Chapter 14 review questions:
Figure 1-A in Chapter 14 of the book.
What does this diagram regarding the activity-time budget of a
nest-helper suggest about the costs and benefits of social life?
living is costly in terms of direct reproduction, food availability, and
increased risk to parasites. Why
live in a group? Offer at least
three reasons why an organism may have evolved group-living tendencies.
may argue that animals help each other, particularly by living socially,
for the benefit of the species.
What mechanism of selection might the individual making the
preceding statement be envisioning?
Would you accept or reject the first statement? Why?
1 in Chapter 14 describes 5 types of social interactions and their effects
on individual fitness. Explain in
your own words the difference between “reciprocity” and “altruism.”
- Why is
reciprocity fairly Uncommon?
Explain your answer in terms of the Prisoner’s Dilemma.
is the formal definition of inclusive fitness? What roles do direct and indirect fitness play in inclusive
fitness? Why is this concept
important in understanding social evolution?
- Why is
Hamilton’s rule important in discussions of social behavior?
the statement that “altruism works best when a population is
structured.” (Hint: you will need to understand and utilize
is a haplo-diploid, explain in terms of the genetic structure of male and
female wasps (Hymenoptera).
Calculate the coefficient of relatedness between a female wasp and
her sister, and a female wasp and her offsping---which is higher? What does this tell us about the
potential for EUSOCIAL behavior in wasps?
being haplo-diploid may favor the possibility of eusocial behavior, not
all haplo-diploid organisms are eusocial.
Why? What external factors
may lead certain haplo-diploid organisms to evolve eusocial behavior?
seems to be influencing cooperative breeding behavior in the Saddle-backed
tamarin? In the Florida Scrub Jay?
in the heck is Tit-for-Tat? What,
if anything, does tit-for-tat have to do with animal behavior (i.e. give
an example that tit-for-tat may be operating?)
- It is
time to remember back to Chapters 7 and 8—foraging and predation. Be able to explain the costs and benefits
of living in a social group in reference to food and predation. Review Dr. Janson’s 1992 paper!
- Given Dr. Janson’s description of his
work with Brown Capuchins, does there seem to be any evidence that food
competition is an important factor for this species…contrast the behavior
in large and small groups of capuchins.
- Describe how “winner-loser effects”
might influence the behavior of blue footed boobies.
types of interactions lead to linear dominance hierarchies? To non-linear dominance hierarchies? Describe what types of species you
would expect to find each of the preceding types of hierarchies?
- Why do
fruit-eating primates generally have females that are philopatric? Under what ecological conditions would
you expect females to leave their natal group?
Other notes for Ch 14: Make sure that you can calculate the
coefficient of relatedness of many different combinations on the class
handout. Also, READ Dr. Janson’s 1992
Chapter 15 review questions:
- Why is
the evolution of human behavior such a controversial topic? What is the biggest challenge facing
human behavioral ecologists? (Don’t stress, more than one right answer but
be able to explain it.)
might you test whether a certain human behavior (i.e. mate choice), is
culturally-based or biologically (genetically)-based?
is the difference between sociobiological explanations of human behavior
and arbitrary cultural explanations of human behavior? How can you explain human adoption
according to both theories?
- How do
men and women differ in their criteria for mate choice? How can you explain these differences
in evolutionary terms?
in evolutionary terms why a male human has larger testes and produces more
sperm in relation to his body size than a male gorilla?
are some controversial issues in human behavior that may have both
adaptive and maladaptive explanations, i.e. rape and infanticide. For the cases of rape and infanticide,
explain both the adaptive and maladaptive explanations in a neutral manner
as you are an animal behavior expert that is not interested in condoning
or passing judgement.
the interesting correlation between bridewealth and dowry donations and
human mating system type.
Also, try and answer the book Discussion Questions #1 and #3