Chapter 14 review questions:


  1. Examine Figure 1-A in Chapter 14 of the book.  What does this diagram regarding the activity-time budget of a nest-helper suggest about the costs and benefits of social life?


  1. Group living is costly in terms of direct reproduction, food availability, and increased risk to parasites.  Why live in a group?  Offer at least three reasons why an organism may have evolved group-living tendencies.


  1. Some may argue that animals help each other, particularly by living socially, for the benefit of the species.  What mechanism of selection might the individual making the preceding statement be envisioning?  Would you accept or reject the first statement?  Why?


  1. Table 1 in Chapter 14 describes 5 types of social interactions and their effects on individual fitness.  Explain in your own words the difference between “reciprocity” and “altruism.” 


  1. Why is reciprocity fairly Uncommon?  Explain your answer in terms of the Prisoner’s Dilemma.


  1. What is the formal definition of inclusive fitness?  What roles do direct and indirect fitness play in inclusive fitness?  Why is this concept important in understanding social evolution?


  1. Why is Hamilton’s rule important in discussions of social behavior? 


  1. Explain the statement that “altruism works best when a population is structured.”  (Hint:  you will need to understand and utilize Hamilton’s rule)


  1. What is a haplo-diploid, explain in terms of the genetic structure of male and female wasps (Hymenoptera).  Calculate the coefficient of relatedness between a female wasp and her sister, and a female wasp and her offsping---which is higher?  What does this tell us about the potential for EUSOCIAL behavior in wasps?


  1. While being haplo-diploid may favor the possibility of eusocial behavior, not all haplo-diploid organisms are eusocial.  Why?  What external factors may lead certain haplo-diploid organisms to evolve eusocial behavior?


  1. What seems to be influencing cooperative breeding behavior in the Saddle-backed tamarin?  In the Florida Scrub Jay?


  1. What in the heck is Tit-for-Tat?  What, if anything, does tit-for-tat have to do with animal behavior (i.e. give an example that tit-for-tat may be operating?)


  1. It is time to remember back to Chapters 7 and 8—foraging and predation.  Be able to explain the costs and benefits of living in a social group in reference to food and predation.  Review Dr. Janson’s 1992 paper!


  1.  Given Dr. Janson’s description of his work with Brown Capuchins, does there seem to be any evidence that food competition is an important factor for this species…contrast the behavior in large and small groups of capuchins.


  1.  Describe how “winner-loser effects” might influence the behavior of blue footed boobies.


  1. What types of interactions lead to linear dominance hierarchies?  To non-linear dominance hierarchies?  Describe what types of species you would expect to find each of the preceding types of hierarchies?


  1. Why do fruit-eating primates generally have females that are philopatric?  Under what ecological conditions would you expect females to leave their natal group?


Other notes for Ch 14:  Make sure that you can calculate the coefficient of relatedness of many different combinations on the class handout.  Also, READ Dr. Janson’s 1992 paper!!!


Chapter 15 review questions:


  1. Why is the evolution of human behavior such a controversial topic?  What is the biggest challenge facing human behavioral ecologists? (Don’t stress, more than one right answer but be able to explain it.)


  1. How might you test whether a certain human behavior (i.e. mate choice), is culturally-based or biologically (genetically)-based?


  1. What is the difference between sociobiological explanations of human behavior and arbitrary cultural explanations of human behavior?  How can you explain human adoption according to both theories?


  1. How do men and women differ in their criteria for mate choice?  How can you explain these differences in evolutionary terms?


  1. Explain in evolutionary terms why a male human has larger testes and produces more sperm in relation to his body size than a male gorilla? 


  1. There are some controversial issues in human behavior that may have both adaptive and maladaptive explanations, i.e. rape and infanticide.  For the cases of rape and infanticide, explain both the adaptive and maladaptive explanations in a neutral manner as you are an animal behavior expert that is not interested in condoning or passing judgement.


  1. Explain the interesting correlation between bridewealth and dowry donations and human mating system type. 


Also, try and answer the book Discussion Questions #1 and #3