Culture  G Lower Weser R in W to lower Oder R  E
                                        in E, in S up to a line from
                                        Bremen to S Mecklenburg boundary.
                                        + S & C S, SW & W SF
                                                                                Combination of (29-1) & (29-3). From area
                                                                                N from Elbe R area around Luebeck &
                                                                                Hamburg, D & into DK. *{360-1}*

900 461 -1500 -800  A Nordic Culture  G {N from Elbe R area around Luebeck  L
                                        & Hamburg, D & into DK.} +
                                        {Lower Weser R in W to lower Oder       For consistency with (900-460) & (29-4).
                                        R in E, in S up to a line from
                                        Bremen to S Mecklenburg boundary.
                                        + S & C S, SW & W SF} *{360-1} +
                                        {900-460}*

168  16 -1500 -500  A Nuraghe         U Sardinia (also Corsica acc/to (385- L
                                        40) etc)
                                                                                Culture. The Corsican component is
                                                                                sometimes called Torreen (225-10).

900 211 -1500 -1400 A Palaeans        A {Pala region of AM (classical       I
                                        Paphlagonia, modern Kastamonu).}
                                        *{219-6}*
                                                                                Acc/ to (139-3). By Hittites.

900 305 -1500 50    A Pannonians      Y S of Drava to Sava R & Danube       L
                                                                                Acc/to (123-11), (158-7), (132-1) [listed
                                                                                as W H, but mapped as described under
                                                                                location], (109-1), (110-1). Pannonian
                                                                                tribes are Andizitei, Ditiones, Pirustae,
                                                                                Maezaei, & Daesitiates acc/to Strabo.

900 255 -1500 -1080 A Phrygians       P Macedonia, Thrace                   L
                                                                                Acc/to (119-4) and (159-3).

 13   4 -1500 -1200 A Pre-Lausitz     U Area from slightly W of Oder R to   L
                                        Warta R (see Abb. 3)
                                                                                Culture. Start date acc/to (305-3).


Next section Abbreviations References

Welcome Intro Format Data Download


Last Altered January 10, 1996
E-mail: Questions/Comments Technical Problems
The Ethnohistory Project / msr@life.bio.sunysb.edu